比較級

比較級的講解與說明,也例子也有影片檔,希望比較清楚。

 

 

形容詞與副詞比較級與最高級變化規則

1 一個音節的形容詞或副詞在字尾加er形成比較級,加est形成最高級。

cheap-cheaper-cheapest, slow-slower-slowest, fast-faster-fastest, hard-harder-hardest

2 一個音節的形容詞或副詞字尾為e時,只要加r形成比較級,加st形成最高級nice-nicer-nicest, safe-safer-safest, close-closer-closest, late-later-latest

3 一個音節的形容詞或副詞(多為三或四個字母)字尾結構是子音加母音加子音時,則要重複字尾加er來形成比較級,加est形成最高級

big-bigger- biggest, hot-hotter-hottest, slim-slimmer-slimmest

4 兩個音節的形容詞或副詞字尾為y時,則去y加ier形成比較級,加iest形成最高級。

pretty-prettier-prettiest, friendly-friendlier-friendliest, funny-funnier-funniest

5 兩個或兩個音節以上的形容詞或副詞則在前面加more形成比較級,加most形成最高級。字尾是ly的副詞通常在前面加more或most。

convenient-more convenient-most convenient, comfortable-more comfortable-most comfortable, skillfully-more skillfully-most skillfully, handsome-more handsome-most handsome

6 有少數特殊變化需牢記。

good-better-best, bad-worse-worst, far-farther/further-farthest/furthest (兩者都可表物理上的距離,但是只有further可以表更進一步)

Write the comparative and superlative forms for the following words.寫出下列單字的比較及與最高級

1. boring  2. cheap  3. fine  4. full  5. funny  6. handsome  7. hard  8. honest  9. interesting  10. lazy  11. light  12. nervous  13. sad  14. safe  15. silly  16. sorry  17. stupid  18. uncomfortable  19. useful  20. violent  21. wet  22. thin  23. late

 

答案

1 more boring  2 cheaper  3 finer  4 fuller  5 funnier  6 more handsome 

7 harder  8 more honest  9 more interesting  10 lazier  11 lighter

12 more nervous  13 sadder  14 safer  15 sillier  16 sorrier 

17 more stupid  18 more uncomfortable  19 more useful  20 more violent

21 wetter  22 thinner  23 later

 

 

形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

1 句型:

a 形容詞比較級:N1 + be + adj-er/more adj(形容詞的比較級) + than + N2

這個句型常用來比較人,事物,地點等的不同點,差異性。也可能用形容詞的其它句型

Taipei is cheaper than New York.

Tainan is safer than Taipei.

The new menu is bigger than the old menu.

Hualian is prettier than Taipei.

The old waiters are more experienced than the new waiters.

My English is better than my Math.

 

b 副詞比較級:N1 + V + adv-er/more adv + than N2

這個句型常用來描述動作的不同,差異。也可能用副詞的其它句型。

The Bulls played better than the Lakers.

Jordan played more skillfully than O’Neal.

 

Write the comparative sentences. 完成句子

1 Ana is / thin / my sister.

2 Quebec is / far from Toronto / Ottawa.

3 I did / bad / on the final exam / the midterm.

4 my new job is / boring / my old one.

5 Our team played / well / theirs

6 Hong Kong is / expensive / Bangkok.

 

答案

1 Ana is thinner than my sister.

2 Quebec is farther from Toronto than Ottawa.

3 I did worse on the final exam than the midterm.

4 My new job is more boring than my old one.

5 Our team played better than theirs.

6 Hong Kong is more expensive than Bangkok.

 

 

形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

a than的使用時機:

當比較級有提到比較的對象時,需要有than,當語意清楚,沒有提到比較對象時,則不需要有than.

The apple pie is better than the cake.

The new desserts are better (than the old desserts.)

Lisa speaks English better than May.

Lisa speaks more fluently.

 

b than後面用主格或受格:

1 在正式英文中,than後面通常會接主格代名詞如I, he, she

I am taller than she.

You are older than I.

 

2 在非正式英文中,than後面通常會接受格代名詞,如me, him, her,而且後面沒有助動詞。

I am taller than her.

You are older than me.

 

3 在than後面也可以用把主詞動詞都表達出來,這時要用主格代名詞,動詞則依時態或語態用助動詞。

I am taller than she is.

He runs faster than I do.

She can sing better than he can.

 

4 在than後面可接名詞所有格Tom’s ,或所有格代名詞如mine, his, hers

My hair is longer than my sister’s hair.

My hair is longer than my sister’s.

My hair is longer than hers.

My hair is longer than she. (X)

Taipei’s weather is worse than Taichung. (X)

Taipei’s weather is worse than Taichung’s weather.

than後面用主格或受格:

 

用代名詞完成句子,寫出用主格代名詞加助動詞與受格代名詞兩種用法

1 Anne is 25. I am 18. Anne is older than ______________.

2 I left at 7:00. Jay left at 7:30. I left earlier than __________.

3 Mike can run fast, but I can run faster than ______________.

4 Peter works very hard. However, Simon works harder than ___________.

5 Tom is 1 meter 85. I am 1 meter 65. I’m much shorter than ________.

 

 

答案

1 I am/me  2 he did/him  3 he can/him  4 he does/him  5 he is/him

 

4 less是more的相反,所以只有more adj/more adv的句型的相反才可以用less adj/less adv。假如是adj-er/adv-er的句型的相反則要用not as…as的句型。

A taxi is more expensive than a bus.

A bus is less expensive than a taxi.

A bus is cheaper than a taxi.

A taxi isn’t as cheap as a bus.

A taxi is less cheap than a bus. (X)

We go out less often these days.

 

5 重複比較級與雙重比較級

a 重複比較級用來表示改變,程度上的增加或減少

It’s getting harder and harder to find an inexpensive restaurant.

It’s getting more and more difficult.

The queue was getting longer and longer.

As each new problem arose, we felt less and less enthusiastic.

 

b 雙重比較級是用下列句型來表示前後文的因果關係。前面是因,後面是果。The + adj-er/more adj + S + (V),  the adj-er/more adj + S + (V).

The shorter the line, the faster the service. (When the line is shorter, the service is faster.)

The higher the price (is), the more reliable the product (is).

The more the customer complained, the ruder and more unpleasant the manager became.

The sooner we leave, the sooner we’ll get there.

常見的表達詞

The more, the merrier. 人越多越好。

The sooner, the better. 越快越好

The cheaper, the better. 越便宜越

      Why study? 為什麼要唸書?

      The more I study, the more I know. 我唸的越多,我懂得越多。

      The more I know, the more I forget. 我懂得越多,我忘得越多。

      The more I forget, the less I know. 我忘得越多,我知道的越少。

      So why study? 那麼,為什麼要唸書?

重複比較級與雙重比較級

Read these comments about a restaurant. Complete them with the comparative form of the words in parentheses to show cause and effect or a change. 用括號中的字的比較級來完成下列句子,表達因果或改變

1

A: I can’t believe the size of this menu. It’s going to take me forever to choose.

B: ______________ (long) the menu, ________________ (difficult) the choice.

2

A: They say the food here is getting __________ and ___________ . (good)

B: And _______________ (good) the food, __________________ (expensive) it is.

3

A: The service seems a little slow tonight.

B: Yes, ____________________ (popular) the restaurant,  ________________ (slow) the service.

4

A: The cigarette smoke here is getting ______________ and ______________ (bad).

B: __________________ (smoky) the room, ________________  (bad) my cough gets.

5

A: It’s pretty loud in here.

B: ____________________ (crowded) the restaurant, ______________ (noisy) it is.

6

A: They certainly give you a lot of food. I can’t eat another bite.

B: _________________ (big) the portions, ________________  (hard) it is to finish.

7

A: Their desserts keep getting ______________ and _____________. (delicious)

B: And I keep getting ________________ and _____________ (heavy)

 

答案

1

A: I can’t believe the size of this menu. It’s going to take me forever to choose.

B: __The longer____________ (long) the menu, ___the more difficult _____________ (difficult) the choice.

2

A: They say the food here is getting ___better_______ and ___better________ . (good)

B: And __the better _____________ (good) the food, ___the more expensive _______________ (expensive) it is.

3

A: The service seems a little slow tonight.

B: Yes, ___the more popular_________________ (popular) the restaurant,  __the slower______________ (slow) the service.

4

A: The cigarette smoke here is getting __worse____________ and ____worse__________ (bad).

B: ______The smokier____________ (smoky) the room, __the worse______________  (bad) my cough gets.

5

A: It’s pretty loud in here.

B: ___The more crowded_________________ (crowded) the restaurant, _the noisier_____________ (noisy) it is.

6

A: They certainly give you a lot of food. I can’t eat another bite.

B: __The bigger_______________ (big) the portions, _the harder_______________  (hard) it is to finish.

7

A: Their desserts keep getting ___more___________ and __more delicious___________. (delicious)

B: And I keep getting ____hevier____________ and __heavier___________ (heavy)

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