關係詞與形容詞子句 (最新修改)

今天代課的講義。要看答案的請直接往下拉到紅色的答案在這裡

昨天寫到半夜,今天早上七點半起來改了改,然後早上上課剛好也是講形容詞子句,其實也是因為這樣,所以昨天就是寫到眼睛快瞎掉XD

其實形容詞子句的講義先前已經改過好幾次了,舊的在這裡,可以點進去做更多的練習。早上上課的時候學生問潔西說為什麼要一直改寫講義,是不是有完美主義,恩,類完美主義,因為有時候還是有很多錯字,只是覺得想要把東西說得更清楚,讓同學更容易了解,所以就會花很多時間去找例子,然後還要融會貫通,今天本來要去看醫生的,下午有約診,潔西昨天覺得講義一定寫不完,所以就把預約取消了。

本來最壞的打算是用舊的講義,但是昨天半夜還寫的蠻順的,就把它趕出來了,當然還是沒有很理想,但是已經盡力了。而且這次帶文法課沒有同學出走,去上洗手間的好像都有回來,剛值得慶幸了,哈哈。沒辦法,有時候不同老師同學就是覺得無法理解,上次剛好同學又都沒講義,潔西的講義沒有印下來,本來想說上課本,在另外補充,結果只好把準備的東西通通都寫黑板,那天擦了起碼二十次黑板,那次兩小時的課,準備了八小時,其實蠻多東西的,後來又花了幾個小時把講義寫出來,同學不捧場也沒辦法,因為不知道學生的程度,那天講的東西跟今天講的一樣,其實都是蠻難的,就英文文法來說。

不是潔西自誇,好啦,老王當習慣了當然要自己說一下,其實先前的那篇整理的形容詞子句的講義,有等等,應該是劍橋大學,對啦,就是英國劍橋大學的老師或學生?寫信給潔西鼓勵說寫的不錯,繼續加油之類的。怎麼會知道是劍橋大學,那個郵件信箱啊,潔西現在沒用大學信箱了,大學信箱都很明顯啊,應該是老師?通常這種是比較像老師會做的,同為老師的直覺,學生也有可能,應該就母語使用者吧?

亂扯好遠,總之還好今天沒人出走,不過今天上課好乾,同學可能不熟,教學方式可能也跟他們老師差比較多,講笑話或哈拉之類的同學都沒反應,還好今天下課有學生留下來問打算移民澳洲的問題,聊好久,聊到補習班要關教室被趕出去XD

潔西沒辦法,一個當老師的什麼不會,就最會說,看潔西每天發廢文就知道了啊。還好有同學來問問題,不然上玩應該覺得很悶,覺得準備很久,同學都沒什麼太大反應,可能潔西要求太高XD 有幾個學生還是都會小聲回答,點點頭,搖搖頭,感激:) 然後同學有些很厲害,都很清楚,不過有些可能還是覺得有點難度吧,不過沒辦法,形容詞子句真的在英文文法中算難的,這部分有兩堂課,所以潔西就說同學不要擔心,下星期你們老師回來會講解就更清楚了。文法就其實不是一個可以說得一清二楚的,真的就是要先理解,多做題目,多練習,熟悉英文的句型之後再把它用出來,不能中翻英,要讓自己要表達的方式用英文的句型說出來,所以呢先要熟悉句型,說的時候才能轉換,怎麼辦呢?就是多練習,再練習,cliche 陳腔濫調,但是非常真:Practices makes perfect. 熟能生巧,也就是這樣了。

被給負評也沒辦法了,上次就被給了兩個負評。所以現在上完課當天都不會點進去看評價,怕看了心情會不好XD 昨天跟學生聊天時,學生說他以為老師不會那麼閒還會去看,當然會去看了啊,因為上傳講義,看課表什麼的都一定會看到,尤其是負評紅明顯啊,哈哈,怎麼像 PTT ,不過還好啦,代課也就是這樣,主管應該也不會說什麼。

同學大部分人都超好的。昨天潔西下課後一點半要去按摩,原本是約三點可是按摩師的時間有改,變成四點半,潔西就多出超多時間的,剛好學生要等下一堂課四點,原本上星期就是由一個好心同學教潔西捉寶可夢,同學說這算是最簡單的了,好吧,就開始捉了。其實後來上星期很忙也沒什麼在捉。昨天跟同學一起去吃飯,學生就教潔西,然後,各位想捉寶可夢的,請到東區地下街,真的多到捉不完,可能剛好昨天又是星期天,超誇張的。

潔西跟學生吃個飯,從兩點混到快四點學生要去上課,一直捉,升了三等,從五急升到八級,然後有好可愛的小狐狸跟九尾狐出來,學生說這是很稀有的,快捉,潔西捉到了,但是學生在一旁卻怎麼樣都找不同同樣的,走來走去都走不出來,還蠻好玩的,然後最氣的是捉了又跑,有一隻捉了大概十次都跑出來,真的是想罵人的那種,氣死了。學生說,最氣的是最後還跑掉的那種,恩,還好那隻最後革命成功。後來就有幾次都捉一捉就跑掉,太難捉的就放棄。發現有翅膀的好像都很難捉的樣子。本來有一個星期只捉三十隻,這兩個就變成上百隻,有些還賣掉升等,學生說老師你比我還瘋耶。還好啦,潔西家偏僻,也就是出門才能捉,不然也不會特別走出去。話說小寶跟同學還特別跑去淡水捉,所以其實寶可夢還是要達到讓人家出門的功用啊,也不是一無是處,不過要看路就是了啦!

早上學生人也好好,教潔西用 Skype 的分享,先前線上教學用的是 Evernote 潔西比較不熟,剛好學生也是用 MacBook Air ,所以很好教,因為潔西就把要上課的講義直接拿來上課,改的亂七八糟,寫了一堆東西,想說,喔喔,等等還要來慢慢改,學生比較厲害,因為 Mac 的 Pages 都是直接自動儲存,所以潔西根本不知道要怎麼回到原本的地方,學生是救星啊!!!真好。然後後來同學想到用 Google Docs ,可以同時編輯,對喔,真是個好主意,這樣線上上課就超方便的,直接分享講義。只是,潔西目前的補習班只能印三張講義,六面,所以很可憐,都要縮小,很對不起學生的眼睛,文法潔西隨便寫就十二頁,而且最近都用 Pages 不用 Word ,因為 Pages 可以寫很多,傑西把 Pages 的十七頁放到 Google Docs 去,馬上變三十一頁,超誇張的啊!

明天早上要上課,學生有事,把時間提早了,明天八點要起床,很怕起不來。潔西今天早上自動七點半醒來,因為昨天按摩後又刮痧,睡得比較好,就不用睡那麼多,像前一陣子都睡到中午,但是呢,下午的時候超睏的,五點多備課備到一半,就快昏迷了,跟小寶說六點叫我,六點到了潔西醒來還死命一直賴,超累的。不過上課就還好,上課自動嗨,今天比較難嗨,不過上玩了還挺開心的,因為剛好也是托代課的福,把講義又再重新小改版整理一下,有更多的例子。然後呢,有看到錯誤的地方再麻煩同學網友提醒一下,因為真的弄很久,有時候一頁講義大概就要半個一個小時,而且自己很奇怪常常會看不到自己錯的地方,今天上課講錯也不自覺,真的是謝謝同學提醒,反正很奇怪的就麻煩留言,應該是潔西寫錯了的可能性比較大。

好想睡喔,還要洗澡,把明天上課的東西再整理一下,最近都上不好,上課上不好就會很阿雜,所以呢就要改,改就要花時間想,花時間整理講義,明天的講義本來是有,但是就像今天的可以用就的形容詞子句講義上就好了,但是就是一個累死自己不償命的個性。所以不能繼續寫廢文了。話說潔西想翻的歌剛剛聽 Apple Music 的榜單居然是第一名了,厚,跑這麼快,前兩天翻的 Cold Water 居然也是英文榜第一名。果然是慧眼識英雄,哈哈哈。想睡,但是絕對不可能明天可以起得來備課,所以還是認份先去洗澡,宵夜也還沒吃到,喝個湯好了,然後就備課睡覺。明天一定要起得來,因為明天要去內湖上課,沿途應該可以捉很多寶可夢吧XD 晚安:)

 

下面是關係詞跟形容詞子句的用法,很想把例子都翻譯成中文,不過今天沒時間,或許有空的時候會來做這個大工程,單字有點多,因為是文法二的課程,所以有用比較難一點的單字,就麻煩大家自己查查字典囉,遇到不會的字的時候。多查字典也可以幫助增加記單字,基本上裡面的單字都算常用,不冷門,所以也都是要會的喔:)

舊的形容詞子句整理  裡面有些東西一樣,但是也有不同的,可以一起看一下,多做一些練習。

修飾名詞

1 如何修飾名詞

a 形容詞 adjectives

形容詞可以用來修飾(modify)名詞,就是加以說明,描述,做些許的改變,名詞加了形容詞後意思可能大不相同。形容詞多放在名詞前面或連綴動詞後面。

May is a happy girl.  Linda is an unhappy girl.

He is late.  He became angry.

 

b 介系詞片語 preposition phrases

介系詞片語就是由介系詞跟名詞結合成的片語,可以用來說明修飾名詞。放在修飾的名詞的後面。

My brother is the man in the white suit.

Sandy is the tall woman with red hair.

 

c 形容詞子句adjective clause

形容詞子句跟形容詞一樣,只可以用來修飾名詞,對於名詞加以描述,用來做辨別用或提供一些額外的訊息。當描述的內容無法用一個形容詞,或者包括了動詞時可以用形容詞子句來說明,修飾名詞。形容詞子句永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。

I don’t like people who cut in line.

New York is a city that never sleeps.

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句,也叫做關係子句,是非獨立子句的一種。整個子句當作形容詞,用來修飾名詞或代名詞。用來提供更多有關先前提到的某人,某事的資訊,用來辨識某人某物用來給予額外的資訊,用來給予評論等。常會是兩個句子的合併。

A: I saw Jason the other day.

B: Jason? The guy who plays the guitar?

A: No, that’s Jackson. Jason is the student who dropped out of college, the one

who never did any studying. He’s working at Davidson’s now, the shop that

sells very expensive clothes.

a 辨識 identify: 在這個對話中形容子句用來辨別談話的對象是哪一個人或哪一件

事。子句 who plays the guitar 用來告所我們 B 所要表達的人。而 that sells

very expensive clothes 則是用來告訴我們 A 所要表達的店家。

b 描述事情 describe: That’s the house where my parents live in.

c 給予更多資訊 extra information: My friend Andy, who lives in Switzerland, is a

CEO.

d 給評論 comment:  It rained all night, which was good for the garden.

e 合併句子:I have a friend. He lives in New York. 可以結合成 I have a friend

who lives in New York. 用關係代名詞來代替前面說過的名詞,而不重複該名詞。

 

B 形容詞子句簡介與名詞解釋

1 形容詞子句的定義

形容詞子句是後衛修飾,永遠放在修飾名詞的後面。中文多是用前衛修飾,把形容詞放在修飾名詞前面。例如說,我住在美國的姊姊有三個小孩。當修飾內容有動詞時,英文不可以直接把形容堆在名詞前面。所以除了前衛也常用後衛修飾,把形容詞或形容詞子句放到所要形容的名詞或代名詞後面。

The bride must wear something old, something new, something borrowed, and something blue.

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

 

2 名詞解釋

a 子句: 是由一組的字所組成,其中包括主詞與動詞,可能為獨立或非獨立子句。

 

b 獨立子句: 是一個完整的句子,其中包括主要的主詞與動詞,語意完整,可以

單獨存在。可以最為主要子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

 

c 非獨立子句: 是一個不完整的句子,如名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞子句。由從

屬連接詞,關係代名詞,疑問詞等為首帶領的子句。雖然其中也包括了主詞與

動詞,但是語意不完整,需要與獨立子句結合,才能為一個完整的句子。

 

d 形容詞子句: 是一個非獨立子句,由關係代名詞或關係副詞帶領的子句,用來修飾一個名詞或代名詞。可用來描述,辨別,或給一個名詞更多的資訊。形容詞子句也叫做關係子句。

 

e 關係代名詞:也叫做形容詞子句代名詞。形容詞子句必須用關係代名詞帶領子句來跟獨立子句結合。關係代名詞放在形容詞子句的最前面,有who, whom,   which, that,跟whose。關係副詞有when與where。

 

f 先行詞: 形容詞子句所修飾的獨立子句的名詞或代名詞叫做先行詞。形容詞子句多緊接在先行詞後面。

My sister has two children. She lives in the U.S. 可以合併為

My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children. 而這個句子中

獨立子句/主要子句:My sister has two children.

非獨立子句/形容詞子句:who lives in the U.S.,用來修飾sister

關係代名詞:who,用來帶領整個形容詞子句

先行詞:sister

 

g 限定性形容詞子句: 用來辨別,限定前面的先行詞所以是必要的,不可省略,子

句前後都不可以有逗點。

 

h 非限定性形容詞子句: 用來修飾前面的先行詞,給與額外的資訊,所以可以省略,必須用逗號把它跟主要子句分開。先行詞為專有名詞時多為非限定性形容詞子句。

限定子句:   My sister who lives in the U.S. has two children.

(我有幾個姊姊其中一個有兩個小孩)

非限定子句:My sister, who lives in the U.S., has two children.

(我只有一個姊姊,她有兩個小孩)

 

C 主格關係代名詞 who, which, that

主格關係代名詞 who, which, that 緊跟著在先行詞後,在句首帶領形容詞子句,用來當形容詞子句的主詞,提供更多有先前提到某人或某事的資訊。

 

1 who 用來代表人

Hank is the man who owns the enormous dog.

The little girl who sat next to me on the coach ate sweets the whole way.

 

2 that 也可以用來代表人,但是比較少用

Yo-yo Ma is the musician that plays the cello.

The woman that lived here before us is a romantic novelist.

 

3 whichthat 都可以用來代表事物

that 比較口語

The car that won the race looked very futuristic, didn’t it?

They’ve recaptured all the animals that escaped from the zoo.

 

4 which 比較正式

There are several restaurants which do Sunday brunches.

Twitter is the company which was taken over last year.

 

用 who, which 合併下列句子

beginning

1 Do you know a shop?

2 I know somebody.

3 I want some plates.

4 I was at school with the man.

5 I’d like to speak to the person.

6 She’s friendly with a boy.

7 The police haven’t found the man.

8 There’s some cheese in the fridge.

9 We’ve got some light bulbs.

10 This is the switch.

a He lives next door.

b He stole my car.

c He/She deals with exports.

d It isn’t working.

e It needs to be eaten.

f It sells good coffee.

g They last for years.

h She could mend that chair.

i They can go in the microwave.

j He is driving that taxi.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

D 受格關係代名詞 who, that, whom, which, 用關係代名詞來代替受詞名詞或代名詞的時候,會把受格關係代名詞 whom, which, that 放在關係子句的句首,而後面不會重複該受詞名詞或代名詞。

主格:Tim talked to a couple. They were staying at the youth hostel.

— Tim talked to a couple who were staying at the youth hostel.

受格:Tim is visiting a couple. He met them on vacation.

— Tim is visiting a couple whom he met on vacation.

主格:The postcard was from Tim. It came this morning.

— The postcard that came this morning was from Tim.

受格:The old castle was really interesting. Tim visited it.

— The old castle that Tim visited was really interesting.

 

1 who 用來代表人,用在口語,that 也可以用來代表人,比 who 更非正式/口語

That’s the man who I saw on TV.

She’s the writer that I met.

 

2 whom 非常正式,口語不常用

The person whom the police were questioning has now been released.

 

3 which 用來代表事物,that 也可以用來代表事物,比 which 更非正式/口語,

The book which he borrowed seems very interesting.

I read the book that she wrote.

 

4 省略:受格關係代名詞省略可以完全省略,尤其在口語時通常會省略掉。

The bus (that) I’m waiting for is late.   That’s the man (who) I was talking about.

 

練習二:把下列廣告詞合併,並把關係代名詞省略。

例子: Lush soap. Beautiful people use it. — It’s the soap beautiful people use.

1 An Everyman car. You can afford it.

2 ‘Suicide Squad’ People want to see this movie.

3 Greenway Supermarket. You can trust it.

4 ‘Cool’ magazine. Young people read it.

5 Godiva chocolates. You’ll love them.

 

練習三:下列關係代名詞是主格還是受格?主格畫底線,受格可省略的加上 ( )

1 That’s the woman who lives next door.

2 Our doctor is a person whom I really respect.

3 He had a simple idea which changed the world.

4 I’ve lost the nice ring which Bill gave me.

5 It’s a book that everybody talks about and nobody reads.

6 Once there were three rabbits that lived near a river.

7 That’s the man who I wanted to see.

8 An orphan is a child who hasn’t got any parents.

9 He keeps telling you things which you already know.

10 They never thanked me for the money that I sent them.

 

E 關係子句中的介系詞

關係代名詞可以是介系詞的受詞,在口語中,通常會把介系詞放在形容詞子句中的最後。

This is that bus I’ve been waiting for.

The restaurant that we normally go to is closed today.

 

當關係代名詞是介系詞的受詞時,通常會把關係代名詞省略

I can’t remember the name of the hotel we stayed at.

this is the color we’ve finally decided on.

The shop I got my stereo from has lots of bargains.

 

關係子句中介系詞在正式英語的時候會放在形容子句的最前面,這時候受格關係代名詞只可以用 whom 跟 which ,不可以用 who 或 that

Was that the restaurant to which you usually go?

Electronics is a subject about which I know very little.

The Sales Manager is the person from whom I obtained the figures.

 

關係代名詞的受格作為介係詞的受詞時,最正式的用法是將介係詞放在關係代名詞前 (此時只可用 whom 代表人,which 代表事物,不可以用 who,that,也不可以省略),非正式時將介係詞放在句尾,關係代名詞可省略。

 

The candidate for whom I voted lost the election.                Formal

The candidate whom I voted for lost the election.

The candidate who I voted for lost the election.

The candidate that I voted for lost the election.

The candidate I voted for lost the election.                    Informal

 

練習四:選舉時期到了,候選人在辯論,重寫下列的第一個句子,把介系詞放在每個形容詞子句關係代名詞的前面。

例子:I cannot agree with that statement. I hope I’ve made that clear.

That is a statement with which I cannot agree.

1 Our party believes in that idea. I say this from the bottom of my heart.

2 I am strongly opposed to that policy. And I’m not afraid to say so.

3 No one cares about these people. They are the forgotten people.

4 Your party should be ashamed of those mistakes. And everyone knows that.

5 The government is now dealing with that problem. How many times do I have to tell you?

 

 

F 所有格關係代名詞 whose

當我們把兩個句子連結時,可以用所有格關係代名詞 whose 來取代 his, her, its ,這是比較正式的用法。

I saw a girl. Her beauty took my breath away.

— I saw a girl whose beauty took my breath away.

He went to a meeting. He didn’t understand its purpose.

— He went to a meeting whose purpose he didn’t understand.

 

whose 可用在人,也可用在其他名詞。

Someone whose bicycle was stole had been stolen was reporting it to the police.

David Beckham is the man whose goal won the game for the United.

Round the corner was a building whose windows were all broken.

Zoe was looking after a dog whose leg had been broken in an accident.

 

練習五:下面的犯罪故事中,要用關係代名詞 who 還是 whose

例子

George Paxton, company director – he had an argument with Colin

— George Paxton is the company director who had an argument with Colin.

Vera Stokes, politician – her sister once worked for Colin.

— Vera Stokes is the politician whose sister once worked for Colin.

1 Felix Reeves, journalist – his tape recorder was stolen.

2 Graham Wilshaw, architect – he knew Colin at school.

3 Rex Carter, farmer – Colin bought his land.

4 Norman Bridge, lawyer – he looked after Colin’s interests.

5 Sonia Goldman, house guest – her fingerprints were on the door handle.

 

G that 特殊用法

當先行詞前面有 all -, every-, no-, any-, the only, the same, the very, the + 最高級,the +序數,先行詞為人加事物,在疑問句中時會用 that ,而不用其他關係代名詞

I’ve told you all that I know.

The only thing that matters to me is your happiness.

 

練習六:把下列句子配對

1 All the poetry                                     a that happened.

2 At school I learned nothing            b that he wrote was destroyed in a fire.

3 I’ve told you everything                 c that she said made any difference.

4 Nothing                                             d that was ever made.

5 It’s the best horror movie             e that I could get.

6 The most useful thing                   f that was useful to me.

7 This is the only hire car               g that you can do is leave now.

8 You can have everything               h that you want.

 

H 學習形容詞子句的重點

1 注意形容詞子句的位置。應該盡量緊跟著先行詞。先行詞一定是名詞。

2 選擇正確的關係代名詞。

3 不要重複關係代名詞與代替的字。

4 注意形容詞子句中的動詞與主詞須一致。

5 注意形容詞子句為限定或非限定,在適當的地方標上需要的逗號。

 

1 關係代名詞的位置

關係代名詞所帶領的形容詞子句應緊接著先行詞,放在先行詞後面。先行詞一定是名詞,名詞片語或代名詞

a 形容詞子句可能在句中也可能在句尾。

I have a friend who speaks five languages.

My friend who lives in Switzerland speaks five languages.

 

b 形容詞子句假如沒有緊接著先行詞容易造成誤解。

He left the car on the street that he had just bought. (X)

He left the car that he had just bought on the street. (比較清楚)

The food came in plastic bags. We had to eat the food.

— The food came in plastic bags that we had to eat. (X)

— The food that we had to eat came in plastic bags.

 

c 形容詞子句有少數不會直接跟在先行詞後面,通常是先行詞後面有介系詞片語

時,為了語意的完整,會把形容詞子句放在介系詞片語的後面,但是比較少見

A pirate is a person on a ship who attacks and steals from other ships.

 

d 形容詞子句也可以用來修飾整個句子,這時用which來帶領形容詞子句,

一定放在句尾,一定為非限定。

The team won the championship, which shocked the opponents.

 

2 選擇正確的關係代名詞:

選擇關係代名詞。形容詞子句常為兩個句子的結合。關係代名詞應使用主格、所有格或受格是依形容詞子句中與先行詞重複的部分在形容詞子句的位置來決定。可將主要子句與形容詞子句分為兩個句子來看,找出重複的部分。

 

a 主格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister has two children.

My sister who has two children lives in Canada.

 

b 受格

My sister lives in Canada. You talked to my sister last night.

My sister whom you talked to last night lives in Canada.

 

c 所有格

My sister lives in Canada.  My sister’s children are doctors.

My sister whose children are doctors lives in Canada.

 

關係代名詞種類

關係代名詞 :人     who, whom, whose, that  事,物  which, whose, that

關係副詞:    時間   when       地方 where     原因 why

img_1640

圖表因為格時會跑掉,所以潔西用照相的方式,哈哈,這招不錯吧?怎麼沒早想到啊!

 

練習七:選擇正確的關係代名詞:

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

  1. The people _________ moved into town are Italian.
  2. The lamp _________ I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.
  3. Everyone __________ came to the audition got a part in the play.
  4. Ms. Rice is the teacher ____________ class I enjoy most.
  5. The man _____________ I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.
  6. I like the people with _______ I work.
  7. I have a friend ___________ father is a famous artist.
  8. The camera ___________ I bought takes very sharp pictures.
  9. Students _________ have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.
  10. Flying squirrels __________ live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.
  11. The people ________ car I dented were a little upset.
  12. The person to _________ you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.
  13. Monkeys will eat almost anything _________ they can find.

 

不要重複關係代名詞與代表的主詞,受詞或所有格

關係代名詞帶領的形容詞子句中因為關係代名詞就代表了原句子中的主詞,受詞,或所有格,所以切記不要再重複這些字。

Scott is someone who he loves sports. (X)

Scott is someone who loves sports.

Scott is the man whose his dog barks all day. (X)

Scott is the man whose dog barks all day.

Scott is the writer whom I saw him on TV. (X)

Scott is the writer whom I saw on TV.

 

4 形容詞子句的動詞與主詞一致

形容詞子句中的動詞必須跟形容詞子句中的主詞一致,按主動詞一致原則,所以當關係代名詞是主格時 who, which, that 時,需要前面的依先行詞做變化,其他時候都是看形容詞子句本身的主詞來變化動詞。

a 當關係代名詞是主格時,依先行詞做變化

Ben is my friend who ________ in Boston. (live)

Al and Ed are my friends who ________ in Boston. (live)

 

b 當關係代名詞是所有格時,依所有格+名詞,就是形容詞子句中的主詞做變化。

He’s the man whose dog ________ all day. (bark)

He’s the man whose dogs ________ all day. (bark)

 

c 當關係代名詞是受格時,依形容詞子句中的主詞而變化。

I like the columns which he ________. (write)

I like the column which they ________. (write)

 

練習八:填入正確的關係代名詞跟動詞

  1. People _________ __________ (have) moved a lot have few friends.
  2. People _________ __________ (have) lived in the same place have more friends.
  3. The qualities ________ ________ (be) most important in a friend are loyalty, warmth, and the ability to keep secrets.
  4. Someone _________ ________ (face) a crisis turns to friends before family.
  5. Betrayal is the cause ___________ ____________ (be) most often response for ending a friendship.
  6. Many people have friends __________ social or religious backgrounds _________ (be) different from theirs.
  7. Most people __________ friends __________ (include) members of the opposite sex say that these relationships are different from relationships with people of the same sex.
  8. A survey _______ ____________ (appear) in a magazine may not represent everyone.
  9. Someone ________ ___________ (not read) the magazine might have other ideas.

 

5 限定與非限定子句

a 限定子句 Restrictive / Identifying / Defining Clause

限定子句或辨別子句或定義子句,名稱可能不同,但是都是用來把人事物分類,定義或辨別先行詞。缺少這個限定子句時,語義會不清楚,所以會加上形容詞子句來讓。限定子句不可省略,不可使用逗號。that 只可以用在限定子句。

I have three phones. The phone which is in the kitchen is broken.

The woman who does my hair has just had a baby.

Do you have a good book that’s really easy to read?

What do you think of the wine we drank last night?

 

b 非限定子句 Nonrestrictive (Non-identifying) Clause

非限定子句用來給予先行詞補充額外資訊。非限定子句可以省略,沒有非限定子句,語意一樣清楚。非限定形容詞子句只是補充說明,這時一定要用逗號將主要子句分隔開來。人名或專有名詞為先行詞時,後面幾乎都用非限定子句。不可以用 that 在非限定子句中。

 

I have only one phone. The phone, which is in the kitchen, is broken.

Sally, who does my hair, has just had a baby.

I lent him The Old Man and the Sea, which is really easy to read.

I poured him a glass of wine, which he drank at once.

 

練習九:結合下面的句子,在非限定子句時要用逗號。關係代名詞可以省略的情況下就省略

  1. I bought a cell phone. I can use it to send and receive e-mail.

_______________________________________________________

  1. My new cell phone has become a necessary part of life. I only bought it a month ago.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Now, there are psychologists. They help technophobes use technology.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Dr. Michelle Weil wrote a book about “technostress.” She is a psychologist.

_______________________________________________________

  1. A lot of people suffer from technostress. Those people work in my office.

_______________________________________________________

  1. Some people dream of a job. They can do the job without technology.

_______________________________________________________

依提示加入形容詞子句,非限定需要加逗號

  1. (that Claire drives) This car is a lot cheaper than the one _______________.

8.(who has twins) Olivia _____________________ often need a babysitter.

  1. (who took Rita to the party) The person _____________________ was Tom.
  2. (who has a bad temper) Henry __________________ shouted at the waiter.
  3. (which Tom supports) The team _______________________ is United.
  4. ( who is afraid of heights) We all climbed up except Vicky ______________.

 

c which 的特殊用法:在非限定子句中,可以用 which 來給予前面正個句子評論看法,也可以用在 in shich case 之類的用法。

David helped me clean up, which was very kind of him.

Sarah had to work late again, which annoyed Mike.

There may be a strike, in which case the office will remained closes.

 

另外也可以在 of which 跟 of whom 前面加上數量詞,比方說 some 或最高級,來提供前面所提過人,事物,或團體中的個人的額外資訊。

 

The last lecture, some of which I just didn’t understand, was about chemistry.

At the conference, there were several writers, the most famous of whom was Jason Bourne.

 

d 關係副詞 where, when, why 用來表示地點,時間,原因

This is the place where the accident happened.

Do you remember the day when we moved the piano upstairs?

The reason why Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.

 

可以把 when 或 why 省略掉,或者可以用 that

Do you remember the day (that) we moved the piano upstairs?

The reason (that) Nick came was that he wanted to see Rita.

 

where 跟 when 也可以用在非限定字句做補充說明

We went to the Riverside Restaurant, where I once had lunch with Henry.

Mark likes to travel at night, when the roads are quiet.

 

練習十:改錯,共有六個錯誤

I just read a book called Technostress which was written by Dr. Michelle Well. Her co-author was Dr. Larry Rosen, that is her husband and also a psychologist. According to the authors, everybody feels stress about technology. Our cell phones and beepers, that we buy for emergencies, soon invade our privacy. Just because they can, people contact us at places, where we are relaxing. Another problem is having to learn too much too fast. Technological changes, used to come one at a time, now overwhelm us. Dr. Well suggests dealing with technostress using tips from her latest book which can be purchased from her web site.

 

 

I 關係代名詞的省略

在口語中常常會省可省略某些關係代名詞。

1可以省略的:限定子句中的受格與when。

That’s the man (whom) I love.

I remember the day (when) I met him.

2 不可省略的:非限定子句中的所有關係代名詞,限定子句中的主格、所有格與

where。

I remember Max, who I visited often.

He is my friend who lives in New York.

That’s the writer whose books I like very much.

That’s the school where I work.

 

J 準關係代名詞 as, but, than:

本身為連接詞,搭配特定先行詞時,會像關係代名詞一樣兼具代名詞的功能。

a as: 可以當主格,受格,或 which 修飾整個句子

We will give the audience such a show as has never been seen before.

The girl wore the same red dress as her mother did.

Andrew will be taking a few months off, as was mentioned in the meeting.

 

b but: 為否定的意思,有 that … not 的意思。前面的主要子句多有否定的詞語。

There is no rule but has exceptions.

= There is no rule that does not have exceptions.

= There is no rule without exceptions.

 

c than: 用在比較級的句子中,會跟比較級的先行詞搭配使用

More people came to the meeting than were expected.

Don’t give your kid more money than he asked for.

 

K 關係形容詞 what, which:

後面接名詞,用來修飾名詞,有連接詞與形容詞的功能

I took what tools were necessary for the job.

The children are ate what little food was left in the refrigerator.

Dan failed his driving test, in which case he couldn’t get a license.

The soldiers waited for their lieutenant to come, at which time they all left.

 

練習十一:翻譯練習

  1. 台北是個方便的城市。
  2. 羅馬是個吸引很多遊客的城市。
  3. 我的好朋友很健談。
  4. 我住在美國的好朋友很喜歡談政治。
  5. 那個長髮美女是我老婆。

 

下面就是答案了,不要偷看啊!!!!

 

 

 

答案在這裡:

練習一:用 who, which  合併句子

1 Do you know a shop which sells good coffee?

2 I know somebody who could mend that chair.

3 I want some plates which can go in the microwave.

4 I was at school with the man who is driving that taxi.

5 I’d like to speak to the person who deals with exports.

6 She’s friendly with a boy who lives next door.

7 The police haven’t found the man who stole my car.

8 There’s some cheese in the fridge which needs to be eaten.

9 We’ve got some light bulbs which last for years.

10 This is the switch which isn’t working.

 

 

練習二:把下列廣告詞合併,並把關係代名詞省略。

例子: Lush soap. Beautiful people use it. — It’s the soap beautiful people use.

1 An Everyman car. You can afford it. — It’s the car you can afford it.

2 ‘Suicide Squad’ People want to see this movie. — It’s the movie people want to see.

3 Greenway Supermarket. You can trust it. — It’s the supermarket you can trust.

4 ‘Cool’ magazine. Young people read it. — It’s the magazine young people read.

5 Godiva chocolates. You’ll love them. — They’re the chocolates you’ll love.

 

 

練習三:下列關係代名詞是主格還是受格?主格畫底線,受格可省略的加上 ( )

1 That’s the woman who lives next door.

2 Our doctor is a person (whom) I really respect.

3 He had a simple idea which changed the world.

4 I’ve lost the nice ring (which) Bill gave me.

5 It’s a book (that) everybody talks about and nobody reads.

6 Once there were three rabbits that lived near a river.

7 That’s the man (who) I wanted to see.

8 An orphan is a child who hasn’t got any parents.

9 He keeps telling you things (which) you already know.

10 They never thanked me for the money (that) I sent them.

 

 

練習四:選舉時期到了,候選人在辯論,重寫下列的句子,把介系詞放在每個形容詞子句關係代名詞的前面。

例子:I cannot agree with that statement. I hope I’ve made that clear.

That is a statement with which I cannot agree.

1 Our party believes in that idea. I say this from the bottom of my heart.

That is an idea in which our party believes.

2 I am strongly opposed to that policy. And I’m not afraid to say so.

That is a policy to which I am strongly opposed.

3 No one cares about these people. they are the forgotten people.

These are people about whom no one cares.

4 Your party should be ashamed of those mistakes. And everyone knows that.

Those are mistakes of which your party should be ashamed.

5 The government is now dealing with that problem. How many times do I have to tell you?

That is a problem with which the government is now dealing.

 

 

 

 

練習五:下面的犯罪故事中,要用關係代名詞 who 還是 whose

1 Felix Reeves, journalist – his tape recorder was stolen.

Felix Reeves is the journalist whose tape recorder was stolen.

2 Graham Wilshaw, architect – he knew Colin at school.

Graham Wilshaw is the architect who knew Colin at school.

3 Rex Carter, farmer – Colin bought his land.

Rex Carter is the farmer whose land Colin bought.

4 Norman Bridge, lawyer – he looked after Colin’s interests

Norman Bridge is the lawyer who looked after Colin’s interests.

5 Sonia Goldman, house guest – her fingerprints were on the door handle.

Sonia Goldman is the house guest whose fingerprints were on the door handle.

 

練習六:把下列句子配對

1 All the poetry                             a that happened.

2 At school I learned nothing            b that he wrote was destroyed in a fire.

3 I’ve told you everything                 c that she said made any difference.

4 Nothing                                      d that was ever made.

5 It’s the best horror movie             e that I could get.

6 The most useful thing                   f that was useful to me.

7 This is the only hire car               g that you can do is leave now.

8 You can have everything               h that you want.

 

1 b All the poetry that he wrote was destroyed in a fire.

2 f At school I learned nothing that was useful to me.

3 a I’ve told you everything that happened.

4 c Nothing that she said made any difference.

5 d It’s the best horror movie that was ever made.

6 g The most useful thing that you can do is leave now.

7 e This is the only hire car that I could get.

8 h You can have everything that you want.

 

 

練習七:選擇正確的關係代名詞:

填入正確的關係代名詞:who, that, which, whose, whom或省略

  1. The people who/that moved into town are Italian.
  2. The lamp that/which/x I bought downtown is beautiful but quite expensive.
  3. Everyone who/that came to the audition got a part in the play.
  4. Ms. Rice is the teacher whose class I enjoy most.
  5. The man whom/who/that/x I found in the doorway had collapsed from heat exhaustion.
  6. I like the people with whom I work.
  7. I have a friend whose father is a famous artist.
  8. The camera that/which/x I bought takes very sharp pictures.
  9. Students who/that have part-time jobs have to budget their time very carefully.
  10. Flying squirrels that/which live in tropical rain forests stay in the trees their entire lives without ever touching the ground.
  11. The people whose car I dented were a little upset.
  12. The person to whom you should send your application is the Director of Admissions.
  13. Monkeys will eat almost anything that/which/x they can find.

 

  1. who/that 2. that/which/x 3. who/that  4. whose  5. whom/who/that/x  6 whom 7. whose 8. that/which/x  9. who/that  10.  that/which   11 whose 12. whom 13. that/which/x

練習八:填入正確的關係代名詞跟動詞

  1. People who/that have moved a lot have few friends.
  2. People who/that have lived in the same place have more friends.
  3. The qualities that/which are most important in a friend are loyalty, warmth, and the ability to keep secrets.
  4. Someone who/that faces a crisis turns to friends before family.
  5. Betrayal is the cause that/which is most often response for ending a friendship.
  6. Many people have friends whose social or religious backgrounds are different from theirs.
  7. Most people whose friends include members of the opposite sex say that these relationships are different from relationships with people of the same sex.
  8. A survey that/which appears/appeared/has appeared in a magazine may not represent everyone.
  9. Someone who/that doesn’t read/hasn’t read the magazine might have other ideas.

 

  1. who(that), have 2. who(that), have 3. that(which), are  4. who(that), faces  5 that(which), is 6. whose, are 7. whose, include  8. that(which), appears/appeared/has appeared  9. who(that), doesn’t read/hasn’t read

 

 

練習九:結合下面的句子,注意在非限定子句時要用逗號。關係代名詞可以省略的情況下就省略

  1. 限定與非限定形容詞子句

1 I bought a cell phone I can use to send and receive e-mail.

2  My new cell phone, which I bought a month ago, has become a necessary part

of life.

3  Now, there are psychologists who(that) help technophobes use technology.

4  Dr. Michelle Weil, who is a psychologist, wrote a book about “technostress.”

5  A lot of people who work in my office suffer from technostress.

6  Some people dream of a job they can do without technology.

7  This car is a lot cheaper than the one that Claire drives.

8  Olivia, who has twins, often needs a babysitter.

9 The person who took Rita to the party was Tom.

10  Henry, who has a bad temper, shouted at the waiter.

11 The team which Tom supported is United.

12 We all climbed up except Vicky, who is afraid of heights.

 

練習十:改錯,共有六個錯誤

I just read a book called Technostress 1, which was written by Dr. Michelle Well. Her co-author was Dr. Larry Rosen, 2 who is her husband and also a psychologist. According to the authors, everybody feels stress about technology. Our cell phones and beepers, 3 which we buy for emergencies, soon invade our privacy. Just because they can, people contact us at places 4 (x) where we are relaxing. Another problem is having to learn too much too fast. Technological changes, 5 which used to come one at a time, now overwhelm us. Dr. Well suggests dealing with technostress using tips from her latest book 6 , which can be purchased from her web site.

 

 

練習十一:翻譯練習

  1. Taipei is a convenient city.
  2. Rome is a city that attracts a lot of tourists.
  3. My best friend is talkative.
  4. My best friends who lives in the U.S. likes to talk politics.
  5. The beautiful woman with long hair is my wife.

 

 

 

 

2 thoughts on “關係詞與形容詞子句 (最新修改)

  1. Chelsea says:

    老師~~經過你的“詳解”~~我做題目終於都全對了~~哈哈!!太感謝你了~~神人一點~~後來發現前面都是自己在死胡同裡轉

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