現在式與過去式什麼時候用 do does / did 造問句 什麼時候用 am is are / was were 造問句

因為蠻多人都會弄不清楚什麼時候用 do does 造問句,什麼時候用 am is are 造問句。昨天下課前才又被同學問到,把這個做成影片,希望有解釋的比較清楚,也一起把昨天上課的過去式放上來。

 

 

Do/Does/Am/Is/Are/Did/Was/Were

助動詞DO/DOES與AM/IS/ARE 造問句時的用法與區別

He is at work.              現在簡單式

He works from 9 to 5.   現在簡單式

He is working.              現在進行式

英文造問句與改否定的時候都需要一個助動詞,這個助動詞依主詞,表達的時態,表達的語態會有所不同。造問句的時候要把助動詞放到主詞前面,造否定把not放到助動詞後面。 要決定用do/does還是am/is/are造問句,首先要看句子本身有沒有一般動詞,如果有一般動詞就用do/does,沒有的話就用am/is/are。再來看人稱,再決定用的是do或does,是am, is, 還是are。

現在簡單式

用來表達經常性的動作,習慣跟事實。句型可分兩種,有一般動詞的句子,跟 be 動詞的句子。句子裡有一般動詞的時候,用 do 或 does 造問句。句子裡沒有一般動詞,而是 be 動詞 am, is, are 的時候,就用 am, is, are 來造問句。

這邊要特別注意的是學英文的時候記單字要記得連單字的詞性一起記。這樣才能分辨句子中有沒有動詞,才知道要要用哪個助動詞造問句。比方說中文的我很忙。我很累。忙跟累感覺都是動詞。但是在英文常用的單字是 busy , tired 這兩個字都是形容詞,所以問你忙嗎?會是 Are you busy? 而不會是 Do you busy?(X) 這個錯誤的句子。問你喝咖啡嗎?因為喝 drink 是動詞,所以會是 Do you drink coffee? 而不會是 Are you drink coffee?(X) 這個錯誤的句子。

a 一般動詞的句型:

有一般動詞的句子,肯定句是用主詞加動詞原型,但是第三人稱單數 he, she, it 或者任何可以用這三個代名詞代替的名詞,比方說 my father = he, his girlfriend = she, the dog = it ,這些第三人稱單數名詞後面的動詞要加 s 或 es,比方說 works, watches。在改否定的時候第三人稱單數用 does + not = doesn’t ,不是第三人稱單數的名詞就用 do + not = don’t 。造問句時把 do 跟 does 放到主詞的前面,在助動詞 do, does 的後面加的動詞都是動詞原型。

肯定句:主詞+動詞原型 (第三人稱單數加s)

S      +     V1

I           work.

You     work.

We      work.

They   work.

He      works.

She    works.

It         works.

 

否定句:主詞+助動詞 do/does+not +動詞原型 (第三人稱單數用 does)

S      +    do/does + not + V1

I                do            not   work.

You          do            not   work.

We           do            not   work.

They        do            not  work.

He            does       not   work.

She          does        not   work.

It              does        not    work.

 

Yes/No 問句: Do/Does + 主詞+動詞原型?

Do/Does   +  S  + V1

Do                   I    work?

Do               you   work?

Do                 we   work?

Do              they   work?

Does              he   work?

Does             she  work?

Does               it   work?

 

WH 問句: WH  + do/does + 主詞+動詞原型?

WH    +    do/does   +   S   +  V1?

Where          do              I        work?

Where          do             you    work?

Where          do             we      work?

Where        does            he      work?

Where        does           she      work?

Where        does            it      work?

PS: 因為想要讓大家清楚的看到每個助動詞,所以連 I 都放進問句,句子有點怪,我在哪裡工作?通常不會這樣問,不過為了容易懂所以就直接這用造問句。下面的一些例句也是一樣,都是為了統一巨型,所以有些語意會有點怪,請見諒。

 

b BE動詞的句型

BE動詞的句型,就是簡單式的句子中沒有一般動詞,只有名詞,有形容詞,介系詞片語時,會有 be 動詞來當句子的動詞。主詞是 I 時 be動詞為 am,主詞是 you, we, they 或任何可以用這個字代替的代名詞如 my friends and I=we, Tom and Mary = they 用的be動詞是 are ,主詞是 he, she, it 或任何可以用這三個字代替的如 Tom = he, Mary = it, my job = it 時用的 be 動詞是 is。改否定句的時候在 am, is, are 後面加 not 就可以了。改疑問句的時候把 am, is, are 放到主詞前面造問句就可以了。

肯定句 :主詞+ am/is/are +名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

S   +    am/is/are  +   noun/adjective/preposition phrase

I               am                 a teacher.

You         are                 happy.

We          are                 happy.

They       are                 happy.

He            is                   at home.

She          is                   at home.

It              is                   at home.

 

 

否定句:主詞+ am/is/are +not + 名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

S   +    am/is/are   +   not   +  noun/adjective/preposition phrase

I               am                 not      a teacher.

You         are                 not      happy.

We          are                 not     happy.

They       are                 not     happy.

He            is                   not     at home.

She          is                   not     at home.

It              is                   not     at home.

 

Yes/No 問句: Am/Is/Are +主詞+ + 名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語?

Am/Is/Are   +    S    +    noun/adjective/preposition phrase?

Am                      I             a teacher?

Are                   you          happy?

Are                   we            happy?

Are                  they          happy?

Is                      he             at home?

Is                    she             at home?

Is                      it               at home?

 

WH 問句: WH + am/is/are +主詞+  ?

WH      +    am/is/are    +    S    +   ?

What             am                   I ?

Where          are                    you?

Where          are                   we?

Where          are                   they?

How               is                    he?

How               is                    she?

How               is                      it?

 

2 現在進行式

現在進行式用來表示現在正在進行的動作,短期間發生的動作,或表示未來安排好的事件。句型是主詞加上 be 動詞再加上現在分詞。因為句子本身就有 be動詞 am, is, are,所以造否定句的時候就在 be 動詞後面加 not,改問句時就把 be 動詞放到主詞前面就可以。

 

肯定句:主詞 + am/is/are +現在分詞

S    +    am/is/are    +     V-ing

I                 am                  cooking.

You           are                  singing.

We            are                  singing.

They         are                  singing.

He              is                    sleeping.

She            is                    sleeping.

It                is                    sleeping.

 

否定句:主詞 + am/is/are + not + 現在分詞

S    +    am/is/are  +   not    +     V-ing

I                 am              not           cooking.

You           are              not           singing.

We            are              not           singing.

They         are             not            singing.

He              is               not           sleeping.

She            is               not           sleeping.

It                is               not           sleeping.

 

Yes/No 問句:Am/Is/Are  + 主詞 +現在分詞?

Am/Is/Are    +        S       +    V-ing?

Am                            I              cooking?

Are                         you            singing?

Are                          we            singing?

Are                        they           singing?

Is                             he             sleeping?

Is                            she            sleeping?

Is                              it              sleeping?

 

WH問句  + am/is/are  + 主詞 +現在分詞?

WH    +    am/is/are    +     S      +    V-ing?

What           am                    I              doing?

Where         are                  you          going?

Where         are                   we           going?

Where         are                  they         going?

How              is                     he            doing?

How              is                     she          doing?

How              is                       it            doing?

 

過去式也是如此推斷,過去簡單一般動詞的句子就用 did 造問句跟否定,有 be 動詞時就用 was/were 造問句跟否定。過去進行式用 was/were 造問句跟否定。 總之呢,每個時態造問句跟否定都需要用助動詞來幫忙,所以要造問句時,首先要找出句子的助動詞,只有現在簡單或過去簡單會有本身沒有助動詞只有一般動詞的句子,這時候用 do, does, did 造問句,而其他時態,比方說現在完成式用 have/has 造問句。過去完成式用 had 造問句。未來式用 am/is/are 或 will 造問句。不同語態就用不同的助動詞如:would, could, can, may, …等來造問句

 

用正確的助動詞am/is/are或do/does造問句

a

可以先看句子裡面有沒有一般動詞,比方說第三句,有use這個一般動詞,再看主詞,主詞為you,所以用do造問句:Do you use a computer every day? 假如像第四句,有一般動詞smoke,主詞是第三人稱單數your brother,則用does造問句。Does your brother smoke?

b

句子裡面假如沒有一般動詞,但是有形容詞lazy, hardworking,或者是名詞a noisy city等其他詞性,這時候,看主詞不同,用am, is are造問句。you的be動詞是are,所以第一句是Are you lazy or hardworking? 第二句主詞Taipei就相當於it,所以be動詞用is,問句為Is Taipei a noisy city?

c

句子裡面假如有一般動詞,但是後面是加了ing的現在分詞,那麼表示是現在進行式,所以要用be動詞造問句。如第五句,有現在分詞living,這時候要用be動詞造問句,主詞是your father,所以相當於he,用is造問句。Is your father living abroad?

d

假如不知道詞性的話,最好的方式是查字典,因為像tired累, busy忙,這種中文感覺像動詞的字在英文其實都是形容詞喔。

e. 最後切記切記,be動詞am/is/are本身就是動詞,所以不會跟一般動詞的原形同時出現,絕對不要把他們放在一起啊:)

 

 

 

  1. you / lazy or hardworking
  2. Taipei / a noisy city
  3. you / use the computer every day
  4. your brother / smoke
  5. your father/living abroad (住國外)
  6. your parents/ generous or stingy (大方或小氣)
  7. the weather/ terrible today
  8. you / sleep naked  (裸睡)
  9. your friends / smart
  10. your classmates / sitting now
  11. your mother / work in a bank
  12. your blood type / A  (血型)
  13. you / have a  pet
  14. your classmates / naughty    (淘氣)
  15. Jay Chou / a top model   (名模)
  16. your English teacher / helpful
  17. your shoes / new
  18. your best friend / married
  19. you / a careless person  (粗心大意的人)
  20. you / reading a good book at the moment
  21. your mother / cook dinner for you
  22. President Ma / busy
  23. you / over 18 years old
  24. English / easy or difficult for you
  25.  you / in a good mood today   (好心情)

 

 

Answer Keys

1 Are you lazy or hardworking?

2 Is Taipei a noisy city?

3 Do you use the computer every day?

4 Does your brother smoke?

5 Is your father living abroad?

6 Are your parents generous or stingy?

7 Is the weather terrible today?

8 Do you sleep naked?

9 Are your friends smart?

10 Are your classmates sitting now?

11 Does your mother work in a bank?

12 Is your blood type A?

13 Do you have a pet?

14 Are your classmates naughty?

15 Is Jay Chou a top model?

16 Is your English teacher helpful?

17 Are your shoes new?

18 Is your best friend married?

19 Are you a careless person?

20 Are you reading a good book at the moment?

21 Does your mother cook dinner for you?

22 Is President Ma busy?

23 Are you over 18 years old?

24 Is English easy or difficult for you?

25 Are you in a good mood today?

 

過句簡單式造問句 did 或 was were

 

Past Tense was/were/did

英文的句子一定要有主詞跟動詞。

過去簡單式的句型如下

一般動詞                    : S + V2

I got up early this morning.

沒有一般動詞( be 動詞) : S + was/were + 名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

He was worried.

 

1 肯定句:有一般動詞時用動詞的過去式V2

I came to class late.

沒有一般動詞的句子,要有Be2 (was, were)

I was late for class.

 

2 疑問句:有一般動詞用did造問句,動詞改為原型。

Did you come to class late?

沒有一般動詞時,則用Be2(was, were)造問句。

Were you late for class?

 

過去進行式

1 肯定句:S + was/were + V-ing

She was taking a shower when I called.

2 疑問句:Was/Were + S + V-ing?

Were you taking  a shower when I called?

Was she taking a shower when I called?

I/he/she/it  was + V-ing, You/We/They  were + V-ing.

 

這是個練習的活動,要找到有做這件事的人可以用yes/no問題來問。所以把下面的句子都改成 yes/no 問題,有一般動詞就用 did 造問句,沒有一般動詞,句子就會有 was/were,就用 was/were 造問句。

比方說

Find someone who …

drank coffee this morning.

Did you drink coffee this morning?

 

was sick last week.

Were you sick last week?

 

 

Find someone who…

1 took the MRT to school today.

2 was tired when he/she got up this morning.

3 was in class last time.

4 worked overtime last week.

5 chatted online last night.

6 was good at math when he/she was a child.

7 ate out last night.

8 was born in Taipei.

9 was worried last week.

10 went to a wedding last month.

11 posted pictures on Facebook last week.

12 brought more than NT$1,000 with him/her.

13 drank pearl milk tea last month.

14 took a shower this morning.

15 was at home yesterday morning.

16 came to class late today.

答案:

1 Did you take the MRT to school today?

2 Were you tired when you got up this morning?

3 Were you in class last time?

4 Did you work overtime last week?

5 Did you chat online last night?

6 Were you good at math when you were a child?

7 Did you eat out last night?

8 Were you born in Taipei?

9 Were you worried last week?

10 Did you go to a wedding last month?

11 Did you post pictures on Facebook last week?

12 Did you bring more than NT$1,000 with you?

13 Did you drink pearl milk tea last month?

14 Did you take a shower this morning?

15 Were you at home yesterday morning.

16 Did you come to class late today?

 

問題與答案一起

Find someone who…

1 took the MRT to school today.

Did you take the MRT to school today?

2 was tired when he/she got up this morning.

Were you tired when you got up this morning?

3 was in class last time.

Were you in class last time?

4 worked overtime last week.

Did you work overtime last week?

5 chatted online last night.

Did you chat online last night?

6 was good at math when he/she was a child.

Were you good at math when you were a child.

7 ate out last night.

Did you eat out last night?

8 was born in Taipei.

Were you born in Taipei?

9 was worried last week.

Were you worried last week?

10 went to a wedding last month.

Did you go to a wedding last month?

11 posted pictures on Facebook last week.

Did you post pictures on Facebook last week?

12 brought more than NT$1,000 with him/her.

Did you bring more than NT$1,000 with you?

13 drank pearl milk tea last month.    bubble tea

Did you drink pearl milk tea last month?

14 took a shower this morning.

Did you take a shower this morning?

15 was at home yesterday morning.

Were you at home yesterday morning?

16 came to class late today.

Did you come to class late today?

 

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