情態助動詞 四 Advice 忠告:should, ought to, had better

 

中文常常說應該,你應該要這樣做,你應該要那樣做,聽起來好像沒有什麼問題,但是英文假如你對長輩或上司說 You should do this. You should do that. 你應該這麼做。你應該那麼做。聽起來有點刺耳。別人沒問你要忠告,最好不要隨便給。所以 should 不要隨便亂用啊!不然就要加些字我覺得 I think ,Perhaps 等讓語氣和緩些。

潔西真心覺得人生也是如此,年紀輕一點的時候很雞婆,看到什麼事都想幫人家一下,給人家忠告,後來慢慢發現,其實人家沒問你怎麼想,真的不需要多說,到時候有什麼錯失,人家就怪到你身上,都是你跟我這樣說,那樣說,假如因此成功了,人家卻也不會特別感激你。

被問到要怎麼做的時候,潔西現在不會直接講,會去分析,我的想法是這樣,假如你做了這件事,可能會有什麼樣的後果,假如你不做這件事,又可能會有什麼樣的後果,然後讓發問的人自己想一想,也會跟他們說,多去問其他人的不同的意見,自己再好好的想一想,因為最終會是你自己的決定,你自己擔任的後果。假如你讓別人幫你做決定,最後的後果還是要自己擔,那還不如做個負責任的人,一開始就把各種狀況分析清楚,自己做決定。

但是不少人問你意見也不是要你幫他做決定,只是希望有人可以肯定他的想法是對的。總之,自己想清楚自己做決定,問別人意見是好的,最終還是要自己負責啊!

天氣好熱,不知不覺就星期四了,好快。潔西前幾天很閒,明後天很忙,也沒有很忙,就是要在外面待兩整天,流浪在咖啡廳跟速食店之間?記得多喝水,小心不要中暑了喔。明後天都是一早出門,晚上十一點左右才會到家,應該沒空發文。預祝大家週末愉快!

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1 should 跟 ought to 後面接動詞原型用來給予忠告,兩者在意義上沒有差別。他們的用法範圍比較大,在建議 suggestion 跟責任 responsibility or duty 之間。

You should quit smoking.

He ought to play with other children more.

 

表否定時用 shouldn’t + V1 (美式) 或 oughtn’t to + V1。後者美式英語不常用。

You shouldn’t spend so much money.

You shouldn’t swear.

People oughtn’t to break promises.

 

2 had better 後面接動詞原型跟 should/ought to 有類似的意義。had better 語氣比較強烈,有時候有警告或威脅的意味。用在比較緊急的忠告,當你相信假如那個人不按照忠告去做,會發生不好的事。也用在我們認為在某個狀況下是最好的方式。說話者覺得那個動作是需要的,而且期待會發生had 常與主詞縮寫 you’d = you had。had 雖然說是過去式,但是 had better 用在現在或未來,而非過去。

You’d better leave now, or you’ll be late.

You’d better finish homework before you go out.

It’s late. You’d better go to bed now.

 

had better 的否定是 had better not + V1

You’d better not be late.

You’d better not eat that much.

You’d better watch out. You’d better not cry.

 

3 問句時只用 should ,不用 ought to 或 had better。

Should I close the door?

What should I do?

 

4 給平輩或長輩忠告是不禮貌的,除非他們問你。當別人沒有問,我們要給忠告時,通常會用 I think, maybe, perhaps 來讓語氣和緩一點。

Boss : How should I get there?

You: I think you should take a taxi.

Friend: I couldn’t find a job.

You: Perhaps you shouldn’t be so picky.

 

練習四 用 should, ought to, 或 had better 與括號內的字來完成句子。

A: ___________________________________ 1 (How / dress) In a suit?

B: You don’t have to wear a suit. ____________________________. 2 (look / neat)

But you can wear casual clothes.

A: ____________________________________________   3 (What time / arrive?)

B: It’s really important to be on time. Your boss and his wife are expecting you at 7:00, so ______________________________________. 4 (arrive after 7:15) It’s OK to be a little late, but don’t make them wait too long for you!

A: _______________________________ 5 (bring a gift?)

B: Yes, but get something small. _________________________________ 6 (buy an expensive gift)

It would embarrass them.

A: _______________________________ 7 (What /buy?)

B: I think ________________________________________. (8 get some flowers.)

 

1 你應該減肥。

2 你最好快一點,不然你上課要遲到了。

3 我應該關冷氣嗎?

4 你不應該翹課。

5 或許你應該帶把傘。

 

 

練習四 用 should, ought to, 或 had better 與括號內的字來完成句子。

A: _______How should I dress?____________________________ 1 (How / dress) In a suit?

B: You don’t have to wear a suit. ___You should look neat_________________. 2 (look / neat)

But you can wear casual clothes.

A: ____What time should I arrive?______________________________   3 (What time / arrive?)

B: It’s really important to be on time. Your boss and his wife are expecting you at 7:00, so ______you shouldn’t arrive after 7:15__/ you’d better not arrive __________________. 4 (arrive after 7:15) It’s OK to be a little late, but don’t make them wait too long for you!

A: ____Should I bring a gift?______________________ 5 (bring a gift?)

B: Yes, but get something small. ___You’d better not buy an expensive gift ______________________________ 6 (buy an expensive gift) It would embarrass them.

A: __What should I buy?_____________________________ 7 (What /buy?)

B: I think ______you should get some flowers.__________________________________. (8 get some flowers.)

 

1 你應該減肥。 You should lose weight. / You should be on a diet.

2 你最好快一點,不然你上課要遲到了。You’d better hurry, or you’ll be late for class.

3 我應該關冷氣嗎? Should I turn off the air conditioner?

4 你不應該翹課。You shouldn’t skip class. / You’d better not skip class.

5 或許你應該帶把傘。Perhaps you should bring an umbrella.

 

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