子句的種類與句子的種類

快要一點了,明明昨天早早十二點睡,早上九點起床,沒做什麼事就累得半死,全身酸痛,身上貼了五個貼布,晚點要來去按摩。就算想運動也沒法去運動,會不會是中暑了呢?不知。

 

這是先前整理的講義,就是上上星期的初級寫作分好幾次放的。下面這個簡單的解釋有個表格會亂掉,所以改用 pdf 檔,本來要用照片,但是覺得 pdf 好像會比照片好。

 

 

A 子句的種類  types of clauses 

子句有三種,分名詞子句、形容詞子句跟副詞子句。

1 名詞子句noun clause:整個子句當名詞用,不是當句子的主詞就是受詞。

2 形容詞子句adjective clause:整個子句當形容詞用,一定是用來修飾名詞。

3 副詞子句adverb clause:整個子句當副詞用,像時間子句,條件子句等都是副詞子句,整個子句當副詞用,用來修飾動詞或整個句子。

 

1 名詞子句 noun clause

I   think  that Jessie  is  a crazy teacher.

(    S            V                           )    —noun clause

S    V                 O

That the earth  is  round  is   true.

(         S             V          )                   —noun clause

S                       V   SC

I don’t know where she lives.

(            S   V  )                 —noun clause

S    V              O

名詞子句放在最前面帶領子句的有that,whether,if,疑問詞what、when、where、who等。that除了在句首外一般可以省略,其他的疑問詞等則不可省。

 

2 形容詞子句 adjective clause

The book  which  I  read  last night  was  great.

(         S   V                    )             —adjective clause

S                                                 V    SC

I  like  movies   that  make  me laugh.

(  S     V                   )         —adjective clause

S  V    O

I’ll never forget the day when I  got married.

(        S   V              )        —adjective clause

S        V       O

形容詞子句又叫關係子句。而放在最前面帶領形容詞子句的字就叫做關係代名詞,如that、what、who、when、where、whose等。通常做為受詞的關係代名詞如which、whom、that,可以省略,可是在限定子句時又不能省。名詞與副詞子句都有who、what、where這些疑問詞,所以容易混淆。其實只要注意子句本身的功能與修飾的對象,應該就可以分得很清楚了。

 

3 副詞子句 adverb clause

He ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

(              S   V                     )     –adverb clause

S  V        O

If you don’t have enough money, you can give it to me next time.

(     S       V                              )               –adverb clause

S     V

He was talking on the phone while he was driving.

(       S       V          )              –adverb clause

S          V

副詞子句一般是大家最熟悉的,種類也最多。副詞子句可以用來表達時間、因果、對比、條件、讓步等等。副詞子句最前面帶領子句的字叫做從屬連接詞subordinating conjunctions,是用來連接主要子句跟副詞子句的橋樑。

當主要子句在前面時,因為很清楚的可以知道副詞子句是由從屬連接詞開始,所以不需要逗號,如第一與第三句。而當副詞子句在句首時,要有一個逗號清楚地把副詞子句跟主要子句隔開來,如第二個句子。當然這些從屬連接詞是都不能省略的囉。

例外:

當while表示對比,或者是though, 或although在中間時,也會有逗號,但是其他連接詞在中間時,則不需要逗號。

Schools in the north tend to be better equipped, while those in the south are relatively poor.

I thought he’d been drinking, though I wasn’t completely sure.

You can copy down my answers, although I’m not sure they’re right.

 

這個部分因為表格會跑掉,所以可以到這個連結看 子句的種類 原本想放上來,但是不太會放。要點進去再點進去。

 

B 句子的種類 types of sentences     

四個句子的種類

1 simple sentences 簡單句 

I love beef.

 

2 compound sentences 並合句 

I love beef, but I hate pork.

 

3 complex sentences 複合句 

Although I love beef, I hate pork.

 

4 compound-complex sentences 混合句

My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a day.

 

1 簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,但整體視為一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

 

2 並合句是由對等連接詞(and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet,可以用fanboys記)將兩個獨立子句連接而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.

 

3 複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(如because, although, when, before等)所帶領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。可能包含了一個名詞子句,或形容詞子句,或副詞子句。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

I can’t believe she is only 17.

 

4 混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句形成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did nothing.

 

C 轉折語Transitional signals       

要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。

1 對等詞 coordinators

a 對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 

有七個,可用fanboys來記:  and, but, so, or, nor, for, yet

對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句,連接詞一 定放在兩個句子中間。

It is an old car, but it is very reliable.

Would you rather take a written or an oral exam?

 

b   配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 

有五個: both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor,  whether … or

這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

The system is not only complicated but also inefficient.

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句, 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

S + V, CC S + V.

I was feeling hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

 

 

2 從屬詞 subordinator

從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction 是帶領副詞子句的連接詞,如although, when, while, before, after, because, if, as, 等。

它會放在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

SC + S + V, S + V.     or    S + V + SC + S + V.

Because I was feeling hungry, I made myself a sandwich.

I made myself a sandwich because I was hungry.

Although I can’t help admiring the man’s courage, I do not approve of his methods.

This is my responsibility, although I appreciate your offer.

 

 

3 轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

S + V; CA, S + V.       or    S + V. CA, S + V.

I was feeling hungry; therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. Therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. I made myself a sandwich, therefore.

I was feeling hungry. I, therefore, made myself a sandwich.

 

4 其他others

有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語如in addition to,動詞如cause等也可以用來表示轉折語。這些次沒有特定的標點符號規則,必須注意前後的字詞的用法。

An additional reason for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

 

在用法方面有些需要注意的是,一個句子可以有不同的方式連接,但是什麼時候要用 but, although, in spite of, despite 就需要看句子的結構來連接。but 因為是對等連接詞,所以放在句子中間連接兩個獨立子句;  alothough 是從屬連接詞,所以可以放在句首或句中,連接一個獨立子句跟一個非獨立子句; 而 however 是個連接副詞,所以不能連接兩個句子,只能當副詞用。考試還挺喜歡考的,很多人容易弄錯,就像 because, so, therefore 很多人會不清楚用法一樣。另外 because 後面加子句,而 because of 後面只能加名詞。

 

而 though 跟 although 的用法相同,但 though比 較非正式。even though 跟 although相似,但是even though語氣比較強烈。另外 despite 後面不能加 of ,despite 跟 in spite of 後面都是加名詞,不能加子句。

 

 

 

下面是一些練習,寫完再對答案喔。

 

練習一 將其中一些句子合併讓意思更明確

1 I was very upset.

2 The Fourth of July fireworks were especially loud.

3 My dog ran away.

4 The animal control officer made his morning rounds.

5 He found my dog in another part of town.

6 I was relieved.

 

練習二 將下列句子合併成一個句子  

1 Romeo and Juliet were young.

They fell in love.

2 Their families were feuding.

Romeo and Juliet decided to run away.

3 They tried to trick their families.

Their plans failed. They both died.

4 Several tabloids have reported that Elvis has not left us.

He has been sighted in several parts of the country and even on other planets.

5 The central character of The Old Man and the Sea is Santiago.

Santiago is a fisherman with a string of bad luck.

6  He catches a fish.

He loses most of it to sharks.

7  He struggles courageously.

He achieves a moral victory.

8  Santiago is a true hero.

He obeys his code.

 

練習三  完成對話

A Carlo is working on the busy reception desk of a large hotel in Bristol. Put in the correct words from the box.

either, in case, nor, both, so (x2), and, neither, because, or

Carlo: Can I help you, sir?

First man: I hope so. ___________ the shower ___________ the bath works in my room.

Carlo: I’m sorry, sir. We’ll have them repaired this afternoon.

First woman: I’ve got an early flight, ___________ I need an alarm call at five o’clock in the morning.

Carlo: No problem, Madam. I’ll arrange that for you.

Second man: Can I borrow an umbrella ___________ it rains? I don’t want to get my suit wet.

Carlo: Of course you can, sir. Here you are.

Second woman: I’m unhappy ___________ my room doesn’t have a view. I’d like to see ___________ the park ___________ the river.

Carlo: I’ll see what I can do, Madam.

Third man: Can you book me a taxi ___________ that I can get to the airport by ten  o’clock tonight?

Carlo: Certainly sir. I’ll book it for half past nine.

Third woman: ___________ the bed ___________ the bath are too small for my husband and me.

Carlo: I’m sorry, Madam, but that’s all we have at the moment.

 

練習四  填空

Complete the report by putting in correct linking words (but, although, however, even though, in spite of, and despite). There is always more than one possible answer.

1____________ the ground was very wet, it was decided to go ahead with United’s game against City. United were 1-0 winners 2______________ not playing very well.   3____________ the poor conditions, City played some attractive football, 4____________ they just couldn’t score.  5. _______________  they lost, their fans gave the a big cheer.

 

練習五   填空

Put in these words: although, because, due to, if, in case, in order to, in spite of, so, so that, unless

  1. __________ it was late, Nick didn’t seem in a hurry to leave.
  2. They put video cameras in shops _____________ stop people stealing things.
  3. We decided to go out for a meal ____________ we were simply too tired.
  4. _____________ you’re ready, we can start now.
  5. Our room was very small, ____________ we didn’t really mind.
  6. No one was watching the television, ______________ I switched it off.
  7. You can’t drive a car ______________ you’ve got a license.
  8. ______________ having absolutely no talent, Guy became a popular TV personality.
  9. I think my answer are right, but can I just check them with yours ___________.
  10. The road was closed ________________ an accident.
  11. Olivia booked a babysitter ______________ she could go out for the evening.

 

 

 

答案  不要偷看喔

練習一 將其中一些句子合併讓意思更明確

1 I was very upset.    2 The Fourth of July fireworks were especially loud.

3 My dog ran away.    4 The animal control officer made his morning rounds.

5 He found my dog in another part of town.

6 I was relieved.

I was very upset. Because the Fourth of July fireworks were especially loud, my dog ran away. When the animal control officer made his morning rounds, he found my dog in another part of town. I was relieved.

 

練習二 將下列句子合併成一個句子  

1 Romeo and Juliet were young.

They fell in love.

Romeo and Juliet were you when they fell in love.

2 Their families were feuding.

Romeo and Juliet decided to run away.

Their families were feuding, so Romeo and Juliet decided to run away.

3 They tried to trick their families.

Their plans failed. They both died.

4 Several tabloids have reported that Elvis has not left us.

He has been sighted in several parts of the country and even on other planets.

Several tabloids have reported that Elvis has not left us, and he has been sighted in several parts of the country and even on other planets.

5 The central character of The Old Man and the Sea is Santiago.

Santiago is a fisherman with a string of bad luck.

Santiago, who is the central character of The Old Man and the Sea, is a fisherman with  a string of bad luck.

6  He catches a fish.

He loses most of it to sharks.

He loses most of the fish he catches to sharks.

He catches a fish, but he loses most of it to sharks.

7  He struggles courageously.

He achieves a moral victory.

Because he struggles courageously, he achieves a moral victory.

8  Santiago is a true hero.

He obeys his code.

Santiago, who obeys his code is a true hero.

 

練習三   完成對話

A Carlo is working on the busy reception desk of a large hotel in Bristol. Put in the correct words from the box.

either, in case, nor, both, so (x2), and, neither, because, or

Carlo: Can I help you, sir?

First man: I hope so. Neither the shower nor the bath works in my room.

Carlo: I’m sorry, sir. We’ll have them repaired this afternoon.

First woman: I’ve got an early flight, so I need an alarm call at five o’clock in the morning.

Carlo: No problem, Madam. I’ll arrange that for you.

Second man: Can I borrow an umbrella in case it rains? I don’t want to get my suit wet.

Carlo: Of course you can, sir. Here you are.

Second woman: I’m unhappy because my room doesn’t have a view. I’d like to see either the park or the river.

Carlo: I’ll see what I can do, Madam.

Third man: Can you book me a taxi so that I can get to the airport by ten  o’clock tonight?

Carlo: Certainly sir. I’ll book it for half past nine.

Third woman: Both the bed and the bath are too small for my husband and me.

Carlo: I’m sorry, Madam, but that’s all we have at the moment.

 

練習四   填空

Complete the report by putting in correct linking words (but, although, however, even though, in spite of, and despite). There is always more than one possible answer.

1 Although the ground was very wet, it was decided to go ahead with United’s game against City. United were 1-0 winners 2 in spite of / despite not playing very well.   3 In spite of / despite the poor conditions, City played some attractive football, 4 but / although / though they just couldn’t score.  5. Even though / although / though they lost, their fans gave the a big cheer.

 

練習五   填空

Put in these words: although, because, due to, if, in case, in order to, in spite of, so, so that, unless

  1. Although it was late, Nick didn’t seem in a hurry to leave.
  2. They put video cameras in shops in order to stop people stealing things.
  3. We decided to go out for a meal because we were simply too tired.
  4. If you’re ready, we can start now.
  5. Our room was very small, but we didn’t really mind.
  6. No one was watching the television, so I switched it off.
  7. You can’t drive a car unless you’ve got a license.
  8. In spite of having absolutely no talent, Guy became a popular TV personality.
  9. I think my answer are right, but can I just check them with yours in case.
  10. The road was closed due to an accident.
  11. Olivia booked a babysitter so that she could go out for the evening.
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6 thoughts on “子句的種類與句子的種類

  1. holly 說道:

    Hello Jessie,
    因自己的弟弟要考全民英檢初級(之前考了沒過哈哈)
    有看到妳說可以購買講義的部分
    請問有適合全民英檢初級概念講義可購買嗎

    1. jessie 說道:

      Hi, 你好,假如是全民英檢的話,建議買相關的書會比較有幫助喔。因為要有聽說讀寫四個部分。我的講義的話他可以拿來當參考,可以看 E2A, E4A, E2B, E4B的部分,是一些比較基礎的文法跟對話。可以不用買,除非真的,因為還蠻多的,但是參考還不錯。

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