基礎文法L1 現在簡單式與現在進行式 + 現在簡單式與現在完成式

回答網友的問題的時候突然發現,啊,基礎文法第一課忘記放上來了,所以順便放一下:)

A: What movie are you going to see? 你打算看哪一部電影?

B: 我還沒決定。

1. B: I haven’t decided yet.
2. B: I don’t decide yet.

答案應該選 1 還是 2 呢?想一想,或者念念看覺得哪一個比較順呢?

第一個答案是現在完成式,第二個答案是現在簡單式,哪一個正確呢?

中文的用法跟英文很不同,多半是用時間來表達時態,我昨天買一本書,我今天買一本書,我明天買一本書,我每天買一本書,把時間改掉,就可以表達不同時間。可是英文的話,時態的變化不單只有時間副詞,更重要的是動詞的變化,沒有適當的動詞變化的話,即便有時間副詞,有時候還是無法表達清楚真正的意思,也會常常造成誤解。

有些同學常常不管什麼時態的表達,通通會用動詞的原型,也就是現在簡單式,有時候加上時間可以理解,但是有時候會令人不知道究竟要表達的是什麼。比方說下面的句子。

I buy a book today. (X)

這句子中文看起來是對的,很多人也會這麼說,我今天買一本書,但是在英文是錯的。為什麼?因為英文的現在簡單式,句型是主詞加動詞的原型 ,多半用來表達一個事實或者是一個經常性的動作或習慣等等。

a. 事實
The Sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 太陽從東邊升起西邊落下。

b. 經常性動作或習慣
I work from 9 to 5. 我朝九晚五。(我工作時間從早上九點到下午五點)
I play basketball in my free time. 我有空時打籃球。

所以假如用現在簡單式
I buy a book today. (X) 這個句子是錯的,也看不出來書究竟買了沒。

I buy a book 表示我經常買書,可能是我每天或每星期或每個月這種固定的習慣。

I buy a book once a week. 我一個星期買一本書。這個句子就是正確的

假如要表達今天已經買了一本書,英文要用過去簡單式
I bought a book today.

假如要表達今天打算買一本書,英文要用未來簡單式
I’m going to buy a book today.

那現在完成式呢?現在完成式有點複雜,很多同學都會用錯。現在完成式的句型是主詞加上have/has再加上動詞的第三個變化過去分詞。不但要背清楚動詞的第三態的過去分詞,最難的是使用的時機,什麼時候才要用現在完成式呢?

現在完成式可以用來表達經驗,變化,成就,打算做但還未完成的動作,一段期間做過的重複動作,發生在過去的狀態一直延續到現在,過去不確定時間發生的事,但與現在相關。還有很多文法書上沒有寫出來的,所以真的是要靠多做題目,多觀察看究竟是什麼時候用,用在什麼地方。下面是一些例子

a. 經驗
I have been to Japan. 我去過日本。
I have had red wine. 我喝過紅酒。

b. 變化
Her English has improved since she moved to Australia. 她的英文變好了,自從她搬到澳洲去後。

c. 成就
My son has learned how to read. 我兒子學會閱讀。

d. 打算做但還未完成的動作
Bill has still not arrived. 比爾還沒到。
I haven’t finished my homework yet. 我還沒做完作業。

e. 一段期間重複動作
I have had five cups of coffee today. 我今天喝了五杯咖啡。

f. 發生在過去的狀態一直延續到現在
They have lived in Taipei since they were born. 他們從一出生就住在臺北。

g. 過去不確定時間發生的事,但與現在相關
I have seen that movie. 我看過那部電影了。 發生在過去,但時間不重要,重要的可能是我看過了,所以我現在不想再看一次。

說了半天,這樣答案有出來了嗎?

A: What movie are you going to see? 你打算看哪一部電影?
1. B: I haven’t decided yet.
2. B: I don’t decide yet.

不會選2,因為做決定不是個事實,也不是個習慣性經常性的動作,所以要選1。我還沒有決定。可以想做是上面的d或g,或者有時候把它當作一個慣用法來記。我還沒決定就用I haven’t decided. 我已經決定了 I have decided. 是在過去做的決定,但跟現在有關,所以用現在完成式,否定就用I haven’t decided.

怎麼說的這麼複雜啊!沒辦法啊,時態的東西很難三兩句說完的。有些人說學好英文時態不重要,文法不重要,恩,絕對不對啊,假如你不學好幾個基本的時態,你在溝通的時候很容易出問題啊。所以時態是值得好好花點時間把它弄懂的。

可以上去部落格的Search… 搜尋的地方打入想要練習的時態,下面放現在簡單式跟現在完成式的聯結,基礎文法的講義說的比較清楚,也有一些例題,多練習一定有幫助的。Good luck and have a good weekend 

基礎文法L1 現在簡單式與現在進行式            Jessie Lin   P.1

                       

想要把文法學好,第一個要把詞性弄清楚。每個英文字都歸屬於一個或多個詞性,隨著詞性的不同,它的用法,位置,與修飾的對象都會有差別。

A. 翻譯練習

把下面這兩個句子翻譯成英文,注意中文跟英文的字詞排列順序是不一樣的喔!

1. 我跟我弟總是在星期天下午到公園打籃球。

2. 林書豪的籃球打得很好,他是一個很棒的NBA球員。

B. 詞性練習

英文句子的基本句型一般的順序是主詞+動詞+受詞+地點+時間。試著把上面的句子中每個字的詞性都找出來。

  1. 動詞verb(v)
  2. 名詞noun(n)
  3. 代名詞pronoun(pron)
  4. 形容詞adjective(adj)
  5. 副詞adverb(adv)
  6. 連接詞conjunction(conj)
  7. 介系詞preposition(prep)
  8. 感歎詞interjection(interj)

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1                Jessie Lin   P.2

C. 八大詞類( the parts of speech)            

學到一個新單字的時候要先注意它的詞性與每個詞性的用法。每個英文單字都可以歸類為英文的八大詞類之一。同一個字可能有好幾種不同的詞性。如: Loveis in the air. 與 I love you. 這兩個句子中love 分別是名詞與動詞。同一個字的詞性不同時,意義也可能不同。如:在The exam was really hard.中這個句子的hard是形容詞,表示困難的。work hard, play hard這個片語的hard是副詞,表示程度上很努力地做某事。所以記單字時要一併把詞性記住才能寫出與說出正確的句子。

八個詞性分別是動詞,名詞,代名詞,形容詞,副詞,連接詞,介系詞跟感歎詞。

1. 動詞 Verb:

用來描述一個動作或狀態的字。在英文當中可說是最重要也最困難的。一般放在主詞的後面。英文用動詞來表達時態,主動被動。動詞主要分三種。

a. 行為動詞:用來表達主詞的行為或動作。又可分

(a.)不及物動詞 intransitive verb

不及物動詞表達主詞所作的動作,後面不需要受詞。

Time flies.

Time flies when you’re having fun.

My father shaves.

My father shaves every morning before he goes to work.

(b.)及物動詞 transitive verb

及物動詞把主詞的動作轉移到另外一個名詞,也就是受詞的身上,所

以及物動詞後面一定有一個接受動作的受詞。

He bought a diamond engagement ring.

He bought a diamond engagement ring for his girlfriend last night.

Tim ate three hamburgers.

Tim ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

b. 連綴動詞 linking verb

連綴動詞經常用來表達狀態,或一些小動作。連綴動詞把主詞動詞後面

的主詞補語連接在一起。主詞補語通常是名詞或形容詞。主詞補語為名

詞時,會等於主詞。主詞補語為形容詞是用來修飾主詞。

I feel sick.

My mother is a housewife.

You look tired.

c. 助動詞 auxiliary verb

助動詞與主要動詞合併起來成為一個動詞片語,用來表達時態或語態等。

The band is coming to Taiwan next month.

He didn’t go to school yesterday.

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.3

  1. 動詞: 動詞的四個面貌:動詞依時態不同會有不同的面貌
  1. Present (V1) 動詞原型: I work from nine to five.
  2. Past (V2) 動詞過去式: I worked late last night.
  3. Past Participle (V3) 動詞過去分詞: I have worked hard.
  4. Present Participle (V-ing) 動詞現在分詞: I am working now.
  1. 名詞 (nouns):名詞用來表達人、事、物、地等。英文句子的構成要件就是主詞跟動詞。名詞用來當主詞、受詞與補語。名詞當主詞時放在句首,當受詞與補語時放在動詞後面。主詞一定要是名詞,所以當要表達的字是動詞時,必須把動詞加上ing成為動名詞或加上不定詞to。名詞可以接在其他詞類後形成片語。只有形容詞才可以用來修飾名詞。

如:Peter, Taipei, table, truth..等。

Albert is a nice guy.

Barack Obama is the current President of the United States.

Baking and swimming are my hobbies.

  1. 代名詞 (pronouns):是用來取代名詞的字。前面已經提過的名詞或是說話的人彼此都知道的名詞都可用代名詞代替。主要是避免重複。用法與主詞雷同。

如:you, him, herself, everyone, this, which, what…等。

Will you give me your name and phone number?

My father is very tall. He’s one meter 85.

  1. 形容詞 (adjectives):用來形容、描述、說明一個名詞或代名詞。形容詞多放在修飾的名詞前或放在連綴動詞後。形容詞有正面的形容詞,負面的形容詞,有比較級,有最高級。

如:hot, Taiwanese, her, that, some, whose…

The most popular Taiwanese drink is probably pearl milk tea.

The coffee tastes bitter.

  1. 副詞 (adverbs):用來修飾動詞、形容詞,副詞,或整個句子,表達程度,次數,頻率等等。副詞不可以修飾名詞。副詞的移動性很高,常放在動詞後,形容詞前,也可放句首或句尾。不同的副詞按照強調的部分不同,可放不同地方,意義也會有所不同。頻率副詞多放一般動詞前,be動詞後。

如:always, usually, sometimes, quickly, late, very…等。

Fortunately, she won the lottery.

It’s appropriate not to take your shoes off at the door.

It’s not appropriate to take your shoes off at the door.

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.4

  1. 連接詞 (conjunctions):用來連接單字 (words)、片語 (phrases)或子句 (clauses)。注意連接詞所連接的詞性必須一致。
  1. 對等連接詞 coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, yet, so
  2. 從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunctions: if, before, because, when
  3. 關係連接詞 correlative conjunctions: either…or, neither…nor, both…and, whether…or, not only…but also

He’s the kind of person you either love or hate.

Although John was sick, he still went to work.

It was raining but they still went to the park.

  1. 介係詞 (prepositions):用來表達兩件事物的關係,如位置、方向、空間、時間或因果等。後面一定要加名詞或代名詞結合成介係詞片語。

如:about, around, in, on under, of, under, with, between, for… 等。

He arrived in London on Sunday morning.

I get up at 7 o’clock from Monday to Friday.

  1. 感嘆詞 (interjections):用來表達強烈的情緒或驚訝。

如:oh, wow, yeah, ouch…等。

Oh! I didn’t know that was you.

Wow! It’s unbelievable.

閱讀下列短文,寫出每個詞性的前三個字,不要重複。

Tom thinks Mary is wonderful. He loves her madly, and he dreams of marrying her, but unfortunately he is too old for her. Today they are at a café with their friends Mandy and Jack, so Tom can’t get romantic with Mary.

  1. 動詞verb:
  2. 名詞noun:
  3. 代名詞pronoun:
  4. 形容詞adjective:
  5. 副詞adverb:
  6. 連接詞conjunction:
  7. 介系詞preposition:

 

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.5                                  

D. 現在簡單式Simple Present

英文共有十二個時態。學習每一個時態時要記住下列幾點。

一,使用時機,什麼時候該用這個時態,二,句型,每個時態的句型的肯定句,否定句,Yes/No問句,WH問句,時態句型的變化主要在動詞,同時也要記住該句型所使用的是哪個助動詞。三,常見副詞,有些副詞常常會跟著這個句型一起出現,記住了有助於正確使用時態。四,動詞變化,不同時態的動詞變化需要加s,加ed,還是加ing等。

一、      現在簡單式的使用時機

現在簡單式多用在表達日常生活的習慣,事實,真理等。

現在簡單式的句型可細分為一般動詞與be動詞兩種句型。每個英文句子都要有主詞跟動詞,所以當描述現在的事實狀態時,假如句子沒有一般動詞,有名詞,形容詞,介系詞片語,副詞等時,則需要有現在簡單式的be,也就是am, is, are。

 

  1. 習慣性動作 habitual actions

He usually gets up at 6.30.

  1. 永久性狀態 permanent state

I don’t like beef.

  1. 永恆性事實 eternal truths

Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.

  1. 感覺,感情或信仰的動詞verbs of perception, emotion, and belief

I believe in God.

  1. 未來的時刻表 future with timetables, programs, etc.

The movie starts at 7.30 p.m.

  1. 假設語氣的副詞子句 conditional

If it rains, I’ll stay at home.

二、      () 現在簡單式的一般動詞的句型

一般動詞的句型只要在主詞後面加一般動詞。當主詞是第三人稱單數,也就是任何可以用he/she/it代替的主詞時,需要在動詞後面加s。否定句跟疑問句需要助動詞do/does來幫忙。第三人稱單數用does,其他用do。

第一人稱單數I (I永遠大寫)

第二人稱單數you

第三人稱單數he/she/it (my father/his mother/our dog/her best friend)

第一人稱複數we

第二人稱複數you (you單複數同形)

第三人稱複數they

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.6

現在簡單式的一般動詞的句型

  1. 肯定句   Affirmative

主詞+動詞原型

S  + V1

I       ride a bicycle.

You   take a bus.

He   drives a car.

She   rides a scooter.

It     sleeps.

We   walk.

You   take the MRT.

They   take the train.

  1. 否定句 Negative

否定句需要有助動詞do/does來幫忙,把don’t/doesn’t放在一般動詞前面。

主詞+助動詞 + not   +動詞原型

S   +   do/does not         + V1

I         do not (don’t)     eat beef.

You       do not            like Japanese food.

He         does not (doesn’t)   drink coffee.

She       does not            cook.

It         does not            work.

We         do not            get up early.

You         do not            sleep for eight hours.

They       do not            play mahjong.

  1. Yes/No 問句 Yes/No question

造問句需要有助動詞do, does來幫忙。把助動詞放在主詞前面造問句。

助動詞   +主詞   +動詞原型

Do/Does  +  S       +  V1

Do             I         work hard?

Do         you       play basketball?

Does       he         go bowling?

Does       she       watch sports on TV?

Does       it         have fun?

Do         we         go jogging?

Do         you       do yoga?

Do         they       play sports?

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.7

  1. WH問句 WH question

WH問句也需要助動詞do/does來幫忙造問句。句型是把則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞、主詞、動詞,其他的部份

WH疑問詞+   助動詞   +主詞+動詞+(其他部分)?

WH           +    do/does    +   S     +     V1               ?

What 問什麼,可以跟其他的字組合來問不同問題

What do you do in your free time? I play online games in my free time.

What do you think of Korean dramas? I think it’s very interesting.

What kind of food does Lisa like?   She likes Indian food.

Where 問地點  

Where do you live?   I live in Tucheng.

Where do you go to school? I go to National Taiwan University.

Where does your father work? He works in a bank.

When 問時間

When do you exercise? I exercise every Monday and Wednesday.

When do you visit your parents? I visit my parents on big holidays.

When does Peter go on vacation? He goes on vacation in August.

Why 問理由

Why do you study English?

I study English because it’s an international language.

Why do you like Thai food? Because I lived in Thailand when I was a child.

Why does your father work in China? Because the pay is better.

Who問誰

Who do you live with? I live with my coworkers.

Who do you play badminton with? I paly badminton with my sister.

Who does Mary work for? She works for her aunt.

How 問如何

How often do you get a haircut? I get a haircut twice a year.

How long do you use the computer every day?

I use the computer for four or five hours.

How much does the dress cost? It costs NT$2,500.

特別注意當疑問詞what或who當主詞時,則不需要助動詞,而且動詞應用第三人稱單數。

What makes your happy? Helping people makes me happy.

Who cooks dinner for you? My dad cooks dinner for me.

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.8

三、現在簡單式的副詞如:every day, every week, once a week, twice a month, three times a year, always, usually, often, sometimes, seldom, never…等。

四、現在簡單式拼字與發音規則

英文在表達現在簡單式時,當主詞為第三人稱單數(任何可以用he、she、it代替的名詞)時,動詞後面要加s。加s的拼字與發音規則如下。

拼字規則

  1. 大部分的動詞在字尾加s。

talk-talks, learn-learns, read-reads, get-gets

  1. 當動詞字尾是sh, ch, ss, x, z時,則加es。

wash-washes, watch-watches, kiss-kisses, fix-fixes, buzz-buzzes

  1. 當動詞字尾為子音加y時,需將y去掉,加ies。

study-studies, cry-cries, fly-flies, try-tries

  1. 當動詞字尾為母音加y時,則只要加s,即可。

say-says, play-plays, pray-prays, pay-pays

  1. 有幾個特別的變化需記住。

have-has, do-does, go-goes

發音規則

  1. 當動詞字尾是無聲子音如/f/, /k/, /p/, /t/, 時,加s後,應讀做/s/。

laugh-laughs, cook-cooks, stop-stops, meet-meets

  1. 當動詞字尾是有聲子音如/d/, /n/, /l/, /v/ 等或母音時,加s後,應讀做/z/。

read-reads, learn-learns, sell-sells, live-lives, know-knows, see-sees

  1. 當動詞字尾為/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, / dʒ/時,加s後,應讀做/ɪz/時。要注意的是,發音時看的是最後一個音,而非最後一個字母,如dance就是這一類。

miss-misses, buzz-buzzes, wish-wishes, match-matches, judge-judges,

英文字母的母音(vowels)為a, e, i, o, u,其餘為子音(consonants)。

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, /ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/,

/ aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

1. save _______ 2. work ______ 3. notice ________ 4. try  _______

5. teach _______ 6. start ______ 7. buy ________ 8. fix  ________

9. have________  10. finish_______

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1               Jessie Lin   P.9

() 現在簡單式be動詞的句型

現在簡單是的be動詞有三個,am, is, are。I後面永遠接am,he, she, it或其他第三人稱單數永遠接is,we, they are或其他複數則接are。

1. 肯定句

   主詞+現在式be動詞+名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

S + am/is/are      + noun/adjective/preposition

I       am          a teacher.

You       are          a student.

He       is          thirsty.

She       is          hungry.

It         is          pretty.

We       are          at home.

You       are         in a good mood.

They     are        on the bus

  1. 否定句 : 英文句子改否定跟疑問時都需要助動詞,be本身就是助動詞。所以否定句只要在be後面加not。is與not可以縮寫成isn’t,are與not可以縮寫成aren’t。但是am跟not不可以縮寫。

S + am/is/are + not +       noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

I       am       not        a Japanese teacher.

You     are       not (aren’t)   busy.

He     is       not (isn’t)    in the living room.

She     is       not          a model.

It       is       not          new.

We     are       not          from Japan.

You     are       not          helpful.

They     are      not          over 18 years old.

3. Yes/No 問句 :英文句子疑問時要把助動詞放到主詞前面,be本身就是個助動詞。所以yes/no問句只要把be放在主詞前面就可以造問句

Am/Is/Are +   S       +   noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

Am            I           late?

Are          you           the only child?

Is            he           sick?

Is            she           friendly?

Is           it           broken?

Are         we           loud?

Are           you           American?

Are         they         engineers?

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.10

4. WH問句: 英文的疑問詞大致有what, where, when, why, who, how。把WH疑問詞放最前面再放be、主詞與其他部分就可造WH問句。

WH   be1 + S +   ( noun/ adjective / preposition phrase)

What 問什麼

What is your favorite color?   My favorite color is blue.

What is that on the table?   It is my new cell phone.

What day is it?   It’s Tuesday.

Where 問地點

Where am I?   You are in the hospital.

Where is your father?   He is in the bathroom.

Where are my books?   They are under the table.

When 問時間

When is your birthday? It is January 1st.

When is the party?   It is on Saturday.

When is the library open? It is open at 9 a.m.

Why 問理由

Why are you so happy? It is my birthday today.

Why is he late? He overslept.

Why are they sleepy? They got up early.

Who問誰

Who is he?   He is my brother.

Who is Lisa? She is the new assistant.

Who is in the bathroom? Tom is in the bathroom.

How 問如何

How are you? I am fine. Thank you.

How long is the movie? It is about two hours.

How tall are you? I’m 1 meter 65.

特別Who 與What 這兩個疑問詞可以當主詞,只要把be放在疑問詞後即可

Who is there? That is my friend.

What is on the table? It is Tom’s new toy.

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.11

E. 現在進行式Present Progressive         

一、使用時機

  1. 現在發生暫時性的動作temporary actions happening now

I’m calling from work.

  1. 重複性的動作,但是暫時性的狀態repeated actions, but not a permanent

state

He’s having driving lessons.

  1. 有always的討厭的習慣 irritating habits with “always”

You’re always losing your keys.

  1. 未來的安排 future arrangement

Sam is getting married next year.

二、現在進行式的句型

1. 肯定句:主詞+現在式be動詞+動詞-ing

S +   am/is/are   +   V1-ing

I       am             cooking.

You     are           dancing.

He      is             working.

She       is             singing.

It       is              sleeping.

We       are             having fun.

You       are             crying.

They     are             talking.

2. 否定句只要在現在式be動詞am/is/are後面加not,即可

否定句  S + am/is/are + not +   V1-ing

I         am     not     eating.

You       are       not     listening.

He         is       not     writing.

She       is       not     reading.

It         is         not     barking.

We         are       not     shopping.

You       are       not     drinking.

They       are       not     swimming.

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.12

3. Yes/No 問句則把現在式be動詞am/is/are放在主詞前面造問句

Am/Is/Are + S +       V1-ing

Am     I               dreaming?

Are     you             taking a bus?

Is       he               coming?

Is       she              walking?

Is       it               sitting?

Are     we               winning?

Are     you             playing?

Are     they             losing?

4. WH問句將WH疑問詞放在最前面再放現在式be動詞am/is/are、主詞與動詞-ing

WH      am/is/are + S +   V1-ing

Why       am          I         crying?

What     are         you       doing?

When       is           he         coming?

Who       is           she       talking to?

Where     is           it         sleeping?

How      are         we         getting there?

Who       are         you       waiting for?

Why       are         they       standing?

what跟who當疑問主詞的時候,只要把助動詞跟其他部分加在疑問詞後即可。

What is going on?

Who is making that noise?

三、現在進行式的副詞如:now, at the moment, immediately, right away, right now, these days, this year, this week…等等。

 

  

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.13

  1. 現在進行式Present Progressive            

四、現在進行式拼字規則

英文動詞的變化大致有下列四種。

  1. 第一個是動詞原型V1,也就是在字典中查到的字典型如eat。用在現在簡單式,但是第三人稱單數的現在簡單式要加s,如eat, eats。
  2. 第二種是過去式時使用的第二態V2,動詞可分規則動詞與不規則動詞,規則動詞加ed,如cooked,不規則則需牢記,如ate。
  3. 第三態又叫過去分詞V3,用在完成式與被動。一樣分規則變化與不規則變化兩種。規則變化則加ed,與第二態過去式一樣,如cooked。不規則的第三態與過去式V2有時相同,有時不同,也需牢記,如eaten。
  4. 第四種是現在分詞,也就是動詞後面加ing,用在進行式。不規則動詞的三態變化可以在字典中查到,需要牢記。

英文在表達進行式時,動詞後面要加ing。加ing的拼字規則如下。

  1. 大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ing。

work-working, help-helping, call-calling, wash-washing

  1. 動詞字尾為e時,必須去掉e加ing。

live-living, hope-hoping, dance-dancing, smile-smiling

  1. 動詞字尾為ie時,必須去掉ie加ying。

lie-lying, die-dying, tie-tying

  1. 一個音節的動詞最後三個字母為子音加母音加子音時,需重複字尾再加ing。

shop-shopping, sit-sitting, run-running, swim-swimming

然而當字尾為w, x, y時,只要加ing即可。

sew-sewing, fix-fixing, say-saying

  1. 兩個音節以上且重音在最後一個音節的動詞,字尾發音為短母音加子音時,也需重複字尾加ing。

begin-beginning, control-controlling, prefer-preferring, omit-omitting

五、現在進行式拼字練習

1. carry _________  2. tap ___________   3. ride __________

4. win _________   5. forget __________  6. lie ­­­­­­­ __________

7. try _________ 8. fly   __________   9. write _________

10. see __________

 

 

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.14

F. 非行為動詞(狀態動詞) Non-Action Verbs (Stative Verbs)                                    

狀態動詞stative verbs或非行為動詞non-action verbs指的是英文有些動詞用來表達人的情感,狀況,自己無法控制的情緒,這些動詞即使在表達現在的感覺或狀況時還是不用現在進行式。

狀態動詞或非行為動詞通常是用來

1. 描述一個狀態 Describe a state of being (be, feel)

Jane is tired but happy.

She feels good.

2. 表達情感 Express emotions (like, love, hate)

Do you like my new dress?

I love it!

3. 描述心裡狀態 Describe mental states (know, remember, believe, think [=believe], suppose, understand)

I know a lot of good restaurants.

I think you’re right.

4. 表示所有 Show possession (have, own, posses, belong)

Eric has a headache.

My sister owns an apartment.

5. 描述感受與五官的感覺 Describe perception and senses (hear, see, smell, taste, feel, notice, seem, look [=seem], appear, sound)

I hear the telephone.

Linda seems tired.

6. 描述需要跟偏好 Describe needs and preferences (need, want, prefer)

I need a pen.

She prefers beef than pork.

7. 描述度量衡 Describe measurements (weigh, cost, contain)

How much does it cost?

He weighs 80 kilograms.

注意:有些動詞可以有行為動詞與非行為動詞的不同意義。比方說taste, smell, feel, look, think, have, weigh

I taste garlic. Did you put some in here? (I notice garlic.)

The soup tastes good. Try some. (The soup is good.)

I’m tasting the soup to see if it needs more salt. (I’m trying the soup.)

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.15

G. 頻率副詞Frequency Adverbs

頻率副詞常出現在現在簡單式的句子中,用來表達做某件事情的頻率有多頻繁。

How often可以用來問頻率,回答的時候要注意下列的句型。

肯定句

  1. 主詞+頻率副詞+一般動詞S + F.A. + V.

She usually comes to class late.

  1. 主詞+be動詞+頻率副詞S + Be + F.A.

She is usually late for class.

否定句

  1. 主詞+頻率副詞+don’t/doesn’t+一般動詞 (除了always跟ever之外)

She usually doesn’t come to class late.

She doesn’t always come to class late.

  1. 主詞+be動詞+not+頻率副詞

She isn’t usually late for class.

疑問句

  1. 助動詞+主詞+頻率副詞+一般動詞?

Does she usually come to class late?

  1. be動詞+主詞+頻率副詞?

Is she usually late for class?

How often do you exercise?

always                             100%

almost always

usually

often                               75%

frequently

generally

I   sometimes       exercise.

occasionally

seldom                               25%

rarely                               10%

hardly ever

almost never

never / not ever                      0%

頻率副詞除了usually, often, frequently, generally, sometimes, occasionally可以放句首,句尾外,其他通常只會放在句中。

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.16

G. 頻率副詞Frequency Adverbs

另外一種回答How often的句型可以用時間副詞來表達頻率,記得通常都放在句尾,而且不要與頻率副詞一起用。

How often do you exercise?

I exercise every morning/every night/every day/every month/every year.

I exercise once a week/twice a month/three times a year./

I exercise every other day/every other week/every two weeks.

I exercise three times every two weeks

 

Daily Routine     English Firsthand Unit 3 When do you start?   P.35

Read about Erika’s schedule. Fill in the spaces. Use the words. There is one extra.

work, watch, go to bed, drive, takes, get up, work out, eat, is, get, read

I almost always _____________ at 6.45. Then I _________ breakfast and get ready for work till about 8.30. I ______________ to work. It _____________ about 20 minutes. I usually ___________ from 9:00 to 5:00, but I sometimes have to work overtime. My lunch break _________ from 12:00 to 1:00. Sometimes I eat in the company cafeteria, and sometimes I go to a restaurant with coworkers. I often go to the health club to _______________ after work for an hour or so, and I usually get home around 6:30 or 7:00. Then I have dinner, work at my computer for a while, and __________ books. I hardly ever ______________ TV. I usually _________ at about 11:00 during the week, but not until 12:00 or 1:00 on weekends.

Now listen and check your answer.

Write about your schedule on a piece of paper. Use at least 8 different verbs and 4 adverbs of frequency.

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1              Jessie Lin   P.17

H. 現在式助動詞do/doesam/is/are 造問句時的用法與區別

英文造問句與改否定的時候都需要一個助動詞,這個助動詞依主詞,表達的時態,表達的語態會有所不同。造問句的時候要把助動詞放到主詞前面,造否定把not放到助動詞後面。要決定助動詞先要先弄清楚要表達的是哪個時態,來選擇助動詞,在依主詞不同,選擇最適當的助動詞。

a. 現在簡單式:

表達事實或一般習慣狀態時,因為有兩種不同句型,句子裡有一般動詞的時候,用do/does造問句。句子裡沒有一般動詞,有am/is/are的時候,用am/is/are造問句。要按照不同的人稱來用不同助動詞。

 

一般動詞句型:主詞+動詞原型 (第三人稱單數加s)

S      +    V1

I/You/We/They work.     Where do you work?    Do your parents work?

He/She/It works.        Where does he work?   Does your mother work?

be動詞句型主詞+現在式be動詞+名詞/形容詞/介系詞片語

S + am/is/are + noun/adjective/preposition phrase

I am a teacher.                      Where am I?                   Am I tall?

He/She/It is happy.               Why is he happy?           Is he handsome?

We/You/They are at home.     Where are the kids?      Are they at home?

b. 現在進行式:主詞+現在式be動詞+動詞ing

表達現在正在進行的動作,短暫性的動作時,本身句型只有am/is/are三個助動詞,而且動詞會加ing,依主詞不同,來決定助動詞是am, is, 還是are。

S  +  am/is/are + V-ing

I am cooking.                          What am I doing?         Am I dreaming?

He/She/It is dancing.               How is he doing?         Is he sleeping?

We/You/They are  singing.    Why are they singing?   Are they crying?

在缺助動詞的句子中,可以看句子有沒有一般動詞,有一般動詞的原型的話,就是現在簡單式,用do/does造問句。有一般動詞的現在分詞(動詞ing/V-ing)時,就是現在進行式用am/is/are造問句。假如完全沒有動詞,就需要am/is/are當動詞,就用am/is/are造問句。

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1           Jessie Lin   P.18

H. 現在式助動詞do/doesam/is/are 造問句時的用法與區別

練習題,用am/is/aredo/doesyes/no問句:

 

1.     you / lazy or hardworking

2.    Taipei / a noisy city

3.    you / use the computer every day

4.    your brother / smoke

5.    your father/living abroad (住國外)

6.    your parents/ generous or stingy (大方或小氣)

7.    the weather/ terrible today

8.    you / sleep naked  (裸睡)

9.    your friends / smart

10.  your classmates / sitting now

11.   your mother / work in a bank

12.  your blood type / A  (血型)

13.  you / have a  pet

14.  your classmates / naughty    (淘氣)

15.  Jay Chou / a top model   (名模)

16.  your English teacher / helpful

17.  your shoes / new

18.  your best friend / married

19.  you / a careless person  (粗心大意的人)

20.  you / reading a good book at the moment

21.  your mother / cook dinner for you

22.  President Ma / busy

23.  you / over 18 years old

24.  English / easy or difficult for you

25.  you / in a good mood today   (好心情)

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1            Jessie Lin   P.19

I. 現在簡單式跟現在進行式的比較

現在簡單式 現在進行式
1. 用來表達事實She speaks good English.

I come from Taiwan.

  1. 用來表達現在正在進行的動作

She is speaking on the phone.

Look! The bus is coming.

  1. 用來表達持續一段時間的行為,重複性的動作

He lives in Hong Kong.

She travels a lot in her job.

  1. 用來表達現在前後的一個限定期間內發生的動作

He is living in Japan.

She is traveling around Europe for a month.

  1. 用來表達想法與感覺

I don’t know what to do.

She likes American movies.

  1. 不用來表達想法與感覺。

I’m not knowing what to do.

She is liking American movies.

  1. 用have來表達擁有,用think表達意見

I have a new cell phone.

I think you’re right.

  1. 用have跟think表達動作

I’m having a lot of fun.

He’s having dinner with his family.

I’m thinking about my work.

 

Practice

I leave (leave) home at 7 o’clock in the morning.

  1. She usually ______ (work) in the Sales Department in London, but at the moment she ______ (do) a training course in Bristol.
  2. Linda _____ (wash) her hair every day.
  3. He _____ (try) very hard in every game that he _______ (play).
  4. Excuse me. I think that you ______ (sit) in my seat.
  5. ___________ (you/listen) to the radio very often?
  6. Don’t talk to me now. I ________ (write) an important e-mail.
  7. Why ____________ (they/drive) on the left in Britain?
  8. It ___________ (not/get) dark at this time of year until about 10 o’clock.
  9. It usually ______ (rain) here a lot, but it __________ (not/rain) now.
  10. A: What are you doing?

B: I ________ (bake) a cake. Why ____________ (you/smile)?

______________(I/do) something wrong?

 

Fundamentals of English Grammar L1            Jessie Lin   P.20

J. 祈使句Imperative                  

1. 定義:

祈使句是英文的句子的一種,其主詞通常省略,用來表達命令,給與建議等。

  1. 句型:

祈使句的主詞為你或你們,通常主詞省略,動詞皆為原形。

否定句則在動詞前面加 Don’t

Stand up! / Shut up. / Be quiet. / Be careful.

Don’t yell at me. / Don’t think too much.

3. 用法:祈使句常用在下列狀況:

a. 給方向或指示 give directions and instructions

Turn left at the traffic light.

b. 給命令與指令 give orders or commands

Don’t move.

c. 做要求 make requests

Please read this article.

d. 給忠告或建議 give advice or make suggestions

Don’t exercise when you’re sick.

e. 給警告 give warnings

Be careful! Don’t trip!

f. 邀請某人 invite someone

Work out with us tomorrow.

4. 注意事項:

a. 注意祈使句的你或你們通常省略,有主詞時語氣會變得很不客氣。

You sit down! / You listen!

b. 祈使句可以把說話的對象的人名或稱呼放在句子的最前面或最後面,但

要用逗號與句子分開。

Marla, please get ready.

Get ready, guys.

c. 祈使句表達客氣的語氣時可加please,放在句首不用逗號,放句尾需用

逗號與句子隔開。

Please follow me. / Follow me, please.

 

 

Answer Key

  1. 翻譯練習 P.1

1. 我跟我弟總是在星期天下午到公園打籃球。

My brother and I always play basketball in the park on Sunday afternoon.

2. 林書豪的籃球打得很好,他是一個很棒的NBA球員。

Jeremy Lin plays basketball well. He is an excellent NBA player.

B. 詞性練習 P.1

1. My(adj) brother(n) and(conj)  I(pron) always(adv) play(verb)

basketball(noun) in(prep) the(adj) park(n) on(prep) Sunday(n)

afternoon(n).

  1. Jeremy(n) Lin(n) plays(v) basketball(n) well(adv) .

He(pron) is(v) an(adj) excellent(adj) NBA(n) player(n).

C. 八大詞類( the parts of speech) P.4

 

  1. 動詞verb: thinks, is, loves
  2. 名詞noun: Tom, Mary, café
  3. 代名詞pronoun: He, her, they
  4. 形容詞adjective: wonderful, old, romantic
  5. 副詞adverb: madly, unfortunately, too
  6. 連接詞conjunction: and, but, so
  7. 介系詞preposition: of, for, at

D. 現在簡單式Simple Present P.8

1. saves /z/ 2. works /s/ 3. notices /ɪz/ 4. tries /z/ 5. teaches /ɪz/

6. starts /s/ 7. buys /z/ 8. fixes /ɪz/ 9. has /z/ 10. finishes /ɪz/

E. 現在進行式 Present Progressive P.13

  1. carrying 2. topping 3. riding 4. winning 5. forgetting
  2. lying 7. trying 8. flying 9. writing 10. seeing

G. 頻率副詞 Frequency Adverbs  P.16

get up, eat, drive, takes, work, is, work out, read, watch, go to bed

Sometimes I get up at 8 a.m. when I have a morning class, but I usually don’t get up till noon. Then I eat some fruit for breakfast. After that I often surf the Net and check out the news. I rarely go out in the afternoon because I have a lot of work to do in the afternoon. I always take a bus to work. I almost never take a taxi home, but once in a while, I do that when I’m really tired. I usually take a shower right after I get home. Then I have some late night snacks before I go to bed.

H. 現在式助動詞do/doesam/is/are 造問句時的用法與區別

1. Are you lazy or hardworking?

2. Is Taipei a noisy city?

3. Do you use the computer every day?

4. Does your brother smoke?

5. Is your father living abroad?

6. Are your parents generous or stingy?

7. Is the weather terrible today?

8. Do you sleep naked?

9. Are your friends smart?

10. Are your classmates sitting now?

11. Does your mother work in a bank?

12. Is your blood type A?

13. Do you have a pet?

14. Are your classmates naughty?

15. Is Jay Chou a top model?

16. Is your English teacher helpful?

17. Are your shoes new?

18. Is your best friend married?

19. Are you a careless person?

20. Are you reading a good book at the moment?

21. Does your mother cook dinner for you?

22. Is President Ma busy?

23. Are you over 18 years old?

24. Is English easy or difficult for you?

25. Are you in a good mood today?

I. 現在簡單式跟現在進行式的比較

1. works, is doing

2. washes

3. tries, plays

4. are sitting

5. Do you listen

6. am writing

7. do they drive

8. doesn’t get

9. rains, isn’t raining

10. am baking, are you smiling, Am I doing

4 thoughts on “基礎文法L1 現在簡單式與現在進行式 + 現在簡單式與現在完成式

  1. MR. Yen says:

    我是台灣人也正在自修英文文法,感謝妳的解說,真的很詳細很用心,之前有買過Azar的英文文法書有時內文的中文常常讓我疑惑。現在正透過CNN Student News練聽力,剛好有碰到文法問題,也是看似一般的文法卻總是不求甚解,這次遇到的問題是 be+adj. 看過很多基本句型但是對 be+adj很不熟,難到還有be+adv?

    摘錄當時當文章:In Louisville, a logging town in east Mississippi, the damage from twisters was severe.

    was severe? severe是不是後面還要接東西,必竟它是adj … 我不明白 還請老師指點迷津

    1. jessie says:

      這個句子其實只是更改字序。好像很難很複雜,其實只是一個簡單句而已。

      也是有S+be+adv的句子,但是不多。

      其實形容詞在英文是很單純的用法,修飾名詞,就是這樣,目前想不到其它的

      你上面自己有解釋了,所以我應該不用再說了吧XD

      好開心啊,你自己看懂了,成就感應該很大吧:)

  2. MR. Yen says:

    看到妳之前的文章,喔! 原來現在簡單式就有be+adj 而就是 i am happy 這樣的句行,看來只會念不去想就是再簡單也不知道。看來再複習一下基本句型還有什麼沒注意到,不能一直以be+Ving or be+ N打天下 (笑

    再此感謝妳寫的每篇教學文章
    >>
    https://jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com/2011/02/11/%E5%8A%A9%E5%8B%95%E8%A9%9Edodoes%E8%88%87amisare-%E9%80%A0%E5%95%8F%E5%8F%A5%E6%99%82%E7%9A%84%E7%94%A8%E6%B3%95%E8%88%87%E5%8D%80%E5%88%A5/

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