寫作文法二:用連接詞來連接句子

 

 

 

連接詞的用法

 

快要死掉的潔西不想再繼續躺床上,因為還是蠻生氣的,所以繼續整理寫作時講到的連接詞的部分。fanboys 對等連接詞,for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 這些還好,但是關係連結詞 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor ,只要看到學生的文章出現後面這個關係連接詞頭就很痛,說百分之八十會用錯應該不誇張。

 

因為潔西教的都是比較初級的學生,當然還是有很好的程度的人蠻麻煩就不要對號入座說,老師我明明就沒寫錯,你怎麼可以這樣說我,哈哈。一樣前面廢文後面正文,另外還有不少的練習,文法跟寫作真的就是要清楚用法後,多做練習,多去看母語使用者用在哪裡,然後自己練習出來才能學起來。文法是語言的整理,不是先有文法才有語言的。所以不用死記文法,背了一堆規則卻不知道該用在哪或用錯。然後看到聽到跟上課老師講的文法不一樣的句子也不用太意外,語言是活的跟人一樣,聽歌聽多就知道了,就像沒有所有的人的國語都百分之百正確,說的標準,用字正確一樣的意思。

 

潔西很生氣的主要原因是今天是小寶的畢業典禮,然後潔西調了很多個鬧鐘因為早上八點要到,順便插話,畢業典禮為什麼都要在一早?整死誰啊?反正結果就是鬧鐘一直被潔西按掉,然後頭還大痛,想說再睡一下好了,再次醒來九點半,訊息問老姐,她說畢業典禮已經結束,在拍照,不用過去了。唉!大寶的畢業典禮那天也是頭痛到爆。畢業典禮症候群?頭痛已經很習慣了,但是像今天這樣這麼生氣還是第一次。氣自己還是氣偏頭痛啊?唉。

 

昨天才去跟醫生討論頭痛的問題,醫生有介紹另外一個醫生,潔西預掛幾個星期後,居然還 93 號,早上的門診 93號是要看到幾點?要幾點去啊?昨天其實頭好壯壯,下午看醫生,晚上跟同學吃飯,中間那段期間就去信義誠品混,研究學生教潔西的放空,找個地方坐下來,找本書,翻一翻就整個放空,本來帶了講義想說可以準備,但是覺得累,不想思考,就發呆發呆什麼都不想,還挺舒服的,能什麼都不想就腦袋一片空白也不錯,但是也不容易,對潔西這種人而言。時間也過得很快。晚上跟同學吃很久很想吃一直沒吃的泰國菜。四個人叫了七道菜再加上甜點,吃超飽,真好,難得食慾這麼好,最近都亂吃,也吃不下,常常水果就一餐,蛋糕也可以是一餐。

 

晚上回家不知為何超累,可能是因為星期六上課,星期天上課,星期天上課完後又去聽演奏會,星期一起床後還沒整理到前幾天的一團混亂又出門鬼混。而且回到家突然心情很差,最近不太想看新聞, Orlando Massacre 美國奧蘭多的大屠殺,有的是用 Shooting ,潔西覺得 Massacre 才貼切,49人死亡,53人受傷,潔西剛剛刷FB不小心看到很喜歡的 CNN 記者 Anderson Cooper 在報導相關新聞,第一句話就說他不打算說槍手的名字跟相關訊息,已經被報導的太多了,看過十一季,每季二十多集的犯罪心理美國影集的潔西完全明白他的意思。有不少的人做這樣的事只是想要出名留名,潔西看了這種新聞除了傷心外又生氣,唉,不想談這部分,最近還是遠離新聞比較好些。

 

突然想到前些日子寫的夜店迷思,更難過。潔西還去過一些 gay bar ,先前也寫過,去 foam party 泡泡派對的時候,在舞池旁的超好的帥哥同志還會幫潔西把沾在臉上的泡泡抹掉。有些無知的人又要攻擊去什麼夜店,跑什麼 gay bar ,對某些特定的族群的歧視跟種族的對立就是因為無知的人被利用被煽動,自以為做了正確的事,整個世界才會越來越糟。波斯頓馬拉松受到攻擊的人跟這些在 gay bar 被殺害的人有什麼不同呢?都是人生父母養的孩子啊!又要掉眼淚了。覺得學好英文多出去旅遊多看看世界開拓一下自己的心胸跟視野,當宅男宅女沒什麼不好,但是自己的思考模式價值觀是不是被媒體被特殊的人影響,有沒有在某個不知道的地方偏差掉了?好好用自己的腦子想想,大腦不用也會生鏽的啊!
 
 
 
回來偏頭痛,其實偏頭痛有時候有跡可循,有時候一整個莫名其妙,氣壓的變化已經是有被證實也會影響,所以就很怕突然好天氣突然下雨,一下冷一下熱這種天氣,醫生都知道這種時候病人就會多起來。然後潔西吃藥後的狀況也是時好時壞,頭痛通常會壓下來,只是時間問題,但是有時候吃完藥沒多久又頭好壯壯沒事般,有時候會像今天這樣全身沒力疲憊到不太能動,一整個覺得快要不行了,大概就是只能一直睡。今天一早起來還肩膀酸痛,腰酸背痛,一整個虛到爆。

 

一直睡會更氣,笑了,有時候好氣的?因為就會覺得一事無成啊,所以現在就是躺在椅子上,腳翹在床上跟桌上,把上星期上課的講義再整理分享一下,感覺比較沒有那麼廢,不會對自己那麼生氣。生氣也沒用的事,也不會改變任何事實,能做能改的就去改,對於不能改變的事就是接受,往前進,不用再回頭了,也不用想太多了。只是潔西狀況好的時候就會一直衝,然後完全失智,一直到掉下來,累啊!真的是該來躺一下了。連接詞還真的蠻重要的,用錯語意有時候就錯了。不難,只是容易用錯,尤其是 either … or, nerither … nor 這種。下面講點規則,做做練習應該希望會有點概念。

 

 

英文有八大詞類( the parts of speech)分別是動詞,名詞,代名詞,形容詞,副詞,連接詞,介系詞跟感歎詞。要學好英文,詞性非常重要。學到一個新單字的時候要先注意它的詞性,不同詞性的用法可能不同,適用於不同句型的句子。千萬不可以只是中翻英。

 

其中連接詞 conjunctions可以用來連接單字 (words)、片語 (phrases),子句 (clauses)或句子(sentences)。注意連接詞所連接的詞性必須一致。這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號,連接句子的時候則需要逗號。另外應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

 

連接詞可以分下面幾種

 

a 對等連接詞 coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, yet, so

It was raining, but they still went to the park.

 

b 從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunctions: if, before, because, when

Although John was sick, he still went to work.

 

c 關係連接詞 correlative conjunctions: either…or, neither…nor, both…and,

not only…but also

He’s the kind of person you either love or hate.

 

要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。這也是學生最常犯的錯誤之一,用逗號分開兩個獨立的句子,假如兩個句子關係密切可以用 ; 分號,但是絕對不可以用逗號,需要用對等連接詞來合併句子,形成並合句。

 

對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個:常用的是 and, but, so, or 其他還有 nor, for 跟yet。可用fanboys來記:for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 。潔西去紐約的學生放假回來台灣加強補文法,喔,這也是讓潔西印象深刻的同學,潔西幫她上一對一,她說她以為 fanboys 只是美國老師瞎掰,居然連潔西也這麼說,恩,其實寫作書上都有寫啦。

 

對她印象深刻是因為她只放假回來一個月就要回美國去了,所以時間很趕,很難改時間,潔西有一次幫她上一對一頭痛得很厲害,問說可不可以改時間,她沒辦法,所以潔西就撐著頭痛去上課,坐公車到捷運站一下車就吐得亂七八糟。到了補習班上課勉強上到一半又衝去廁所吐,後來真的上不下去不行,跟學生勉強又約了別的時候然後潔西坐計程車回家睡覺了。在文化推廣部上課的時候有一次也是,頭痛到爆,還有半個小時下課就忍不住衝出去教室去廁所狂吐,然後很抱歉地跟學生說下次再補回時間。頭痛真的是沒痛過的人不知道,這種還是不知道比較幸福。 Ignorance is bliss. 無知是種福氣,潔西又濫用成語了。

 

下面是幾個對等連接詞的用法,要記住什麼時候用的是哪一個,不要用錯了喔。

 

For 用來表原因:I am very tired, for I worked very hard today.

And 用來表達同等的概念:I am very tired, and I want to rest for a few minutes.

Nor 用來表達否定的選擇:I am not tired, nor am I hungry right now.

But 用來表達對比:I am tired, but I have no time to rest now.

Or 用來表達選擇:I will take a nap, or I will go out jogging.

Yet 用來表達對比:I will take a nap, yet I am unable to relax.

So 用來表達結果:I am tired, so I will take a nap.

 

Nor 的句子要特別注意的是,nor 本身有否定的意思,就不要再有 not 了,另外 nor 後面的句子要倒裝,就是要把助動詞放到主詞前面。

 

練習一:用對等連接詞 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 把下列句子合併成一個句子。

1 The shepherd has  cooperative flock of sheep.

They will cheerfully donate their wool.

 

2 The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo.

He is appreciated by the bull riders.

 

3 Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today.

You should get in line early.

 

4 Young Billy will surely get first prize in the science fair.

He has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

 

5 The aardvark does not make a good pet.

It gets rid of ants.

 

6 Are you comfortable?

Shall I turn on the air conditioner?

 

7 The couple liked their new house.

They didn’t like the spiders.

 

8 Children should not play with fire.

They should not play with power tools.

 

9 The entire junior class worked on the project.

Every member should be rewarded.

 

10 After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers.

He can’t remember the names to go with them.

 

 

配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 有四個:

both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor

 

這四個真的很致命,因為跟中文不太一樣的用法,很多人位置放錯,詞性用錯,主動詞一致沒用對。先說明他們的用法

 

1 both … and:用來強調就某件事,某個人,某種狀況來說,不光只是一個是真確的對另外

一個也是,也就是兩者皆…的意思

2 not only … but also:用來表達兩件都是真實或發生了的事情,特別是令人感到意外的

3 either … or:用來表達兩個或多個選項之一。或用在假如一件事沒發生,則另外一件事會

發生

4 neither … nor 用來表達兩者皆非,既不…也不…

 

所以要連接的時候就要想說,是要表達兩個都是相同的狀況,用 both … and 或強調的時候也可以用 not only … but also 。而兩個選一個的時候就用 either … or 。只有在要表達兩者皆非,兩個都不是的時候才會用 neither … nor 。

 

這些配對連接詞知道要選用哪一個後,要特別注意的是主動詞的一致。當主詞用這些配對連接詞連用時,both … and …  的動詞要用複數形,其他 not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor  的動詞則取決於動詞靠近的主詞。所以就記 both … and 因為有兩者,所以那個句子的動詞一定是複數形,而其他的三個用法的動詞就取決其靠近動詞的主詞。假如接近動詞的主詞是單數時則用單數的動詞,主詞是複數的時候則用複數動詞。

 

把下面的句子配合規則看過記一下再做下面練習題就會發現,其實也沒有那麼難喔。

 

Both my mother and my sister are here.

Not only my mother but also my sister is here.

Not only my sister but also my parents are here.

Neither my mother nor my sister is here.

Neither my sister nor my parents are here.

Either Mr. Lee or Ms. Lin is going to teach our class today.

 

練習二: a 練習 在空格中填入 is 或 are

1 Both the teacher and the student __________ here.

2 Neither the teacher nor the student __________ here.

3 Not only the teacher but also the student __________ here.

4 Not only the teacher but also the students __________ here.

5 Either the students or the teacher __________ planning to come.

6 Either the teacher or the students __________ planning to come.

7 Both the students and the teachers __________ planning to come.

8 Both the students and the teacher __________ planning to come.

 

 

練習三:b 改錯

1 Either John will call Mary or Bob.

2 Not only Sue saw the mouse but also the cat.

3 Both my mother talked to the teacher and my father.

4 Either Andy or Bobby are going to clean the room.

5 I enjoy not only reading novels but also magazines.

6 Oxygen is plentiful. Both air contains oxygen and water.

 

 

接下來是練習合併兩個句子,幾個重點

1 找出兩個句子的共同點

2 決定應該用的連接詞

3 把連接詞放在對等的字詞片語子句前面,兩邊的詞性一定要一樣

4 注意主動詞的一致,除了 both … and 連接主詞時用複數動詞外,其他的幾個連接主詞時,動詞都要依照接近的那個主詞的單複數一致。

 

不要用看的,真的,文法看不會的,沒有自己實際寫一寫,不會知道錯在哪裡,然後看得懂,要寫的時候卻又寫不出來,注意一下自己的學習方式,怎麼樣才最有效?潔西是聽說打字動感型的,看書看不下去的時候要用念的才會懂,不然就用打字的,看十分鐘可能在同一頁,但是打字或唸出來大概三五分鐘就可以理解,每個人不同,找出適合自己的方法吧!

 

答案都在最後面

 

練習四:c 合併句子

用 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor 來連接或改寫下面的句子

1 He does not have a pen.

He does not have paper.

 

2 Ron enjoys bungee jumping.

Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

 

3 You can have tea, or you can have coffee.

 

4 Jamie is not in class today.

Lucy is not in class today.

 

5 Ken is absent.

David is absent.

 

6 We can fix dinner for them here, or we can take them to a restaurant.

 

7 She wants to buy a Mercedes Benz or she wants to buy a BMW.

 

8 The leopard faces extinction. The tiger faces extinction.

 

9 The library doesn’t have the book I need.

The bookstore doesn’t have the book I need.

 

10 We could fly, or we could take the train.

 

11 The president’s assistant will not confirm the story.

The president’s assistant will not deny the story.

 

12 Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

 

13 Smallpox is a dangerous disease.

Malaria is a dangerous disease.

 

14 Her roommates don’t know where she is.

Her brother doesn’t know where she is.

 

15 According to the news report, it will snow tonight, or it will rain tonight.

 

 

 

 

答案在下面,不要偷看不要偷看不要偷看,很重要,所以要說三次,有空的時候自己練習一下再對答案吧!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

練習一:用對等連接詞 for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 把下列句子合併成一個句子。

1 The shepherd has cooperative flock of sheep.

They will cheerfully donate their wool.

The shepherd has cooperative flock of sheep, and they will cheerfully donate their wool.

 

2 The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo.

He is appreciated by the bull riders.

The clown has the most thankless job in the rodeo, but he is appreciated by the bull riders.

 

3 Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today.

You should get in line early.

Hamburgers will be served in the cafeteria today, so you should get in line early.

 

4 Young Billy will surely get first prize in the science fair.

He has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

Young Bill will surely get first prize in the science fair, for he has developed a milkshake that tastes good and is not filling.

 

5 The aardvark does not make a good pet.

It gets rid of ants.

The aardvark does not make a good pet, yet it gets rid of ants.

 

6 Are you comfortable?

Shall I turn on the air conditioner?

Are you comfortable or shall I turn on the air conditioner?

 

 

7 The couple liked their new house.

They didn’t like the spiders.

The couple liked their new house, but they didn’t like the spiders.

 

8 Children should not play with fire.

They should not play with power tools.

Children should not play with fire, nor should they play with power tools.

 

9 The entire junior class worked on the project.

Every member should be rewarded.

The entire junior class worked on the project , so every remember should be rewarded.

 

10 After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers.

He can’t remember the names to go with them.

After taking a memory course, Sam memorized one hundred phone numbers, but he can’t remember the names to go with them.

 

 

練習二: a 練習 在空格中填入 is 或 are

1 Both the teacher and the student are here.

 

2 Neither the teacher nor the student is here.

 

3 Not only the teacher but also the student is here.

 

4 Not only the teacher but also the students are here.

 

5 Either the students or the teacher is planning to come.

 

6 Either the teacher or the students are planning to come.

 

7 Both the students and the teachers are planning to come.

 

8 Both the students and the teacher are planning to come.

 

 

 

練習三:b 改錯

1 Either John will call Mary or Bob.

John will call either Mary or Bob.  / Either John or Mary will call Bob.

 

2 Not only Sue saw the mouse but also the cat.

Sue not only saw the mouse but also the cat.

 

3 Both my mother talked to the teacher and my father.

Both my mother and my father talked to the teacher.

 

4 Either Andy or Bobby are going to clean the room.

Either Andy or Bobby is going to clean the room.

 

5 I enjoy not only reading novels but also magazines.

I enjoy not only reading novels but also reading magazines.

 

6 Oxygen is plentiful. Both air contains oxygen and water.

Oxygen is plentiful. Air contains both oxygen and water.

 

 

 

練習四:c 合併句子

用 both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor 來連接或改寫下面的句子

1 He does not have a pen.

He does not have paper.

He has neither a pen nor paper.

(He doesn’t not have a pen or paper)

 

2 Ron enjoys bungee jumping.

Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

Both Ron and Bob enjoy bungee jumping.

Not only Ron but also Bob enjoys bungee jumping.

 

3 You can have tea, or you can have coffee.

You can have either tea or coffee.

 

4 Jamie is not in class today.

Lucy is not in class today.

Neither Jamie nor Lucy is in class today.

Not only Jamie but also Lucy is absent.

 

5 Ken is absent.

David is absent.

Both Ken and David are absent.

 

 

6 We can fix dinner for them here, or we can take them to a restaurant.

We can either fix dinner for them here or take them to a restaurant.

 

7 She wants to buy a Mercedes Benz or she wants to buy a BMW.

She wants to buy either a Mercedes Benz or BMW.

 

8 The leopard faces extinction. The tiger faces extinction.

Both the leopard and the tigers face extinction.

 

9 The library doesn’t have the book I need.

The bookstore doesn’t have the book I need.

Neither the library nor the bookstore has the book I need.

 

10 We could fly, or we could take the train.

We could either fly or take the train.

 

11 The president’s assistant will not confirm the story.

The president’s assistant will not deny the story.

The president’s assistant will neither confirm nor deny the story.

 

12 Coal is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

Both coal and oil are irreplaceable natural resources.

Not only coal but also oil is an irreplaceable natural resource.

 

13 Smallpox is a dangerous disease.

Malaria is a dangerous disease.

Both smallpox and malaria are dangerous diseases.

 

14 Her roommates don’t know where she is.

Her brother doesn’t know where she is.

Neither her roommates nor her brother knows where she is.

 

15 According to the news report, it will snow tonight, or it will rain tonight.

According to the news report, it will either snow or rain tonight.

 

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