直接引述句與間接引述句

繼續不好睡,一點睡,五點起床,升級老人了嗎,哭哭。太早起,一直摸,現在八點就想睡了,真是惡性循環啊!

 

早上上課半小時前,補習班還沒開就坐在門外等了。不過今天上得不好啊,昨天準備很久,不過不知道為什麼準備的時候都會有盲點,上到一半就發現了,ㄟ,為什麼少了什麼東西,果然一下課就看到負評了,唉。難怪教務面試的時候就說負評的評論一般不會給老師看,除非是很嚴重就會跟老師溝通。繼續加油中。

 

總算把欠的講義寫完了,引述句,直接引述句,間接引述句。沒有很難但是也不容易。標點符號,還有間接引述的時態容易錯。寫作的時候比較會出現吧!

 

又要繼續廢文了,今天上完英文課也是去上日文課,跟上上星期同一個老師,非常的年輕跟活潑,上次說自己日文比同學差。今天真的漢字就寫不出來,不過台灣人也差不多吧,很多人現在都打字,所以應該很多中文都寫不出來吧!整堂課就閒聊,沒話題時老師還叫同學問另外一個同學問題。感覺有點像從前xx村一樣,老師就什麼都不用準備,就是去聊天。大家笑得很開心,但是感覺沒什麼內容,真的要自己多練習,上課的時候說出來。今天上課有個在大阪工作五年還是上司是大阪人,忘記了,總之女生,但是說得一口關西腔,講話像男生的說話方式,哈哈,這次老師說上次老師的評語。還有一位一直被老師笑說是歐吉桑的大叔,另外一個做陶藝的男生,對日本的文化,歌曲,歌星,食物,什麼都沒什麼興趣,問他為什麼要學日文,他說想要多學一個外語,但是也沒有去日本的打算,真的是很妙。

 

不過今天潔西自己上的課也差不多吧。應該多補充一點其他的東西,不能只限於課本的內容啊。似乎補習班的學生都期待老師補充很多,啊,很多人重複上了,難怪先前的老師完全都不上課本的東西。大家的期待都不同,也沒辦法滿足每個學生的需求,所以就是照自己的上法慢慢調整慢慢上。第一堂覺得想上的內容太多,同學的程度還捉不太到,有的人的程度比較沒那麼好,就會跟不上的樣子,還不如上少一點,多練習一點啊。第二堂則是補充的不夠多,總之就是慢慢調整上課內容吧!星期天感覺上課的同學也沒有那麼穩定,不過這星期人多一點了,兩堂課都個六個人。其中一個同學還拖一個大行李箱,晚上要出發去韓國玩,就直接帶行李箱出來了,真可愛。

 

剛剛突然發現下星期好忙好忙啊,要去看三個醫生,問題真多啊!不過手麻的問題,好像醫生開的藥還蠻有效的,覺得好多了,下禮拜要去看報告。日文的課程因為快要到了,也不能不趕快上,下星期也要上三堂日文課,然後又要平日不出門,下星期又要跟學生朋友吃飯,用想的就覺得很忙。每天都要出門用想的就很累啊!

 

剛剛肚子餓,不過很懶得吃飯,早上吃了御飯糰跟哈咖啡提神,然後中午上課,上完英文跟日文課後三點多,天氣還不錯,想走一走,就不小心又從忠孝復興走到台北車站了,走得滿頭大汗,果然是夏天了啊!剛剛喝了米漿,小寶也說她最近吃很少,夏天食慾比較不好吧!昨天也只吃一餐。十二點睡到兩點,然後摸到六點,又睡到中午,去按摩,回家等小寶吃飯,吃了個芭樂,然後一起去吃麵,一天吃一餐也不錯,還蠻省的啊,哈哈。

 

好多東西要整理喔,但是好想睡,還沒九點睡,大概十二點就會醒來吧!繼續發廢文,昨天去按摩的時候跟大陸來的按摩師聊天,她按的真的很不錯,很認真,也很到位。慢慢比較熟了聊了不少事。嫁錯人真的還不如不要嫁啊!嫁到家裡還算有錢的老公,因為太寵了,所以什麼事都不做,不過後來家道中落,老公又不工作,她只好到台灣來工作。

 

來台灣十多年了,最先做看護,看護一定是很辛苦,但是他還為了錢去看護肺結核的病人,一天多五百元,冒著被傳染的危險。而且聽他說才知道,原來那些坐輪椅賣東西的人都是有專門車在接送,專門的人在推,平均分錢。他真的工作得非常非常辛苦,因為按得不錯,所以很多指名,就一直按,也不太休息。去年生了一場大病後覺悟了,開始按少一點人,多休息,對自己好一點,自己也去按摩,放假出去走走,不然真的是太累了啊!今年高中畢業的孩子抱怨說為什麼她不回去。來台灣十多年了,回去跟老公就是吵架,所以也不想回去,應該也習慣了台灣的生活了吧!

 

廢到不能再廢,上完課回來就懶得動。愛睏愛睏啊!繼續整理講義,撐到十二點再睡吧,希望不要又兩點就起來,明天可以睡到中午的話就非常幸福了啊!

 

 

1 直接引述句與間接引述句

1-1

直接引述句:直接重述說話的所說的內容,在書寫時用引號表示。

Peter said, “I’m starving.” 彼得說:「我餓死了。」

間接引述句:重述說話者所說的內容,但不會用完全一樣的字,人稱代名詞跟動詞的時態會有所改變,而且不用引號,that 常常會省略。

Peter said that he was starving.

 

1-2 直接引述句的寫法

1-2-1

當直接引述句在動詞後面時 S + V, “S + V.”

a 在動詞後面加上逗號 Peter said,

b 加上引號的第一個部分 Peter said, “

c 引號內的第一個字大寫 Peter said, “ I am starving.

d 在標點符號之後加上引號的第二個部分 Peter said, “I am starving.”

f 直接引述句的標點符號可能為句號,問號,驚嘆號都不變,放在第二個引號前。

May said, “I had a great time.”

Nick asked, “Where’s the party?”

Tom shouted, “Look out!”

 

1-2-2

當直接引述句在動詞前面時 “S + V,” S + V.

a 句子從引號的第一個部分開始 “

b 加上直接引述句,字首大寫 “It’s too late

c 假如直接引述句為肯定句時,句尾用逗號 “It’s too late,

d 在標點符號加上引號的第二個部分 “It’s too late,”

e 接下來的部分用小寫,而且引號後面不再加其他標點符號 “It’s too late,” he said

d 句尾用句點。 “It’s too late,” he said.

f 直接引述句在前面時,注意肯定句的字尾必須改成逗號,但是假如是疑問句則還是用問

號,感嘆句還是用驚嘆號,不需改變。

“I had a great time,” she said.

“Where is your father?” he asked.

“Be careful!” she shouted.

 

1-2-3

當直接引述句有好幾個句子時,在動詞後面時,按照原說話者的內容加上適當的標點符號即可。在第一個句子前面跟最後一個句子的標點符號後面加引號即可。但是當一個句子被分開時,前面的部分用逗號,最後用句號。

He said, “I forgot my wallet. Can you lend me some money?”

但是假如是分開引述的內容時,肯定句在前面時需要用逗號

“I forgot my wallet,” he said, “Can you lend me some money?”

“Lucy,” she said, “doesn’t feel well.”

 

1-3 直接引述句改成間接引述句

1-3-1

標點符號與大小寫

直接引述句改成間接引述句的時候,原本直接引述句的標點符號會去掉,當主要子句為肯定句的時候,不論是肯定句還是疑問句,最後字尾都需接句號。引號中的句子會變成小寫,不需要引號。that 可省略。

He said, “It’s a nice day.”

He said that it is a nice day.

They asked, “What should we do?”

They asked what they should do.

 

1-3-2

人稱代名詞與所有格,所有格代名詞需要改變

He said to Ann, “I have to go.”

He told Ann that he had to go.

Bob said, “I forgot my wallet.”

Bob said that he had forgotten his wallet.

 

1-3-3

時間副詞的變化

now — then, right away

today — that day

tonight — that night

yesterday — the day before, the previous day

tomorrow — the next day, the following day

this week/month/year — that week/month/year

next week/month/year — the next week/month/year, the following week/month/year

several days/weeks/months ago — several days/weeks/months before

 

1-3-4

相對概念的變化

this — that

these — those

here – there

 

1-3-5

時態的變化

直接引述句改成間接引述句時,時態需要變化,現在是改成過去式,過去式跟現在完成式改成過去完成式,過去完成式不變。助動詞有些可以改成過去式,過去式助動詞跟有些助動詞則不變。

She said, “I watch TV every day.” — She said that she watched TV every day.

She said, “I am watching TV.” — She said that she was watching TV.

She said, “I have watched TV.” — She said that she had watched TV.

She said, “I watched TV.” — She said that she had watched TV.

She said, “I had watched TV.” — She said that she had watched TV.

She said, “I will would TV.” — She said that she would watch TV.

She said, “I am going to watch TV.” — She said that she was going to watch TV.

She said, “I can watch TV.” — She said that she could watch TV.

She said, “I may watch TV.” — She said that she might watch TV.

She said, “I must watch TV.” — She said that she had to watch TV.

She said, “I have to watch TV.” — She said that she had to watch TV.

She said, “I might watch TV.” — She said that she might watch TV.

 

1-3-6

直接引述句改間接引述句時在下面情況下時態不會變化:

a 剛說的話

What did you said?

I said that I am tired. / I said that I was tired.

b 目前還是真實的事

Rick said her wife is still angry.

c 事實,科學的事實

She said that the world is round.

 

1-3-7

當直接引述句的動詞是現在式的時候則引述的時候還是用現在式

She says, “I run a mile every day.”

She says that she runs a mile everyday.

 

 

2 直接引述句改成間接引述句的句型

2-1

直接句

注意 said 單獨使用,但是跟某人說話的時候用 said to someone,或用 told someone. 但是不可以說 said someone (X)

Jon Snow said, “ I’m alive next season.”

Jon Snow said to the policeman that he was alive next season.

Jon Snow told the policeman that he was alive next season.

 

2-2

祈使句

用來表達命令,指示,請求,建議的時候。祈使句本身沒有動詞,接續的時候加上to 再加上祈使句。

直接引述句:S + V, + “祈使句.(V1)”

間接引述句:S + V + to + V1.

The doctor said, “Drink more water.”

The doctor said to drink more water.

“Don’t open the closet!” he said.

He said not to open the closet.

 

2-3

WH 疑問句

直接引述句:S + V, + “WH疑問詞 + 助動詞 + S +(V)…?”

間接引述句:S + V, + WH 疑問句 + S + V….

把直接引述句改成間接引述句時,假如引述的內容是疑問句必須改成直述句,所以必須把放在主詞前面的助動詞,放回後面做適當的變化,改成像名詞子句一般。直述句的話最後面還是用句號。另外疑問句的時 said 要改成 asked。

He said, “What I should do?”

He asked what he should do.

She said, “How do I get to the MRT station?”

She asked how she got to the MRT station.

 

2-4

Yes/No 問句

直接引述句:S + V, + “助動詞 + S + V?”

間接引述句:S + V, + if/whether + S + V.

whether 跟 if 兩者,whether 比較正式,if 比較口語。whether 跟 if 都可以在句子的最後面加上 or not 。whether 可以直接在後面加上 or not ,但是 if 後面不可以直接街 or not。另外介系詞後面不可以加 if ,if 後面不能接不定詞。

She asked, “Is there a café nearby?”

She asked if there was a café nearby.

He asked, “Does Ken need a lift?”

He asked whether Ken needed a lift or not.

 

2-5

感嘆句

直接引述句:S + V, + “助動詞 + S + V?”

間接引述句:S + V, + if/whether + S + V.

She said, “I can’t believe this.”

She said that she couldn’t believe that.

Stacy said, “This is a great concert!”

Stacy said that was a great concert.

 

練習題  把下面直接引述改成間接引述句

  1. Sam said, “I will help you.”
  2. “Do you need a pen?” Ann said.
  3. Yuko asked, “What do you want?”
  4. Mike asked, “Have you seen my grammar book?”
  5. “I may be late,” said Kim.
  6. “The sun rises in the east,” said Mr. Lin.
  7. Pat asked, “Did you enjoy your trip?”
  8. Sue said, “You should work harder.”
  9. Rose asked, “Will you be in class tomorrow?”
  10. James said, “I don’t want to go.”

 

練習完再看答案喔!

 

1 Sam said, “I will help you.”

— Sam said that he would help me.

 

2 “Do you need a pen?” Ann said.

— Ann asked me if I needed a pen.

 

3 Yuko asked, “What do you want?”

— Yuko asked what you wanted.

 

4 Mike asked, “Have you seen my grammar book?”

— Mike asked me whether I had seen his grammar book.

 

5 “I may be late,” said Kim. — Kim said he might be late.

— “The sun rises in the east,” said Mr. Lin.

 

6 Mr. Lin said the sun rises in the east.

— Mr. Lin said the sun rose in the east.

 

7 Pat asked, “Did you enjoy your trip?”

— Pat asked me whether I had enjoyed my trip.

 

8 Sue said, “You should work harder.”

— Sue said I should work harder.

 

9 Rose asked, “Will you be in class tomorrow?”

— Rose asked me if I would be in class the day after.

 

10 James said, “I don’t want to go.”

— James said he didn’t want to go.

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