連接詞 conjunctions

要連接兩個單字,片語,句子的時候可以用連接詞才連接。要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。

連接詞可分為下面幾種

A 對等詞 coordinators

可分成對等連接詞跟配對連接詞

a 對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions

對等連接詞只有七個字,常用的是 and, but, so, or 其他還有 nor, for, yet。可以用 fanboys 來記:for, and, but, or, yet, so

For 用來表原因:I am very tired, for I worked very hard today.

And 用來表達同等的概念:I am very tired, and I want to rest for a few minutes.

Nor 用來表達否定的選擇:I am not tired, nor am I hungry right now.

But 用來表達對比:I am tired, but I have no time to rest now.

Or 用來表達選擇:I will take a nap, or I will go out jogging.

Yet 用來表達對比:I will take a nap, yet I am unable to relax.

So 用來表達結果:I am tired, so I will take a nap.

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句, 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

S +   V,                  CC S + V.

I was feeling hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

練習一:用對等連接詞 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 把下列句子合併成一個句子。

1 The movie was very long , _____ it was very interesting.

2 I’m studying hard, _____ I don’t have much free time.

3 Tom locked the door, _____ he left the room.

4 Are you for the policy, _____ are you against it?

b 配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 常見有四個:

1 both … and:用來強調就某件事,某個人,某種狀況來說,不光只是一個是真確的對另外

                       一個也是,也就是兩者皆…的意思

2 not only … but also:用來表達兩件都是真實或發生了的是,特別是令人感到意外的

3 either … or:用來表達兩個或多個選項之一。或用在假如一件事沒發生,則另外一件事會

                        發生

4 neither … nor 用來表達兩者皆非,既不…也不…

這些配對連接詞要特別注意主動詞的一致,當主詞用這些配對連接詞連用時,both … and …  的動詞要用複數形,其他 not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor  的動詞則取決於動詞靠近的主詞。假如接近動詞的主詞是單數時則用單數的動詞,主詞是複數的時候則用複數動詞。

Both my mother and my sister are here.

Not only my mother but also my sister is here.

Not only my sister but also my parents are here.

Neither my mother nor my sister is here.

Neither my sister nor my parents are here.

Either Mr. Lee or Ms. Lin is going to teach our class today.

練習二: a 練習 在空格中填入 is 或 are

1 Both the teacher and the student __________ here.

2 Neither the teacher nor the student __________ here.

3 Not only the teacher but also the student __________ here.

4 Not only the teacher but also the students __________ here.

5 Either the students or the teacher __________ planning to come.

6 Either the teacher or the students __________ planning to come.

7 Both the students and the teachers __________ planning to come.

8 Both the students and the teacher __________ planning to come.

B 從屬詞 subordinator

從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction 是帶領副詞子句的連接詞,如although, when, while, before, after, because, if, as, 等。

它會放在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

SC + S + V, S + V.     or    

S + V + SC + S + V.

Because I was feeling hungry, I made myself a sandwich.

I made myself a sandwich because I was hungry.

C 轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中

句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

S + V; CA, S + V.       or    S + V. CA, S + V.

I was feeling hungry; therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. Therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. I made myself a sandwich, therefore.

I was feeling hungry. I, therefore, made myself a sandwich.

D 其他others

有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語如in addition to,動詞如cause等也可以用來表示轉折語。這些次沒有特定的標點符號規則,必須注意前後的字詞的用法。

An additional reason for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

要表達同樣的意思時可能有好幾種不同的用法,要決定怎麼樣連接句子就要看用來連接的單字是什麼樣的詞性跟用法。

A 對等連接詞

It was on sale, so we went shopping.

and, but, or, so, yet, nor, for 這幾個字只能放在連接句子的中間,對等連接詞的前面一般有逗號,有些語言學家主張沒有,基本上兩個都可以,只要維持ㄧ致就可以。連接的是兩個獨立子句。

He likes beef, but he doesn’t like beef noodles.

B 從屬連接詞

Because it was on sale, we went shopping.

We went shopping because it was on sale.

從屬連接詞比方說 if, when, because, although, as soon as 等等,從屬連接詞帶領的是非獨立子句,需要連接一個獨立子句才能成為一個完整的句子。從屬連接詞帶領的子句在前面時需要逗號把兩個子句分開。獨立子句在前面時,從屬連接詞開始一個新的子句,很容易辨識,所以不需要從屬連接詞前不需要逗號。

Although he likes beef, he doesn’t like beef noodles.

C 轉折語

It was on sale. Therefore, we went shopping.

It was on sale. We, therefore, went shopping.

It was on sale. We went shopping, therefore.

It was on sale; therefore, we went shopping.

連接副詞比方說 therefore, however, moreover, futhermore, nevertheless 等。連接副詞的用法固定,他們不能連接兩個句子,只能當副詞用,所以要分開成兩個句子,或是用分號來連接兩個句子。

He likes beef. However, he doesn’t like beef noodles.

D 其他

We went shopping because of the sale.

Because of the sale, we went shopping.

其他還有一些其他的字像 because of, due to, in spite of, despite 等可能有類似的意義,但是這些字的後面只能接名詞,不能接句子。因為詞性不能會有不同的用法,要特別注意。

Despite liking beef, he doesn’t like beef noodles.

因果,對比,條件的連接詞

ADVERB CLAUSE WORDS

TRANSITIONS

CONJUNCTIONS

PREPOSITIONS

CAUSE AND EFFECT

because, so (that), since, now that

therefore, consequently

so, for

because of, due to

CONTRAST

even though, although, though, whereas, while

however, nevertheless, nonetheless,

on the other hand

but (…anyway),

yet (…still)

despite, in spite of

CONDITION

if, unless, only if, even if, whether or not, in case,

in the even that

otherwise

or (else)

用 and, but, or, because, so 來連接下面句子

1 I can sing and dance. I can’t act. (but)

2 Do you prefer pop music? Do you prefer classical music? (or)

3 I can’t buy a car. I don’t have enough money. (because)

4 I like tea. I like coffee. (and)

5 I like tea. I don’t like coffee. (but)

6 I don’t speak Japanese. I don’t speak Korean. (or)

7 Would you like tea? Would you like coffee? (or)

8 We’re going shopping. We don’t have any food. (because)

9 Tom was late for school. He missed the bus. (because)

10 I didn’t eat breakfast. I am hungry. (so)

11 I have a cat. I don’t have a dog. (but)

12 Are you left-handed? Are you right handed? (or)

13 I have two brothers. I have two sisters. (and)

14 Are you married? Are you single? (or)

15 I enjoy watching TV. I enjoy listening to music. (and)

16 I like playing basketball. I don’t enjoy watching basketball. (but)

17 I was late for work. My car broke down. (because)

18 I overslept. I took a taxi. (so)

Correct the errors

1 My shoes and pants got muddy. Even though I walked carefully through the wet streets.

2 My neighborhood is quiet and safe however I always lock my doors.

3 Although I usually don’t like Mexican food, but I liked the food I had at the Mexican restaurant

   last night.

4 A little girl approached the cage however when the tiger shows its teeth and growls she run to

   her mother. Because she was frightened.

5 I have to study four hours every day because of my course are difficult.

6 I can’t understand the lectures in my psychology class therefore for my roommate lets me

   borrow here notes.

7 Because my country it is located in a subtropical area, so the weather is hot.

8 I will stay at the united state for two more year. Because I want finish my degree before go

   home.

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對「連接詞 conjunctions」的一則回應

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