潔西家基礎英文教室 第三課 過去簡單式

基礎課程上課用的過去簡單式講義

 

Last weekend

 

weekend activities

1 stay home

2 shop for clothes

3 go to the movies

4 play basketball

5 do yoga

6 listen to music

7 watch TV

8 eat a big dinner

9 chat with friends online

10 visit relatives

 

What do you usually do on weekends?

I usually stop for clothes, go to the movies, and eat a big dinner.

S + V1

 

What did you do last weekend?

I did yoga, listened to music, and chatted with friends online.

S + V2

 

F Simple Past 過去簡單式                                         

英文有十二個時態。在學每一個時態時要記住四點:使用時機、句型、動詞變化以及搭配的副詞。最重要是理解跟多做練習,才能靈活運用、得心應手

一、過去簡單式的使用時機

1. 英文用過去簡單式用來表達發生在過去的事件。

I went home late last night.

He got up early this morning.

 

2. 過去簡單式也用來表達在過去重複進行的活動、習慣。

We lived in America for five years when I was a child.

My grandmother went to church every Sunday morning.

 

二、過去簡單式的句型

(一)過去簡單式一般動詞的句型為S + V2(V2指的是動詞的過去式)

肯定句     S    +     V2

I              ate a big dinner last night.

Tina           got married when she was 18.

 

否定與問句需要用did這個助動詞來幫忙。否定句在助動詞後面加not

否定句    s  S   +    did not    +   V1

They        didn’t         do their homework.

He          didn’t         sing at the KTV last weekend.

 

Yes/No questions Yes/No 問句 把助動詞did放在主詞前面造問句

Did   +   S    +  V1

Did       you       sleep well last night?

Did       Tom       have a good time?

 

WH questions  WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞、主詞、動詞

WH             did   +   S    +   V1

What time    did        you        get up this morning?

Where         did        Linda       go last weekend?

 

三、過去簡單式的副詞如:this morning, last night, yesterday morning, five years ago, in 2005…等。

 

時間說法:下面這些用法前面都不要加介系詞 at, on, in

yesterday 昨天                              today今天               tomorrow明天

yesterday morning  昨天早上  this morning 今天早上 tomorrow morning 明天早上

yesterday afternoon 昨天下午  this afternoon 今天下午  tomorrow afternoon 明天下午

yesterday evening 昨天傍晚  this evening 今天傍晚  tomorrow evening 明天傍晚

last night 昨天晚上             tonight  今天晚上       tomorrow night  明天晚上

last Friday上週五  this Friday這星期五   next Friday下星期五

last week上星期   this week這星期  next week下星期

last January去年一月  this January今年一月  next January明年一月

last month上個月  this month這個月  next month下個月

last year去年  this year今年  next year明年

 

四、過去簡單式規則動詞過去式的拼字與發音變化的規則

A. 規則動詞的過去式拼字變化如下:

1. 大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ed。

work-worked, help-helped, call-called, wash-washed

2. 動詞字尾已經有e時,只要加d即可。

live-lived, die-died, dance-danced, smile-smiled

3. 動詞字尾為子音加y時,必須去y加ied。

study-studied, cry-cried, worry-worried, copy-copied.

4. 動詞字尾為母音加y時,則只要加ed即可。

play-played, stay-stayed, enjoy-enjoyed, annoy-annoyed,

5. 只有一個音節的動詞字尾發音為短母音加子音時,重複字尾再加ed。

shop-shopped, plan-planned, tap-tapped, hop-hopped

C+V+C

 

B. 規則動詞的過去式發音的變化如下:

1. 動詞字尾是無聲子音時,加ed後讀/ t /。無聲子音指的是除了/ t /之外的

/ k /, / f /, / s /, /ʃ /, / tʃ / 等。

cook-cooked, laugh-laughed, kiss-kissed, wash-washed, watch-watched

2. 動詞字尾是有聲子音或母音時,加ed後讀/d/。有聲子音指的是除了/ d /之外的

/ b /, /g /, / r /, / l /, / m /, / n /, / v / 等。

call-called, rain-rained, love-loved, play-played, try-tried

3. 動詞字尾的發音是/ t /, / d /的發音時,加ed後讀 /ɪd /。

want-wanted, need-needed, visit-visited, wait-waited

 

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/,

/r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /,

/ɔɪ/, / aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

 

Regular Verbs 規則動詞

1. clean 打掃  2. cook 做菜  3. exercise 運動 4. invite 邀請 5. listen 聽

6. need 需要  7. relax 放鬆  8. shop 購物   9. study 用功  10. talk 說話

11. visit 拜訪  12. wait  等待 13. walk 走路  14. watch 看  15. work 工作

/t/   2 cooked    7 relaxed   8 shopped  10 talked  13 walked  14 watched  15 worked

/d/   1 cleaned   3 exercised  5 listened    9 studied

/ɪd /  4 invited   6 needed  11 visited   12 waited

 

Irregular Verbs 不規則動詞

1. buy 買 – bought   2. come 來 – came  3. do 做  -did  4. eat 吃  -ate  5. feel 感覺  -felt

6. get 拿  – got  7. go 去  -went   8. have 有  – had 9. meet 碰面  -met 10. read 讀 – read

11. ride 騎 -rode 12. see 看 -saw 13. sit 坐 – sat 14. take 搭 -took 15. wear 穿 – wore

16. drink喝 – drank

 

H Yesterday

1 What time did you get up?   I got up at 7.30.

2 What time did you go to work/school?  I went to work/school at 8.30.

3 How did you go to work/school?  I rode a scooter.

4 What did you have for breakfast?

I had a sandwich and coffee.  / I ate a sandwich and coffee. (X)

5 Where did you eat lunch?  I ate lunch in the office. restaurant, cafeteria

6 What did you drink?  I drank coffee, tea, water and beer.

7 How much did you spend?  I spent $500.

8 Who did you talk to? I talked to my parents, my coworkers, and my friends.

9 What did you do in the evening? I went to the gym.

10 What time did you go to bed last night? I went to bed at 1 a.m.

12.00 am = midnight

廣告

留言必須留下名字郵件地址經審核後才會出現

在下方填入你的資料或按右方圖示以社群網站登入:

WordPress.com Logo

您的留言將使用 WordPress.com 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Twitter picture

您的留言將使用 Twitter 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Facebook照片

您的留言將使用 Facebook 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

Google+ photo

您的留言將使用 Google+ 帳號。 登出 / 變更 )

連結到 %s