十二時態複習 Tenses Review

 

1 Simple Present

現在簡單式

S + V1  / S + be1

I work

She works

They are/He is/I am

(time expression)

every day.

five days a week.

in the classroom.

habits, routines, facts

習慣,例行事項,事實

2 Simple Past

過去簡單式

S + V2

I worked

She worked

He was

yesterday.

last weekend.

born in July.

an event happened in the past

過去發生的事件

3 Simple Future

未來簡單式

S + will + V1

S + be1 going to + V1

I will work

They will be home

She is going to work late

It is going to be sunny

tomorrow.

soon.

tonight.

next week.

an event will happen in the future

未來發生的事件

4 Present  Progressive

現在進行式

S + Be1 + V-ing

I am working

She is working

They are having a party

now.

at the moment.

this weekend.

temporary action,action in progressive now, future plan 暫時性的動作,現在正在進行的動作,未來計劃
5. Past Progressive

過去進行式

S + Be2 + V-ing

I was working

They were working

at 9.00 last night.

when I called.

過去某時點正進行的動作。或是一個持續進行被打斷的動作用過去進行式,打斷的動作用過去簡單式。
6 Future Progressive

未來進行式

S + will + be + V-ing

I will be working

She will be working

tomorrow night.

When you call.

temporary action,action in progressive in the future

未來某個時間點會進行的動作

7 Present Perfect

現在完成式

S + have/has + V3

I have worked in Japan

She has worked

for twenty years.

since 2001.

發生在過去的經驗或行為,但仍與現在有關
8 Past Perfect

過去完成式

S + had + V3

I had worked in Japan

The showed had finished

before I came back to Taiwan.

by the time I got home.

在過去某個時點前發生的事件。過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式
9 Future Perfect

未來完成式

S + will + have + V3

I will have worked

She will not have saved enough money

for ten months by September.

by then.

在未來某個時點前發生的事件。未來會發生的兩件事情,先發生的用未來完成式,後發生的用未來簡單式
10 Present Perfect

Progressive

現在完成進行式

S + have/has + been +  V-ing

I have been working

for 10 years. 過去開始而一直進行至今的事情
11 Past Perfect

Progressive

過去完成進行式

S+ had + been + V-ing

I had been working

for 5 years when I studied abroad. 描述過去某指定時間之前一直在進行的事
12 Future Perfect

Progressive

未來完成進行式

S + will + have + been +V-ing

She will have been working

for 12 hours when she finishes work tonight. 描述在將來某個時間前持續進行的事情

V1:動詞原型work, eat

V2:動詞過去式 worked, ate

V3:過去分詞(pp) worked, eaten

V-ing: 現在分詞 working, eating

 

英文共有十二個時態。學習每一個時態時要記住下列幾點。

一,使用時機,什麼時候該用這個時態,二,句型,每個時態的句型的肯定句,否定句,Yes/No問句,WH問句,時態句型的變化主要在動詞,同時也要記住該句型所使用的是哪個助動詞。三,常見副詞,有些副詞常常會跟著這個句型一起出現,記住了有助於正確使用時態。四,動詞變化,不同時態的動詞變化需要加s,加ed,還是加ing等。

1. 現在簡單式的使用時機

現在簡單式多用在表達日常生活的習慣,事實,真理等。

現在簡單式的句型可細分為一般動詞與be動詞兩種句型。每個英文句子都要有主詞跟動詞,所以當描述現在的事實狀態時,假如句子沒有一般動詞,有名詞,形容詞,介系詞片語,副詞等時,則需要有現在簡單式的be,也就是am, is, are。

a.  習慣性動作 habitual actions

He usually gets up at 6.30.

b.  永久性狀態 permanent state

I don’t like beef.

c.  永恆性事實 eternal truths

Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

d.  感覺,感情或信仰的動詞verbs of perception, emotion, and belief

I believe in God.

e.  未來的時刻表 future with timetables, programs, etc.

The movie starts at 7.30 p.m.

f. 假設語氣的副詞子句 conditional

If it rains, I’ll stay at home.

常與現在簡單式連用的副詞如:every day, every week, once a week, twice a month, three times a year, always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, never…等。

 

2. 過去簡單式的使用時機

a. 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

b.  過去簡單式也用來表達在過去重複進行的活動、習慣。

I went to bed before 9 o’clock when I was a child.

My grandmother went to church every Sunday morning.

c.  描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when they crashed.

d.  過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的動作。 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景。

The sun was shining. The birds were singing. We arrived at the beach.

常與過去簡單式連用的副詞如:this morning, this afternoon, this evening, tonight, yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon, yesterday evening, last night, this Monday, last weekend, this January, last April, yesterday, the day before yesterday, three days ago, five years ago, in 2005…等。

 

3. 未來簡單式的使用時機

a. 描述我們打算在將來所做的事,可使用will 或 be going to。但兩者在使用上有些分別:描述在說話之際決定會做的事,用will。先前已計劃決定進行的事,便使用be going to。

‘Oh dear! I’ve split some wine on my jacket.’  ‘Don’t worry. I’ll clean it for you.’

‘Why are you putting on those old clothes?’  ‘I’m going to paint the kitchen.’

b. 預言或預測未來的事,可用will 或 be going to,但兩者在使用上有一些分別:描述我們認為或相信會發生的事,用will。描述由現在的事導致將來發生的事,用 be going to。

Tomorrow will be another cold day in all parts of the country.

Look at those black clouds in the sky. It’s going to rain.

c.  描述已安排或計劃於將來做的事,可使用現在進行式來表示未來。在這種情況下使用現在進行式,通常會有說明未來的時間。

We’re visiting some friends in Scotland next weekend.

d. 談及已定的時間表或節目表中所指定的未來項目,可用現在簡單式表未來。

The film starts at 7.30 and finishes at 9.00.

e. 在時間子句與條件子句等副詞子句內應使用現在簡單式來表示未來,而不可用will 或 be going to。

I will give you a call when I arrive.

If it rains tomorrow, the concert will be canceled.

 

常與未來簡單式連用的副詞如:later, tonight, tomorrow, next week, next February,

next year, in 2020 …等等。

 

4. 現在進行式的使用時機

a. 現在進行式是用來描述說話之際正在進行的事情。

‘Where are the children?’  ‘They are playing in the garden.’

b.  現在進行式也用來描述短期間持續進行發生的事件,可能不在說話之際做該動作。

You’re spending a lot of money these days.

Robert is on vacation this week. He’s staying with his sister in New York.

c.  現在進行式也用來描述已安排或計劃於將來做的事。在這種情況下使用現在進行式,其後通常會有說明未來的時間。

I’m having a party this weekend.

d.  現在進行式也用來描述目前正在轉變或發展的情況。

Computers are becoming more and more important in our lives.

常與現在進行式連用的副詞如:now, at the moment, immediately, right away, right now, these days, this year, this week…等等。

 

5. 過去進行式的使用時機

a. 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間持續進行的動作。強調動作過程,而非動作的完成。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

b. 過去進行式用來描述過去某時正在進行中的事情。所描述的活動或情況已經開始,而在當時仍未結束。

I saw you last night. You were waiting for a bus.

c.  當描述過去發生的事時,假如要描述一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷時,用過去進行式來表達持續進行的動作,用過去簡單式來表達短暫打斷的動作。

When I got home, my parents were having dinner. (我到家時,爸媽正在吃飯)

We were walking in the park when it started to rain. (散步到一半時,雨開始下)

但是,要描述某事件在另一事件之後發生,便需使用過去簡單式。

When I got home, my parents and I had dinner. (我到家,我跟爸媽再一起吃飯)

We stood under a tree when it started to rain. (先下雨,我們再站到樹下)

 

d.  說故事時,過去進行式通常用來描述故事的背景,過去簡單式則用來描述所發生的事。

I was standing outside the bus station. It was getting late and I was feeling tired.

I was waiting for a man called Johnny Mars. Suddenly, a woman came round the corner and walked right up to me. ‘Are you Mr. Black?’ she asked.

常與過去進行式連用的副詞at that time, at five o’clock yesterday, at seven o’clock last night, in 2001 還有其他表達過去時間的副詞。

 

6. 未來進行式的使用時機

a. 描述在將來某時間點正在進行中的事情,便使用未來進行式。

I’ll be having dinner at 7.00.

He’ll be out at 3.00. He’ll be playing golf.

b.  描述已計劃於將來進行的事情,或定期、按時、例行等的活動也可使用未來進行式。

I’ll be driving into town later on. Do you want a lift?

Ann can’t go to the party. She’ll be working all day tomorrow.

c. 要有禮貌地詢問別人未來的安排,尤其是希望得到別人的幫忙時,也常使用未來進行式,在這種情況下使用,通常有不想打擾別人原來安排的意味。

‘Will you be going out this morning?’ ‘Yes, why?’ ‘Oh, could you get me a coffee?’

d. 未來進行式也可以用在未來兩件事中,持續進行被打斷的事情

The band will play when the President enters. 總統先進來,樂隊再演奏。

The band will be playing when the President enters. 當總統進來時,樂隊已經事先開始演奏,會是演奏的途中進來。

 

7. 現在完成式的使用時機

a.  現在完成式可以用來表達在過去發生的事情,這個事情或狀態從過去開始一直延續到現在,在未來也可能繼續持續下去。表達這種情形時,多跟sincefor連用。

He has been a pro-gamer for three years.

She has worked at Google since 2010.

I have lived in Taipei since I was born.

b.  現在完成式也用來表達經驗,或在不確定的時間曾經(或未曾)發生或進行的事情。發生的時間不確定或不重要,重要的是結果,而且結果是跟現在有關的。

He has won the gold medal.

I’ve never been to Japan.

She has seen that movie before. She doesn’t want to see it again now.

He has left the company. He doesn’t work here now.

c.   現在完成式也用來表達過去重複的活動,實際發生的時間並不重要。 描述確定時間的字彙不用在現在完成式,但假如在說話之際today, this morning, this afternoon 等字彙尚未成為過去時,則可以用。也常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。

I have had five cups of coffee today.

He has been to Japan three times this year.

I’ve written six letters this morning. (現在還是this morning)

d.  如果過去某事的結果仍延續至今,我們也可以用現在完成式。

Someone has broken the window. (現在窗戶還是破的)

我們經常這樣用現在完成式來宣佈消息。但在繼續說明消息的詳情時則用過去簡單式。

Someone has stolen my bicycle. I left the bike outside for a few minutes and when I came back. It wasn’t there.

e.  現在完成是用來當表示剛剛最近不久前發生的事情時,常與just, recently, lately連用。

We’ve just gotten back from Tokyo.

I’ve recently singed a contract to write a book.

He hasn’t had time lately.

(美式英語常用過去簡單式來表示: We just got back from Tokyo.)

(在這個用法中不會有過去時間: We’ve just got back from Tokyo yesterday.)

f.  現在完成式強調已發生的事或發生的比預期早的時,常與already連用。yet用在問句中表達我們預期會發生的事情是否已經發生。yet也用在否定句表事情尚未發生。有時後我們用already在問句中,這通常表示訝異某事比預期還早的發生。

Do you want something to eat? No, thanks. I’ve already eaten.

Have you eaten dinner yet? No, I haven’t eaten dinner yet.

Have you found a job yet?

Has he already gotten his flu shot? The flu season hasn’t begun yet.

常與現在完成式連用的副詞如:never, ever, already, yet, lately, recently, just, this week, today, 也常跟介系詞for與since連用…等。

 

8 過去完成式的使用時機

a.  過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生在過去某個時間點前。

By 1960 most of Britain’s old colonies had become independent.

b.  描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left

We arrived at the cinema at 8.00, but the film had started at 7.30.

I went to the box office at lunch-time, but they had already sold al the tickets.

c.  當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連接句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The bus had left before he got there.

The bus left before he got there.

d.  過去完成式是現在完成式的過去式。

I haven’t eaten all day today, so I’m very hungry now.

I hadn’t eaten all day yesterday, so I was very hungry when I got home.

 

9. 未來完成式

a. 描述在將來某時間點已完成的事情,或活動的進行不會超越將來某時間,便使用未來完成式。使用這種形式時,我們心中想著一個未來的時間,再設想在那時間回顧,認為某些事情會完成。

I’ll have worked here for a year next September.

By June, he will have paid his debt.

 

10. 現在完成進行式

a. 現在完成進行式把過去與現在連在一起。現在完成式用來描述一些在過去開始而一直進行至今的事情。

I’ve been working all day.

b.  如果某事情一直持續至不久之前,尤其是該事情至今仍留有後果,我們也可以用現在完成式來描述。

It’s been raining. The streets are still wet.

c.  直至目前(或不久之前)的一段期間內重複進行的活動或重複出現的情況,也可以用現在完成式。

I’ve been taking driving lessons for six months.

 

11. 過去完成進行式

a.  談到過去時,我們有時會提及更早之前的事情。描述過去某指定時間之前一直在進行的事,便需使用過去完成進行式。

I’d been walking for about half an hour when it suddenly started to rain.

b. 過去完成進行式是現在完成進行式的過去式。

I’ve been working hard all day, so I’m very tired now.

I’d been working hard all day, so I was very tired last night.

c. 過去完成進行式可用根據過去的事件的證據來下結論。

The streets were wet. It had been raining.

She was out of breath. It was clear that she had been running.

 

12. 未來完成進行式

a.   描述在將來某個時間前持續進行的事情可以用未來完成進行式。

I will have been working for ten years by the end of this year.時

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