形容詞子句,關係副詞,限定子句,非限定子句

 

TGIF Thank God It’s Friday 感謝老天星期五了!而且快下班了
 
收拾好東西坐等放假?不是潔西啊,潔西準備上課的東西準備到頭到暈了。又是形容詞子句,寫不完改不完的形容詞子句XD 練習練習再練習。明天要帶的文法課還是形容詞子句,不過學生不同,也不知道會有什麼反應,反正多準備一些,寫清楚一點,就算上課潔西口齒不清希望學生回去自己看也能看得懂,希望如此啦。
 
潔西的外甥大寶今天一早出發騎腳踏車環島,居然快到台中了,原來騎腳踏車一天就可以騎到台中,不過覺得他應該超拼的啊。還好他平常暑假放假每天就打籃球,從早打到晚也不是沒有,所以體能應該沒問題,十八歲了,在桃園遇到善心人士給了他兩大瓶水跟貝果,但是水好重啊,他說。背著兩瓶重重的水的確很辛苦,快快喝掉或用來灑在身上應該也不錯。潔西三不五時就看一下 FB ,看他到哪裡了,從桃園大溪到新竹到苗栗不停繼續往前,西濱。現在看他直播,現在離台中還有14公里,他說有夠遠,沒有什麼人騎車只有他一個人孤單寂寞XD。發現原來沿途都有步道或腳踏車道,還挺方便的。有個藍天橋還蠻美的,不過他說永無止盡的道路。然後超好笑的,他說好熱,想下去玩水,然後接著又說啊,沒有帶泳帽,自己又想到說,對喔,去海邊不用泳帽,還說不知道講話大家能不能聽到,不過沒關係,自言自語也可以,幫自己加油等等,今天一直都在自言自語,果然是念表演藝術科的,自己一個人演得很開心啊!
 
然後他在直播的時候說誰在看,他媽媽寫老母,我本來要寫你老母跟我,但是發現好像在罵人啊,哈哈。他舅舅交代,這剛新買的手機不要一直曬太陽。他停了一下又繼續,說海風很舒服,不錯玩,但是有點累,風聲好大聲,比新竹的風聲還大啊!他說路上很多人幫他加油,各種好心人問他要不要幫忙,台灣人真好。聽了放心多了。因為今天眼皮一直跳,容易擔心的阿姨啊!
 
潔西則是一直坐在電腦前,跟著大寶遊台灣,不過也只有今天,明天後天都要上課。從昨天到今天一直都在備課,明後天的課,上課星期因為小寶帶朋友來家裡做蛋糕跟餅乾,潔西上星期六一早就起來整理家裡,然後他們來了就做餅乾蛋糕,晚上又帶他們去吃熱炒,吃飽回家開始備課的時候大概十點多,想說弄到十二點就好了,結果摸到四點,哪來哪麼多東西好備?其實是太混嗎?最近潔西都一邊備課一邊看日劇或美劇,不過今天真的難得,怕備不完,非常焦慮,所以呢,也沒有看劇,只有聽聽音樂配配大寶的直播。又餓了,又好累,還有一堂寫作還沒備好。
 
這形容詞子句的文法一邊改一邊發現好幾個地方錯,像什麼第三人稱的單數沒加到 s ,拼字拼錯之類的, 啊….好多錯,發現的人再請提醒,這篇,希望沒有太多錯。吃個飯,休息一下,繼續準備去:)
 
關係代名詞 :人   who, whom, whose, that 事,物  which, whose, that
關係副詞:    時間 when 地方 where 原因 why
 
x 表示省略
 
A 關係副詞 when, where, why, how
where, when, why, how 皆為關係副詞,可用來帶領形容詞子句,分別表地點, 時間, 原因,方式可用在限定或非限定子句。
where = the place where, when = the time when,
why = the reason why, how = the way in which
 
1 關係副詞 when
when
當要表示在某個時間(年,日,時間等)時,常會用時間介系詞 at, in, on 等加上時間來表示。
比方說I get up at 8.  He graduate in June.  We met on my birthday.
 
關係副詞when的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達時間時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用when來代替。所以when可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。除了將介系詞放在which前外,其他用法時介系詞都會省略掉。
所以假如要表達這就是我記得我遇到他的那一天,可以用下面的表達方式
可以想做是 I remember the day. 與 I met him on that day. 這兩個句子的合併。
I remember the day. I met him on that day.
I remember the day when I met him. 這裡可以用 when 取代 on which。
I remember the day on which I met him. 正式用法可以把介系詞 on 放到 which 前,不可省。
I remember the day that I met him.  這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同,on需省略
I remember the day I met him.  受詞的 that 跟 which 都可以省略,on也必須省略。
 
上面 when 可以省略掉,因為上列句子中只有當介系詞 on 在前面的時候才會出現介系詞,所以 when 可以直接省略掉。
練習一 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 Sunday is the day. We will come on that day.
2 8:30 is the time. My plane arrives at that time.
3 August is the month. The weather is usually the hottest in that month.
4 1960 is the year. The revolution took place in that year.
 
2 關係副詞 where
當要表示在某個地點(城市,國家,房間)時,常會用方位介系詞 in,on, at 等加上地點來表示。
比方說I am at home. My father is in his office.  The book is on the table.
 
關係副詞where的用法其實就是在形容詞子句表達地點時,因為which是用來代替相同的事或物,當which作為受格的關係代名詞時,原本放在最後面的介系詞,在正式用法時可以移到which的前面,這時候 “介系詞 + 受格which ” 就可以用where來代替。所以where 可能相當於at which, in which, on which等。
 
所以假如要表達這就是她工作的那間圖書館,可以用下面的表達方式
可以想做是That’s is the library. 與 She works in the library. 這兩個句子的合併。
 
That’s is the library. She works in the library.
 
That’s the library where she works.   在這裡可以用 where 取代 in which。
That’s the library in which she works.  正式用法可以把介系詞in放到which前面。
That’s the library which she works in.  which 可單獨放在句首,介系詞 in 不可省
That’s the library that she works in.  在這裡which 可以用that 代替,意思相同。
That’s the library she works in.  受詞的that 跟which都可以省,所以這裡只剩下不可省的in。
 
上面的句子 where 不可以直接省略掉,因為省略後的介系詞少掉了,所以只可以用最後一個句子 That’s the library she works in. 不可以用 That’s the library she works. (X)
 
因為where相當於“介系詞 + which ”,所以並不是所有地點都可以用where代替。當形容詞子句的地點是主格時,不會有介系詞,就只能用which,不可以用where。形容詞子句中一定要有介系詞加上受格which時,才可以用where代替。常見錯誤是誤用where來取代主格的which。
 
例如要合併下列兩個句子有兩種方式:
I was born and grew up in Taipei. (1) Taipei is the capital of Taiwan. (2)
第一種合併方式,用第一句當主要子句,因為第二句的形容詞子句的Taipei是主格,所以並沒有介系詞,只有地點,所以不能用where,只能用which來帶領形容詞子句。
I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.  
 
第二種合併方式,用第二個句子當主要子句,因為第一個句子中有in Taipei,所以可以用where來帶領形容詞字句。又有逗點時不可以用in which,只可以用where。
Taipei, which I was born and grew up in, is the capital of Taiwan.
Taipei, where I was born and grew up, is the capital city of Taiwan.
 
練習二 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation in that city.
2 That is the restaurant. I will meet you at that restaurant.
3 The town is small. I grew up in that town.
4 That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry in that drawer.
 
練習三 把兩個句子合併成一個句子
That man was Anna’s brother. He just walked past.
— The man who just walked past was Anna’s brother.
1 The plane was twenty-five years old. It crashed.
The plane ____________________________ twenty-five years old.
2 One day Tessa was ill in bed. Martin rang.
The day ____________________________ ill in bed.
3 Our offices are in Queen Street. They’re new.
Our ____________________________ in Queen Street.
4 Some documents have been found. They were stolen from a car.
The documents ____________________________ found.
5 The map is out of date. You were looking at it.
The map ____________________________ out of date.
6 The King’s Theater is in the center of town. It dates from 1896.
The King’s ____________________________ in the center of town.
7 A woman was terribly upset. Her dog was run over.
The woman ____________________________ terribly upset.
8 Janet solved the puzzle. She did it before everyone else.
Janet was ____________________________ the puzzle.
9 A man was standing outside the building. He was selling newspapers.
A man ____________________________ outside the building.
10 The talk was very interesting. Judy gave it.
The talk ____________________________ was very interesting.
11 The house is empty now. I used to live there.
The house ____________________________ is empty now.
 
3 關係副詞 why
原因 + why = 原因 + for + which
The reason why Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.
= The reason for which Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.
There can only be one champion, and that is the reason why competition is so intense.
= There can only be one champion, and that is the reason for which competition is so intense.
The weather is cold, which is the reason why there are so many people sick.
The weather is cold, which is the reason for which there are so many people sick.
 
4 關係副詞 how
how = the way + (介系詞 + which)
Do a little work every day. This is how you can finish any project, no matter how big.
= Do a little work every day. This is the way in which you can finish any project, no matter how big.
We showed him how we make rice pudding.
= We showed him the way in which we make rice pudding.
 
 
B 複合關係詞
whoever = any person(s) who/that 任何人
whomever = anyone whom
whatever = anything that/which 任何事
whichever = anythings that/which 有選擇當中的選項
wherever = in or at any place that
whenever = in or at any time that
however = in or at any way that
whatever, whoever, whichever 可以用來當作關係子句的主詞或受詞,也可以用 whatever, whoever, whichever 來表示不管什麼,不管誰,不管哪一個。而 wherever, whenever, however 可以用來表示不管在什麼地方,何時或如何
 
Whoever said those things is mistaken.
We will work for whomever they send.
Whatever she did made them happy.
Write in a pen or pencil, whichever you prefer.
I’ll always love you, whatever you do.
He’ll be in trouble, whichever he chooses.
He always keeps in touch wherever he is.
Whenever I see Penny, she asks me about you.
Please sit wherever you like.
Call whenever you can.
Just buy it, however much it costs.
 
 
 
練習四 Choose an ending for each beginning and addd these words
however, whatever, whenever, whichever, whoever
1 You can dress … a … they want to on Sunday morning.
2 We lived on potatoes … b … we think would enjoy the party.
3 The girls can get up … c and … else was available.
4 We’ll go there … d … you like because it’s really casual.
5 They said we could invite … e on Monday or Tuesday, … day you’re free.
 
C 限定與非限定形容詞子句
a. 限定子句 Restrictive / Identifying / Defining Clause
限定子句或辨別子句或定義子句,名稱可能不同,但是都是用來把人事物分類,定義或辨別先行詞。缺少這個限定子句時,語義會不清楚,所以會加上形容詞子句來讓。限定子句不可省略,不可使用逗號。that 只可以用在限定子句。
I have three phones. The phone which is in the kitchen is broken.
The woman who does my hair has just had a baby.
Do you have a good book that’s really easy to read?
What do you think of the wine we drank last night?
 
b. 非限定子句 Nonrestrictive (Non-identifying) Clause
非限定子句用來給予先行詞補充額外資訊。非限定子句可以省略,沒有非限定子句,語意一樣清楚。非限定形容詞子句只是補充說明,這時一定要用逗號將主要子句分隔開來。人名或專有名詞為先行詞時,後面幾乎都用非限定子句。不可以用 that 在非限定子句中。
 
I have only one phone. The phone, which is in the kitchen, is broken.
Sally, who does my hair, has just had a baby.
I lent him The Old Man and the Sea, which is really easy to read.
I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank at once.
 
限定子句用在當我們要表達重要的資訊的時候,當只是要加上額外資訊的時候用非限定子句
The first caller who can give the correct answer will win the prize.
The first caller, who was from the London area, didn’t give the correct answer.
 
在寫作的時候用逗號 comma , 或括號 backets () 或 破折號 dash – – 來把形容詞子句跟主要子句分開,在口說的時候會停一下 pause 來表示句子是非限定的。
The switch, which is on the back, is off. (The machine has only one switch. It’s one the back.)
The switch (pause) which is one the back (pause) is off. (The machine has only one switch. It’s one the back.)
The switch which is on the back is off. (The machine has more than one switch. This one is off.)
 
c which 的特殊用法:在非限定子句中,可以用 which 來給予前面整個句子評論看法,也可以用在 in which case 之類的用法。
David helped me clean up, which was very kind of him.
Sarah had to work late again, which annoyed Mike.
There may be a strike, in which case the office will remained closes.
 
另外也可以在 of which 跟 of whom 前面加上數量詞,比方說 some 或最高級,來提供前面所提過人,事物,或團體中的個人的額外資訊。
The last lecture, some of which I just didn’t understand, was about chemistry.
At the conference, there were several writers, the most famous of whom was Jason Bourne.
 
d 關係副詞的限定與非限定用法
這裡的用法類似用連接詞加上副詞的意思。
On my trip to Paris. I went to the Louvre Museum, where I saw the Mona Lisa on display
= On my trip to Paris, I went to the Louvre Museum, and there I saw the Mona Lisa on display.
Little Red Riding Hood approached the bed, where the wolf was waiting to eat her.
= Little Red Riding Hood approached the bed, and there the wolf was waiting to eat her
Please come back at three o’clock, when I will have time to talk to you.
= Please come back at three o’clock, because then I will have time to talk to you.
 
練習五:
依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號
1(that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.
2 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often needs a babysitter.
3 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
4 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
5 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
6 (who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.
7 (which is on the tenth floor) My new flat ______________________ has a terrific view.
8 (she bought the sofa from) Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop _______________.
 
練習六 翻譯練習 (可以先把句子分成兩個句子,再合併)
1. 那個贏的賽跑比賽的女孩子很開心。
2. 我在哪裡可以搭到開往市中心的公車。
3. 我們昨天拜訪的人非常的好。
4. 我投票給她的那個候選人沒有贏得選舉。
5. 我喜歡你寫的那篇作文。
6. 我們昨晚聽的音樂很好聽。
7. 那個皮包被偷的男人打電話報警。
8. 我住的宿舍裡面的學生來自不同的國家。
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
答案在這裡:潔西的答案都有含題目,所以不用再回去對題目,原因是這樣子地…
練習一
1 Sunday is the day. We will come on that day.
Sunday is the day when we will come.
2 8:30 is the time. My plane arrives at that time.
8:30 is the time when my plane arrives.
3 August is the month. The weather is usually the hottest in that month.
August is the month when the weather is usually the hottest.
4 1960 is the year. The revolution took place in that year.
1960 is the year when the revolution took place.
 
 
練習二 合併句子,用第二個句子當形容詞子句
1 The city was beautiful. We spent our vacation in that city.
The city where we spent our vacation is beautiful.
2 That is the restaurant. I will meet you at that restaurant.
That is the restaurant where I will meet you.
3 The town is small. I grew up in that town.
The town where I grew up is small.
4 That is the drawer. I keep my jewelry in that drawer.
That is the drawer where I keep my jewelry.
 
 
練習三 把兩個句子合併成一個句子
That man was Anna’s brother. He just walked past.
— The man who just walked past was Anna’s brother.
1 The plane was twenty-five years old. It crashed.
The plane that/which crashed was twenty-five years old.
2 One day Tessa was ill in bed. Martin rang.
The day (when/that) Martin rang, Tessa was ill in bed.
3 Our offices are in Queen Street. They’re new.
Our offices, which are new, are in Queen Street.
4 Some documents have been found. They were stolen from a car.
The documents that/which were stolen from a car have been found.
5 The map is out of date. You were looking at it.
The map that/which/ x you were looking at is out of date.
6 The King’s Theater is in the center of town. It dates from 1896.
The king’s Theater, which dates from 1896, is in the center of town.
7 A woman was terribly upset. Her dog was run over.
The woman whose dog was run over was terribly upset.
8 Janet solved the puzzle. She did it before everyone else.
Janet was the first person who/that solved the puzzle.
9 A man was standing outside the building. He was selling newspapers.
A man who/that was selling newspapers was standing outside of the building.
10 The talk was very interesting. Judy gave it.
The talk that/which/x Judy gave was very interesting.
11 The house is empty now. I used to live there.
The house where I used to live is empty now.
 
練習四 Choose an ending for each beginning and addd these words
however, whatever, whenever, whichever, whoever
1 You can dress …
2 We lived on potatoes …
3 The girls can get up …
4 We’ll go there …
5 They said we could invite …
 
a … they want to on Sunday morning.
b … we think would enjoy the party.
c and … else was available.
d … you like because it’s really casual.
e on Monday or Tuesday, … day you’re free.
 
1 You can dress however you like because it’s really casual.
2 We lived on potatoes and whatever else was available.
3 The girls can get up whenever they want to on Sunday morning.
4 We’ll go there on Monday or Tuesday, whichever day you’re free.
5 They said we could invite whoever we think would enjoy the party.
 
 
練習五:
依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號
1(that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.
1 This car is a lot cheaper than the one that Claire drives.
2 (who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often needs a babysitter.
2 Olivia, who has twins, often needs a babysitter.
3 (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
3 The person who took Rita to the party was Tom.
4 (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
4 Henry, who has a bad temper, shouted at the waiter.
5 (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
5 The team which Tom supports is United.
6 (who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.
6 We climbed up expect Vicky, who is afraid of heights.
7 (which is on the tenth floor) My new flat ______________________ has a terrific view.
7 My new flat, which is on the tenth floor, has a terrific view.
8 (she bought the sofa from) Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop _______________.
8 Sarah can’t remember the name of the shop she bought the sofa from.
 
練習六 翻譯
1.
The girl won the race.
She is happy.
The girl who won the race is happy.
The girl that won the race is happy.
 
2.
Where can I catch the bus?
The bus goes downtown?
Where can I catch the bus that goes downtown?
Where can I catch the bus which goes downtown?
 
3.
The people were very nice.
We visited them yesterday.
The people whom we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people who we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people that we visited yesterday were very nice.
The people we visited yesterday were very nice.
 
4.
The candidate didn’t win the election.
I voted for her.
The candidate whom I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate who I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate that I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate I voted for didn’t win the election.
The candidate for whom I voted didn’t win the election.
 
5.
I liked the composition.
You wrote it.
I liked the composition which you wrote.
I liked the composition that you wrote.
I liked the composition you wrote.
6.
The music was good.
We listened to it last night.
The music which we listened to last night was good.
The music that we listened to last night was good.
The music we listened to last night was good.
The music to which we listened to last night was good.
7.
The man called police.
His wallet was stolen.
The man whose wallet was stolen called the police.
8.
I live in a dormitory.
Its residents come from many countries.
I live in a dormitory whose residents come from many countries
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