Past Perfect 過去完成式詳解,與過去簡單式用法的區別

潔西不負責過去完成式的解說與練習(前面先發廢文)

 

昨天已經很傷心了,半夜還跑出去嚇人,現在又很難過啊。兩點左右睡著吧,早上五點又被老爸吵醒,然後就睡不著了。一整個很慌書也看不下,柯南看一下也看不下去,看到小寶昨天問潔西說熊本是不是又有地震?沒錯,潔西查了一下新聞,先前的是前震,昨天半夜七級的地震才是主震,接下來還可能有六度的餘震。剛剛看了一下朝日新聞,看不下去啊,眼淚一直流,震垮的建築物,整座橋崩塌,學生宿舍震毀,機場好像也遭殃,目前已經有不少死者,傷者人數也增加中。還是不要看新聞了,潔西太敏感了,現在。天佑日本。

 

不過一邊看的同時,覺得日本人真的很強,看到熊本所有公用電話都可以免費撥打,另外各機關開放 Wi-Fi 免費使用,還有六十五歲以上的老人可以到免費到全日本的療養機構。應變中心馬上成立,各項支援等等。沒辦法看太多,不過看著看著,想到同樣位於地震帶的台灣,有這樣的應變能力嗎?台灣人會不會危機意識不足?這種避免不了的天災有沒有先做好預先的防範措施跟準備呢?不怕一萬只怕萬一,萬一強震來襲,建築物經得起搖晃嗎?政府機構能夠在短期間組織做出應對嗎?

 

唉,還是別想了。剛剛想說睡個回籠覺,看個新聞就心情沈重到睡不著。再繼續說好了,昨天潔西看學生比賽輸了,心情很差,想說馬上睡覺,就吃了要看個不動腦的柯南準備睡覺。應該直接上床的,但是呢,唉,潔西應該是肚子餓,因為看學生比賽很緊張,所以根本吃不下,晚餐只吃了顆蘋果。所以呢,在夢遊狀態下居然跑去小七買東西,又去嚇店員了。錢包鑰匙都有帶,應該又晃很久,不太記得了,買了 Asahi CLEAR櫻之宴啤酒,其實就是啤酒,只是上面印了櫻花圖案,但是說是烘焙麥芽,精選啤酒花釀造春季限定的啤酒。潔西就最愛喝這種限定的啤酒,從前常喝酒的時候。還買了丹麥的 Somersby Apple Cider 夏日蜜蘋果酒,除了比利時的 Hoegaarden 豪格登,跟一些比利時的水果啤酒外,潔西最喜歡喝的就是夏日蜜蘋酒,連啤酒都喜歡酸酸的,喝起來別有味道。

 

扯好遠,總之又買了手指圈圈餅跟抹茶巧克力棒,回家配柯南,然後居然就喝完啤酒,見鬼了,明明今年幾乎都沒喝酒,而且早就是有時候連一瓶都喝不完,居然還可以喝完兩瓶,早上起來頭痛當然只能怪自己,唉。還有更慘的。無法挽回的事。潔西無意識,恩,該怎麼說了,吃了安眠藥請好好地躺在床上睡覺。不過潔西抗藥性很強,所以躺在床上了睡不著的時候還是會起來做菜出門買東西亂寫訊息這些事,雖然有陣子沒發生了。就是有點像酒喝多了的那種 blackout ,中文叫什麼呢?就你做過什麼事完全沒有印象,或者只有些微的印象。所以呢,所以呢,覺得學生這麼認真努力,潔西還在打混摸魚,所以呢跑去一零四開履歷,寄了一堆求職工作,暈倒,暈倒。不覺得自己準備好了,說不定也都沒下文,覆水難收,就是兵來將擋水來土掩,見招拆招囉。

 

手還是在麻,那天做神經傳導檢查的時候,檢查的檢驗師主動問潔西掛門診了沒,因為沒事通常就不會問?潔西問檢驗師多久可以看報告,檢驗師說三天,很熱心地說三天後就可以去看門診了。有點不好的預感,因為上次做某個檢查的時候,檢驗師也是很熱心地問潔西門診什麼時候看,還推薦醫生給潔西,結果是有個小腫瘤,還好是良性的,年底還要再去複檢。毛病真多,那天看醫生醫生還說,你怎麼吃這麼多藥,厚,潔西也不想吃啊,能不吃當然最好不要吃藥,但是沒有生活品質的生活跟吃藥,總是要選個必要之惡 necessary evil 啊!廢話完畢。居然快中午了,趕快寫寫去睡覺吧,不過感覺很難睡得著啊!

 

上次有寫了現在完成式跟過去簡單式。今天寫的是過去完成式。過去完成式大概是很多人都很棘手的,也真的非常容易錯,現在完成式跟過去完成式兩個使用的時機的不同,什麼時候該用哪一個,過去完成式跟過去簡單式什麼時候該用哪一個?首先一定要把每個時態的句型記清楚。現在完成式 I have eaten lunch. 過去完成式 I had eaten lunch. 過去簡單式 I ate lunch. 肯定句,否定句,疑問句的句型,另外動詞的變化也是很多人弄不清楚的,不規則變化的三態有沒有記熟,最難的是什麼時候該選擇那個句型用。

 

現在完成式跟過去簡單式上次說很多了,今天要說的是過去完成式的用法,還有跟過去簡單式的區別。過去完成式要切記的就是英文的過去完成式一定是用在表達過去一件事情的發生在另外一件過去發生的事之前。也就是過去發生兩件事的時候,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式,主要用動詞的變化來表達時態跟時間的先後順序。但是中文的動詞不會變化,所以很多人會弄不清楚。

 

比方說要說她傷心欲絕因為她男朋友甩了她。假如要說的是她現在很傷心,那麼要用

She is heartbroken because her boyfriend broke up with her.

她現在很傷心用現在簡單式,因為男朋友跟她分手了,所以分手用過去簡單式。

 

但是假如要說的是可能她先前很傷心因為男朋友跟她分手了。

She was heartbroken because her boyfriend had broken up with her.

分手是在傷心前,所以分手用過去完成式,傷心用過去簡單式。

 

其實過去完成式沒有太難,主要就是要用過去完成式的時候一定是用來表示過去完成式的動詞發生在另外一個過去已經發生或結束的事件之前。假如是單純表達過去發生的事就一定不要用過去完成式,用過去簡單式就可以了。時態有時候真的是很難說得清楚的,因為文法是整理人們說的話,寫的文章而出來的規則,並不是先學規則再說話,寫文章。語言是活的,大規則要先記好,遇到規則再一個個去記就比較不會錯。還是老話啊,先把句型,使用時機,動詞變化,常一起搭配的詞記熟,多做題目,確定了解後多閱讀,多聽,多看,看這個時態怎麼用在文章口語會話中,然後自己把它用出來,說的時候稍微想一下,久了就不用想,自然而然就會用了,不過是條有點長的路。加油J

 

 

下面是潔西從參考 Oxford How English Works Oxford Practice Grammar,Oxford Practical English, Longman Grammar Express 等書,自己整理,用很多書裡面的例子,另外有找了一些書裡面的練習題。多看一些例子,多做一些練習,慢慢的會比較有概念喔。 後面的練習題,建議全部看過一遍後再一點一點重看,順便做練習,然後再對答案。不要用看的啦,效果會差很多的,做了有錯要知道自己錯在哪裡,這樣下次就記得了,希望,哈哈。

 

潔西從早上四點寫到中午十二點半,餓死了,恩,其實中間有陸續休息一下,不過這樣也快七千字,也算了一天了,哈哈。所以麻煩除了 Facebook 分享外,請勿任意轉貼轉載,感恩,吃飯去。 Have a nice weekend! 喔,沒力氣檢查了,有發現錯誤請提醒,感激不盡。

 

 

Past Perfect 過去完成式

 

1

Forms: S+had+V3  句型:主詞+had+過去分詞,否定與疑問用 had 改否定與造問句

肯定句:I had forgotten. 我忘了。

否定句:It hadn’t rained for weeks. 兩個星期沒下雨了。

疑問句:Where had she been? 她去了哪裡?

 

2

使用時機

earlier past ————– past ————- now  過去之前 ………過去 ……… 現在

past perfect————–simple past …… now  過去完成 ………過去簡單 ……現在

 

a

過去完成式是用來表達比過去的某段時間在更早一些 (earlier past)。也就是當在談論過去發生的事情時,要表達比那個時間還更早的時間發生的事。讓時間順序清楚地表達。

 

During our conversation, I realized that we had met before.

(NOT I realized that we met before.)

在我們對話的過程中,我發現我們先前見過。

 

在這個句子中 we had met before 我們先前見過面是發生在 I realized 我發現了解到這回事之前。表達過去發生的兩件事時,先發生的事情用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

 

When I arrived at the party, Lucy had already gone home.

(NOT … Lucy already went home OR … has already gone home.)

當我抵達那個派對時,露西已經回家了。

Lucy had already gone home 露西先回家,I arrived at the party 我才抵達派對,可以很清楚的表達事情的先後關係。

 

練習一:把下面括號的句子中的動詞改成過去簡單式或過去完成式

1

Nobody (came) to the meeting because Angela (forget) to tell people about it.

2

They (never find) where he (hide) the money.

3

When she (come) in, we all know where she (be).

4

All the people we (invite) turned up, and some that we (not invite)

5

Because he (not check) the oil for so long, the car (break) down.

 

 

b

過去完成式也常用在表達過去的想法或意見如有 said, talked, thought, wondered 等句子中所陳述的發生事情,這些事件是發生在表達想法或意見之前。

 

I told her that I had finished.

(NOT … I had finished.)

我告訴她我已經完成了。

(過去告訴她,但是那之前就已經完成了。)

 

I wondered who had left the door open.

我在想是誰把門開著沒關。

(我在想的時候們已經先是開著了的。)

 

I thought I had sent the check a week before.

我以為我在一個星期前已經把支票寄出。

(寄支票先,後思考。通常 I thought 用在實際上時沒做的時候。)

 

 

c

過去完成式會用在假設語氣中跟過去事實相反的假設,假設語氣可以分跟現在或未來可能成真的假設,跟現在事實相反的假設,還有一個就是跟過去事實相反,沒有發生的假設,多半有那種早知如此,當初應該怎麼怎麼做的那種意思。這個句型 if 帶領的假設子句 會用 if + S + had + V3 (if+主詞+had+過去分詞),而主要子句會用 S + would/could/should + have + V3 (主詞+would/could/should+have+過去分詞)

 

If I had gone to university, I would have studied medicine.

假如當初我有去唸大學,我會念醫藥系。

(If帶領的子句 If I had gone to university 用的是過去完成式,表達過去假如有去唸大學的話,也就是過去沒有去唸大學。而主要子句 I would have studied medicine 我有唸的話我會念醫藥系,但是因為沒有念,所以也沒有念醫藥系。)

 

I wish you had told me the truth.

我真希望你當初有跟我說實話。

(wish後面跟著是跟事實相反的假設,這邊因為去過去沒跟我說時話,所以跟過去事實相反的假設 you had told me the truth 用的是過去完成式。)

 

I’d rather she had asked me before borrowing the car.

我真希望她當初再借車前有先問過我。

(would rather 有寧願的意思,更希望…的意思。這裡 she had asked me before borrowing the car 就表示過去她借車的時候沒有先問過我,所以是跟過去事實相反的假設。)

 

 

d

過去完成式跟 it was the first/second/only … that … 連用。跟現在完成式的用法雷同,不過說的是過去第一次/第二次/唯一一次等什麼事情發生,that 後面用的是過去完成式。

 

It was the first time that I had seen the movie.

(NOT … that I saw)

那是我第一次看那部電影。

(因為說第一次是在過去,而看電影又是在那之前,所以 that 後面用現在完成式,不可以用過去簡單式。)

 

It was only the second opera I had seen in my life.

(NOT … I saw …)

那是我一輩子中第二次看歌劇。

 

That was the only time he had fired a gun.

(NOT … he … fire)

那是他第一次使用槍枝。

 

 

e

過去完成式用在表達過去持續發生的狀態,一直到過去的某個時間點為止。這時不可以用過去簡單式。

 

She told me that her father had been ill since Christmas.

(NOT She told me that her father was ill since Christmas.)

她告訴我她的父親從聖誕節開始就一直生病。)

 

I was sorry to sell my car. I had had it since college.

(NOT I was sorry to sell my car. I had it since college.)

我賣掉車子很遺憾。我從大學就擁有那台車了。

 

When they got married, they had known each other for 15 years.

(NOT When they got married, they knew each other for 15 years.)

當他們結婚的時候,他們已經認識十五年了。

 

 

f

過去完成式常用在 when, after, as soon as 連接詞等後面,表達某件事完全完成了,結束了(completely finished)。

 

When he had painted the kitchen and bathroom, he decided to have a rest.

當他油漆完廚房跟浴室的時候,他決定休息一下。

(廚房跟浴室已經都漆好了用過去完成式,在那之後決定休息一下,用過去簡單式。)

 

After I had finished the report, I realized that it was too late to post it.

當我完成報告後,我發現已經太晚來不及寄了。

(報告已經全部完成了用過去完成式,後來才發現太晚了用過去簡單式。)

 

As soon as he had finished his exams, he went to Paris for a month.

他一考完試,就去巴黎一個月。

(考試已經考完了用過去完成式,在那之後去巴黎用過去簡單式。)

 

練習二:用 when 或 after 連接兩個句子,並用適當的時態完成句子

1

I wrote to my boyfriend. Then I watched television for an hour or so.

2

Everybody had a chance to say what they thought. Then we took a vote.

3

I posted the letter. Then I felt much better about everything.

4

She stopped trying to lose weight. She looked much healthier.

5

He bought presents for everyone in his family. Then he bought something for himself as well.

 

 

g

在使用 after, as soon as, once這些連接詞時,假如一件事情是緊接著另外一件事情發生時,通常會用過去簡單式而不用過去完成式。

 

After it got dark, we came back inside.

天一黑,我們就進去裡面。

 

As soon as Jane arrived, we sat down to eat.

一當珍抵達的時候,我們就坐下來吃飯。

 

Once it stopped raining, we started the game again.

雨一停,我們就再次開始比賽。

 

上面皆是一個動作接著一個動作,但是假如是像上面 e 的狀況,兩個動作是分開的,一件事情完全完成後,再發生另外一件事的話,就必須要過去完成式。

 

She didn’t feel the same after her dog had died.

她的狗死後,她覺得一切都變了。

(兩個為分開的獨立事件。)

 

After Mary had done all the shopping, she took a short walk round the park.

在瑪麗完成所有的採購後,她在公園四周散步。

(兩個分開的獨立事件。)

 

 

h

在使用 before, until 這些連接詞的時候,因為語意很明顯,所以先發生的事可以用過去完成式,也可以用過去簡單式,語意上沒有不同。

 

The man arrived at the store before it had opened.

The man arrived at the store before it opened.

那個男人在店開門前就到了。

 

The chairman didn’t speak until he had heard the arguments.

The chairman didn’t speak until he heard the arguments.

主席在他聽到爭執前並沒有發言。

 

 

i

when 有幾個不同的用法,所以在使用 when 的時候需要很清楚地表達出動詞的時態,有時候時態不同會有不同的意思。

 

When I had opened the windows, I sat down and had a cup of tea.

(NOT When I opened the windows, I sat down…)

當我把窗戶打開後,我坐下來喝杯茶。

(先打開窗戶,再坐下來,兩個是分開的動作。)

 

When I opened the window, the cat jumped out.

當我把窗戶打開後,貓咪跳了出去。

(這裡是兩個連接的動作,前面的動作造成後面的動作,所以兩個都用過去簡單式,會比 When I had opened the window, the cat jumped out. 這樣子來得自然。

 

When I had written my letters, I did some gardening.

(NOT When I wrote my letters, I did some gardening.)

當我寫完信後,我做些園藝的工作。

(兩個分開的事件,所以先發生用過去完成式。)

 

When I wrote to her, she came at once.

我寫信給她,她馬上就來了。

(兩個動作有前因後果,是連續的,所以都用過去簡單式。)

 

特別注意下面的句子的語意的不同

 

When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

當我打開電視的後,節目開始了。我剛好趕上。

(先開電視,節目才演,兩個都用過去簡單式。)

 

When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I missed the beginning.

當我打開電視時,節目以應開始了。我錯過前面。

(節目先開始,用的是過去完成式,表達先發生的動作。再打開電視,是後發生的動作,所以用過去簡單式。)

 

When I arrived at the train station, the train left.

我到火車站後,火車開了。

(先到火車站,火車才開,有趕上。)

 

When I arrived at the train station, the train had left.

當我到火車站的時候,火車已經開了。

(火車先開,我才到,沒有趕上。)

 

 

j

只是單存說一件過去發生的事,或是對於現在的狀態給一個過去的理由時,不可以用過去完成式,要用過去簡單式。

 

Alex Cary, who worked for my father in 1980s, is now living in Greece.

(NOT Alex Cary, who had worked for my father in 1980s, is now living in Greece.)

艾力克斯蓋瑞,在八零年代幫我父親工作,現在住在希臘。

(單純說過去發生的事,不可以用過去完成式。)

 

I left some photos to be developed. Are they ready yet?

(NOT I had left some photos to be developed.)

我先前留了一些要沖洗的底片。他們好了嗎?

(先前留的,現在好了嗎?不可以用過去完成式。)

 

練習三:閱讀下面每題的句子,在每題的後面有一個句子,判斷根據前面的句子,陳述的句子是正確的 True 還是錯誤的 False

 

1

When I got home, “The Oprah Winfrey Show” started.

_____ Frist the Oprah show started. The I got home.

 

2

When I got home, “The Oprah Winfrey Show” had started.

_____ Frist the Oprah show started. The I got home.

 

3

Oprah’s guest had lost 100 pounds when she interviewed him.

_____ The guest lost the weight before the interview.

 

  1. By the end of the show, I had fallen asleep.

_____ I fell asleep after the show.

 

  1. When I went to bed, I had turned off the radio.

_____ I turned off the radio after I went to bed.

 

6

By midnight, I had finished the magazine article.

_____ I finished the article before midnight.

 

 

練習四:改錯。下面文章六個有關過去完成式的錯誤,找到錯誤並改正。

Oprah Winfrey is an amazing person! By the time she was twelve, she has already decided on a career. Not long afterward, she got her first radio job. Although she hadn’t have any experience, she became a news reporter. When she got her own TV talk show, she has already acted in a major Hollywood movie. By the late 1980s “Oprah Winfrey” had became a household word. Then in 1994 she decided to improve the quality of talk-show themes. She also made a personal change. She had always had a weight problem, but in 1995 TV viewers saw a new Winfrey. She had losed almost ninety pounds as a result of dieting and working out. She had also compete in a marathon. She has really been an inspiration to many people.

 

 

 

練習一:把下面括號的句子中的動詞改成過去簡單式或過去完成式

1

Nobody (came) to the meeting because Angela (forget) to tell people about it.

Nobody came to the meeting because Angela had forgotten to tell people about it.

沒有人來開會因為安琪拉忘記跟大家說了。

 

2

They (never find) where he (hide) the money.

They never found where he had hidden the money.

他們始終沒有找到他把錢藏在哪裡。

 

3

When she (come) in, we all know where she (be).

When she came in, we all know where she had been.

當她進來的時候,我們都知道她去了哪裡。

 

4

All the people we (invite) turned up, and some that we (not invite)

All the people we had invited turned up, and some we hadn’t invited.

我們邀請的所有的人都到了,也有些是我們沒有邀請的人。

 

5

Because he (not check) the oil for so long, the car (break) down.

Because he hadn’t checked the oil for so long, the car broke down.

因為他太久沒有檢查汽油了,他的車子壞掉了。

 

 

練習二:用 when 或 after 連接兩個句子,並用適當的時態完成句子

1

I wrote to my boyfriend. Then I watched television for an hour or so.

When/After I had written to my boyfriend, I watched television for an hour or so.

我寫信給我男朋友後,我看了一個小時左右的電視。

 

2

Everybody had a chance to say what they thought. Then we took a vote.

When/After everybody had had a chance to say what they thought, we took a vote.

在每個人都有機會說出他們的想法後,我們投票表決。

 

3

I posted the letter. Then I felt much better about everything.

When/After I had posted the letter, I felt much better about everything.

在我把信寄出去後,我對所有的事情都覺得好多了。

 

4

She stopped trying to lose weight. She looked much healthier.

After she had stopped trying to lose weight, she looked much healthier.

在她不再試著減肥後,她看起來健康多了。

 

5

He bought presents for everyone in his family. Then he bought something for himself as well.

When/After he had bought presents for everyone in his family, he bought something for himself as well.

在他買完禮物給他所有的家人後,他也買了東西給他自己。

 

 

練習三:閱讀下面每題的句子,在每題的後面有一個句子,判斷根據前面的句子,陳述的句子是正確的 True 還是錯誤的 False

 

1

When I got home, “The Oprah Winfrey Show” started.

我回到家後,歐普拉秀才開始。

_____ Frist the Oprah show started. Then I got home.

錯誤 首先歐普拉秀開始。然後我回到家。

 

2

When I got home, “The Oprah Winfrey Show” had started.

當我回到家的時候,歐普拉秀已經開始了。

_____ Frist the Oprah show started. The I got home.

正確 首先歐普拉秀開始。然後我回到家。

 

3

Oprah’s guest had lost 100 pounds when she interviewed him.

當歐普拉訪問來賓時,歐普拉的來賓已經瘦了一百磅。

_____ The guest lost the weight before the interview.

正確  來賓再來訪問之前已經瘦了一百磅。

 

  1. By the end of the show, I had fallen asleep.

在節目結束前,我已經睡著了。

_____ I fell asleep after the show.

錯誤  我在節目結束後睡著了。

 

  1. When I went to bed, I had turned off the radio.

我上床以前,我已經把收音機關掉了。

_____ I turned off the radio after I went to bed.

錯誤  我上床後才關掉收音機。

 

6

By midnight, I had finished the magazine article.

到了午夜的時候,我已經看完雜誌的文章了。

_____ I finished the article before midnight.

正確  我在午夜前的時候就看完文章了。

 

 

練習四:改錯。下面文章六個有關過去完成式的錯誤,找到錯誤並改正。

Oprah Winfrey is an amazing person! By the time she was twelve, she had already decided on a career. Not long afterward, she got her first radio job. Although she hadn’t had any experience, she became a news reporter. When she got her own TV talk show, she had already acted in a major Hollywood movie. By the late 1980s “Oprah Winfrey” had become a household word. Then in 1994 she decided to improve the quality of talk-show themes. She also made a personal change. She had always had a weight problem, but in 1995 TV viewers saw a new Winfrey. She had lost almost ninety pounds as a result of dieting and working out. She had also competed in a marathon. She has really been an inspiration to many people.

 

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