潔西整理講解 現在完成式 Present Perfect

早上四點半起床的潔西的一天就是把現在完成式的影片生出來了,耶!現在完成式真的是很多學生都弄不懂的時態,句型記住了,但是卻用錯地方,或者用錯句型。上課因為時間非常有限,所以不能給很多例子,這邊儘量給多一點例子,並且按照用法,也就是使用的時機來分不同影片講解,希望有解釋的清楚一點,讓同學更容易懂。不過今天睡眠不足,有點太 high 的部分大家就不要太在意,哈哈。

潔西自己當年學現在完成式也學好久才終於知道原來這樣用,但是後面也還是摸索很久,大概真的就是多做一些題目,多觀察看用在什麼地方,然後練習用出來,假如有上課的話可以問老師是否用得正確。這邊沒有很多的題目,網路上打 Present Perfect 應該也可以找到很多練習題喔。

然後這篇很長,也不用一次看完,可以分次看,潔西自己做影片都從早做到晚了,哈哈。然後也可以多參考幾個不同的網站,越看越多重複的印象會越深刻喔!加油!

 

 

英文有十二個時態。在學每一個時態時要記住四點:

1 使用時機

2 句型

3 動詞變化

4 搭配的副詞

最重要是理解跟多做練習,才能靈活運用、得心應手。

 

A 現在完成式的使用時機

1. 英文用現在完成式用來表達過去曾經發生(或未發生)在不確定時間的事件。重要的是經驗或該事件與現在的關係,時間並不重要。多與ever, never, already, yet, still, just 等副詞連用。

I have moved to a new apartment

She has never seen snow.  She hasn’t seen snow.

 

2. 現在完成式也用來表達過去重複的活動,實際發生的時間並不重要。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。

I have seen five movies this month.    —x—x—x—x—now ————

He has been to Japan three times.

3. 現在完成式也用來表達一件在過去開始一直持續到現在的事件。常與since與for連用。

I have taught English for twenty years.

They have lived in Taipei since 2001.

 

動詞的四個面貌

V1= base form  原型                       work,    eat

V2 = past tense  過去式                  worked, ate

V3 = past participle 過去分詞          worked, eaten

V-ing = present participle 現在分詞  working, eating

例句:

I work every day.       S+V1             I eat an apple every morning.

I worked yesterday.    S+V2             I ate an apple this morning.

I have worked all day. S+have+V3     I have eaten five apples today.

 

Did you eat dinner?

Have you eaten breakfast yet? 

Yes, I have already eaten breakfast.

No, I haven’t eaten breakfast yet.

 

B 現在完成式的句型

現在完成式的句型為主詞+have/has+過去分詞(V3)

1 肯定句句型為S + have/has + V3 (V3指的是動詞的第三態,過去分詞)

S   +    have/has + V3  past participle

I         have           been to Australia.

They      have          eaten dinner.

She       has            earned millions of dollars since 1995.

2 否定句在助動詞 have/has後面加not

S  +   haven’t/hasn’t + V3

We     haven’t             seen the movie.

You    haven’t             finished your homework.

He     hasn’t               made much money in his life.

3 Yes/No 問句把助動詞 have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has +  S  +  V3

Have          you   cooked Thai food?

Have          they  arrived?

Has           she   finished the report?

4 WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH       have/has    +   S    +   V3

Where      have            you       been?

What       have            they      done?

How long    has            May       studied English?

How        have           you        been?             x————now—————

 

How are you?

How was work?   How was school?

How was your weekend?  How was your vacation?

What have you been up to?

What are you up to?

How long have you waited?

How long have you been waiting? 現在完成進行式?

 

C 現在完成式經常搭配的副詞如:never, ever, already, yet, lately, recently, just, this week, today, 也常跟介系詞 for 與 since 連用…等。

 

現在完成式的用法:

 

現在完成式的使用時機    past ——x——now————— future     event/activity/action

1 表示經驗

現在完成式常用來表達經驗。常與 ever(in your life time)曾經,表示從你這

輩子出生到現在與 never(=at no time) 從不(從來沒有)連用。注意 ever 在

這個句型多放在疑問句,不用在肯定句。never用在否定句就不能再有not。

發生的時間不重要或不確定。 現在完成式用來表示經驗的時候一定沒有過去的

時間點。

I have eaten French food.

I have had champagne.

I have jumped into a lake at night.

I have lost my wallet.

I have found money on the street.

He has seen snow.

I have never been on TV.

 

Have you ever been to Japan?

Yes, I have been to Japan.   I have=I’ve

Yes, I have ever been to Japan. (X)

 

Have you ever had red wine?

No, I haven’t had red wine.  have not =haven’t

No, I have never had red wine.

No, I haven’t never had red wine. (X)

 

Have you ever met a famous person?  你曾經遇過名人嗎?

Yes, I have met a famous person. /Yes, I have ever met a famous person. (X)

No, I haven’t met a famous person. / No, I have never met a famous person.

No, I have not never met a famous person. (X)

 

She is the most beautiful person I have ever seen.

I have been to New York in 2005. (X)

I have been to New York. (O)

I went to New York in 2005. (O)

 

2 不特定時間發生,跟現在相關的結果

現在完成式常用來表達在過去某個不特定時間發生的事情,發生的時間不確

定或不重要,重要的是結果,而且結果是跟現在有關的。

I have seen this movie before. I don’t want to see it again now.

He has left the company. He doesn’t work here now.

He didn’t lend me the book. He hasn’t finished the book.

He lent me the book because he has finished it.

 

 3 最近發生的事

現在完成可以用來當表示剛剛最近不久前發生的事情時,常與 just, recently, 

   lately 連用。

We’ve just gotten back from Tokyo.    get, got, gotten

I’ve recently signed a contract to write a book.

He hasn’t had time lately.    S + have/has + V3

(美式英語常用過去簡單式來表示: We just got back from Tokyo.)

(在這個用法中不會有過去時間: We’ve just got back from Tokyo yesterday.)

 

 

4 already 與 yet 用法

現在完成式強調已發生的事或發生的比預期早的時,常與 already 連用。

already 的位置多放在 have/has與V3間,多用在肯定句。

Do you want something to eat? No, thanks. I’ve already eaten.

Are you going to see that movie? No. I’ve already seen it.

 

現在完成式常用 not yet 來表達還沒有發生的事,但我們認為未來會發生。

yet 的位置多放在句尾,也可以放在haven’t跟V3間,多用在否定句。

I haven’t finished this work yet. (but I will finish it.)

They haven’t replied to my letter yet. (but they will reply.)

現在完成式用 yet 在問句中表達我們預期會發生的事情是否已經發生。

Have you paid the bill yet?

Have you found a job yet?

 

Have you eaten dinner (yet)?

Yes, I have (already) eaten dinner.

No, I have eaten dinner (yet).

Have you ever eaten dinner? (X)

Have you ever been to Taipei Zoo?

 

due 到期日 forgetful 健忘的

 

Exercise 練習題

Make sentences using the Present Perfect with already or yet.

根據提示,用already或yet造句

(I/not/read/today’s newspaper) yet.

I haven’t read today’s newspaper yet.

1. (you/decide/which one to buy) yet?

_________________________________________________

2. (I/explain/this to you three times) already.

_________________________________________________

3. (Their baby son/start/talking) already.

_________________________________________________

4. (you/phone/Jane) yet?

_________________________________________________

5. (The game/not/finish) yet.

_________________________________________________

6. (I/have/lunch) already.

_________________________________________________

7. (He/spend/all his money) already.

_________________________________________________

 

練習題的答案

1. (you/decide/which one to buy) yet?

Have you decided which one to buy yet?

 

2. (I/explain/this to you three times) already.

I have already explained this to you three times.

 

3. (Their baby son/start/talking) already.

Their baby son has already started talking.

 

4. (you/phone/Jane) yet?

Have you phoned Jane yet?

 

5. (The game/not/finish) yet.

The game hasn’t finished yet.

 

6. (I/have/lunch) already.

I have already had lunch.

 

7. (He/spend/all his money) already.

He has already spent all his money.

 

 

 

 

5   for與 since        past x———————now —————— future

2014                  2017

現在完成式可以用來表達在過去發生的事情,這個事情或狀態從過去開始一直延續到現在,在未來也可能繼續持續下去。表達這種情形時,多跟sincefor連用。

He has been a pro-gamer for three years.

He has been a pro-gamer since 2014.

She has worked at HTC since 2010.

I have lived in Taipei since I was born.

They have become successful since they have been in Taiwan.

 

1 How long have you been married?

I have been married for five years.

I’m married. 我結婚了。(我現在是結婚的)

I was married. 我之前結過婚。

2 How long have you worked at your company?

I have worked there since last year.

3 How long have you known your best friend?

I have known my best friend since high school.

4 I have lived in Taipei for 17 years.

I have lived in Taipei since 17 years ago.

 

  for + 一段時間:表示這個事件持續了多久

(for twenty minutes, for three hours, for two weeks, for three months,

for years, for a long time)

 

   since + 一個過去時間點 :表示這個事件開始的時間

(since 7:00, since Monday, since 1998, since two days ago,

since this morning)

 

since + S + V2: 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中的活動已經在過去結束

   (since I was a child)

 

since + S + have + V3:表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中在過去開始持續到現在。

   (since I have worked at IBM)

a. Fill in the blanks with for or since 空格中填入for或since

1. She has been married _______ ten years.

2. They have worked at the factory ________ they were 18 years old.

3. We have lived in Japan _______ 2010.

4. He hasn’t played basketball _______ over two years.

5. I have known Tom _________ high school.

6. They have won every game _______ they have played.

 

練習題答案

a. Fill in the blanks with for or since 空格中填入for或since

1. She has been married __for_____ ten years.

2. They have worked at the factory __since______ they were 18 years old.

3. We have lived in Japan _since____ 2010.

4. He hasn’t played basketball __for____ over two years.

5. I have known Tom __since_____ high school.

6. They have won every game __since_____ they have played.

 

b. Answer the questions 回答下列問題

1. How long have you studied at this school?

I have studied at this school for three months.  since last May

2. How long have you known your best friend?

I have known my best friend since I was a child.

3. How long have your parents been married? I don’t know.

4. How long have you had your current hairstyle? (現在的髮型維持多久了?)

I have had my current hairstyle since last month.

5. How long have you had your cell phone?

I have had my cell phone for two years.

6. How long have you been up today? (今天醒來多久了?)

I have been up since 4.30 a.m.

 

時態比較

1 現在簡單式

Present Simple:

past —x—x—x—x—x— now x—x—x—x—x—x— future

S + V1 : 

I    have a cup of coffee every morning.

 

2 過去簡單式

Simple Past / Past Simple

past ———x————— now ————————— future

S + V2 : 

I    had a cup of coffee this morning.

 

3 現在完成式

Present Perfect

past —x—x—x—x—x— now ————————— future

S + have + V3: 

I     have   had five cups of coffee today.

 

6 持續的狀態或活動

現在完成式也用來表達過去到現在一段時間內重複的活動,實際發生的時間

並不重要,強調的是次數。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。後面可以加時間,但是時間一定要是到目前為止today, this morning,

this month, this year,不能是過去時間。

I have had three cups of coffee this morning. 現在是早上

I had three cups of coffee yesterday.

I had three cups of coffee this morning. 現在不是早上

I have seen five movies this month.

We have had three tests so far this semester.

We have done quite a lot of work today.

He hasn’t had a holiday this year.

I have had five cups of coffee today.

I have had five cups of coffee yesterday. (X)

 

a. Answer the questions

How many times have you shopped this week?

I’ve shopped twice this week.  / I haven’t shopped at all this week.

1. How many times have you been to a KTV this year?

I have been to a KTV three times this year.    once, twice, three times

2. How many cups of coffee have you had today?

3. How many phone calls have you made today?

4. How many times have you eaten Japanese food this month?

I haven’t eaten Japanese food this month?

5. How many times have you done laundry this week?

I have done laundry once this week.

6. How many times have you cleaned the house this month?

I have cleaned the house once this month.

 

7 現在完成式常跟第一次,第二次,最高級等連用。

This is the first time I’ve been to Canada, so it’s all new to me.

He loves this movie. This is the fifth time he’s seen it.   he’s = he has

Paris is the most beautiful place I’ve ever been.

Tokyo Skytree is the most interesting place I’ve ever been.

Hacksaw Ridge is the best movie I’ve ever seen.

This is the best book I’ve ever read.

(ever在這樣的句型可以放在肯定句,表這輩子到目前為止)

 

Complete the sentences using the Preset Perfect form of the verbs words in brackets ( ). 根據括號裡的動詞提示,用現在完成式完成句子

Don’t take my plate away. I haven’t finished (not/finish) my meal.

1. A: What’s that book about? B: I don’t know. I _________ (not/read) it.

2. I __________ (lose) my pen. Can I borrow yours, please?

3. A: I __________ (book) a room here for tonight. B: Yes, madam, what’s your name, please?

4. I’m not sure what the problem with the car is. It _______(not/happen) before.

5. A: ____________ (you/reply) to that letter from the bank? B: No, I haven’t, but I’ll do it soon.

6. A: What’s happening in this program? B: I don’t know. _____________. (It/just/start)

7. A: How’s Lucy?  B: She’s very happy. ________________ (She/just/finish) her exams.

8. Could I have a copy of Next Magazine, please?  B: Sorry. __________________ (I/just/sell) the last copy.

 

練習題答案

Complete the sentences using the Preset Perfect form of the verbs words in brackets ( ). 根據括號裡的動詞提示,用現在完成式完成句子

Don’t take my plate away. I haven’t finished (not/finish) my meal.

1. A: What’s that book about? B: I don’t know. I _________ (not/read) it.

I haven’t read it.

2. I __________ (lose) my pen. Can I borrow yours, please?

I have lost my pen.

3. A: I __________ (book) a room here for tonight.

B: Yes, madam, what’s your name, please?

I have booked a room here for tonight.

4. I’m not sure what the problem with the car is. It _______(not/happen) before.

I hasn’t happened before.

5. A: ____________ (you/reply) to that letter from the bank?

B: No, I haven’t, but I’ll do it soon.

Have you replied to that letter from the bank?

6. A: What’s happening in this program?

B: I don’t know. _____________. (It/just/start)

It has just started.

7. A: How’s Lucy?

B: She’s very happy. ________________ (She/just/finish) her exams.

She has just finished her exams.

8. Could I have a copy of Next Magazine, please?  B: Sorry. __________________ (I/just/sell) the last copy.

 

把上一篇的 been to, gone to, went to 一起放進來,因為也是在現在完成式的範圍

8  現在完成式  Present Perfect 與過去簡單式

容易弄混淆或誤用的 been to, gone to, went to

 

下列句子有兩句是錯的,找不出來的話就看看影片囉。不要偷看最下面的答案喔!

I went to New York last year.

I have been to New York.

I have gone to New York.

He has gone to New York.

He has been to New York.

He has gone to New York last year.

 

 

1 been to: 

現在完成式:S + has/have been to + place.

用這個句型表達去過某個地方,但是現在回來了,不在哪個地方了。

He’s been to Paris. (He is now at home again.) 他去過巴黎(現在回來了)

I’ve been to Paris. (I am now at home again.) 我去過巴黎(現在回來了)

 

2 gone to:

現在完成式:S + has/have gone to + place.     V1: go, V2: went, V3: gone

用這個句型表人去了某個地方,人還在那裡,還沒有回來。所以表達自己去過某個地方絕對不要用這個句型。

He’s gone to Paris. (He is in Paris now.) 他去了巴黎(人現在在巴黎)

He has=He’s

I’ve gone to Paris. (X) 我人去了巴黎(錯誤的句子,因為說話時人在說話處)

 

3 went to:

過去簡單式:S + went to + place + past time expression

用這個句型表示過去的某個時間點去了某個地方。

I went to Paris last summer. (我去年夏天去了巴黎)

He went to Paris this morning. (他今天早上去了巴黎)

 

 

答案

I went to New York last year.

I have been to New York.

I have gone to New York. (X)

He has gone to New York.

He has been to New York.

He has gone to New York last year. (X)  He went to New York last year.

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2 thoughts on “潔西整理講解 現在完成式 Present Perfect

  1. Yu-hui Wang 說道:

    老師好
    第7點的現在完成時練習題第八題
    8. Could I have a copy of Next Magazine, please? B: Sorry. __________________ (I/just/sell) the last copy.沒有寫到答案,是 I have just sold the last copy嗎?

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