Jessie has such a bad memory that she would forget her head if it weren’t attached to her body.
0條件句：If + S + V1, S + V1. if條件句跟主要子句都用過去簡單式。兩者是一對一之間的關係，每次if子句的條件成立時，後面的子句就會跟著成立。
If I heat the water, it boils. 假如我煮水，水會沸騰。
If I drink too much, I have a headache the day after. 我只要喝太多酒，隔天就頭痛。
1條件句：If + S + V1, S + will + V1. if條件句用現在簡單式代替未來是，主要子句用未來是，表達未來可能發生的假設。
If it rains tomorrow, I will stay home. 假如明天下雨，我就會待在家。(可能下雨也可能不下雨，下雨的話我就會在家)
If I get married, I will invite all my friends and students. 假如我結婚，我會邀請我所有的朋友跟學生。(可能會也可能不會結婚)
2條件句：If + S + V2, S + would + V1. if條件句用過去式，主要子句用would加動詞原型。表示跟現在事實相反的假設。
If I had two children, my life would be very different. 假如我有兩個孩子，我的生活會非常不同。(但是我沒有兩個孩子，所以不能用If I have
If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. 假如我是你的話，我就不會那麼做。(但是我不是你，所以be要用過去式，所有人稱都用were)
3條件句：If + S + had + V3, S + would + have + V3. if條件句用過去完成式，主要子句用would have 加過去分詞。表示跟過去事實相反的假設。常用
If I had gotten married twenty years ago, I would have been divorced. 假如我二十年前結婚的話，我應該早就離婚了。(但沒結婚，所以也沒
If you had worked harder, you wouldn’t have gotten fired. 假如你過去努力一點工作，你就不會被開除了。(但是你沒有努力工作，所以你被
簡單來說就是上面幾個例子，比較複雜的，詳細的部分可以看下面的說明。假如基礎比較差的人可以看每個句型的前面幾個重點就可以了。這次潔西放了很多例題。多做例題多想想就會比較有概念。就會發現，其實也沒有那麼難喔。 請勿任意轉載使用，歡迎個人使用， 尊重一下寫到手都快斷掉的潔西。另外裡面的例題多出自于Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar，Longman的Grammar Express，Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar，另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。版權完全歸原書所有。
條件句 Conditional Sentences / Conditionals 或叫做假設語氣。指的是某個先決假設的條件下，會有的結果。在不同的假設狀態下，英文會用不同的時態來表達。有時候是可能發生的現實狀況，If it rains，有時會是與現在事實相反的假設，If I were a bird，有時會是與已經發生的過去事實相反的假設，多半用於反省，指責，懊悔等，If I had studied harder。
在不同的條件下會用不同的時態，所以分零條件句Zero Conditional, 第一條件句First Conditional, 第二條件句Second Conditional, 第三條件句Third Conditional。也就是可能成真的現在或未來事實，與現在相反的事實，與過去事實相反的事實的假設。
B. 零條件句 Zero Conditional /與現在事實相符的假設條件句
If + S + V1, S + V1. / S + V1 if + S + V1.
a. 用現在的事實的條件句來描述一些一般的真理general truths或科學上的事實scientific facts。
If you heat the water, it boils.
It’s 11:00 P.M. in New York if it’s noon in Taipei.
b. 也可以用來表達一些習慣habits或重複發生的活動recurring events。
If Daniel has money, he spends it.
Bill orders a special meal if he flies.
If you practice your English every day, you can improve quickly.
You might learn more if you watch American TV series.
If you come to Taipei, stay with me.
Don’t leave your seat if the seat belt light is on.
C. Match the sentences and join them with if. (Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate P.347)
- You get promoted. 2. I drink coffee late at night. 3. You don’t pay the bill.
- I try to fun fast. 5. Someone enters the building. 6. You lose your credit card.
- I can’t sleep. b. You get a warning letter. c. You have to ring the bank.
- Your salary goes up. e. The alarm goes off. g. I get out of breath.
D. 第一條件句First Conditional / 與未來事實相符的假設條件句
If + S + V1, S + will/be going to + V1. / S + will + V1 if S + V1.
a. 當要描述未來可能會發生的事，跟這樣的事產生的結果時，if子句用來描述可能的條件，主要子句描述產生的結果。if子句是副詞子句，所以用現在簡單式代替未來式，主要子句可以用will或be going to表達未來的結果，也可以用情態助動詞，或祈使句。
If we hurry, we’ll catch the bus.
If she wins, she’s going to fight crime.
If it rains, everyone can eat inside.
If you don’t vote, you might regret it.
If anyone calls, please take a message.
b. 在if子句中，有時會用情態助動詞 should ，這個用法跟用現在簡單式的差別在於多了一些不確定性。當基本上意思是相同的。
If anyone should call, please take a message.
If it should rain tomorrow, we’ll cancel the picnic.
If you vote, you’ll have a say in the future of our city.
Unless you vote, you won’t have a say in the future of our city.
If you don’t vote, you won’t have a say in the future of our city.
If we’re expecting visitors, the flat will need a good clean.
If you’ve finished with the computer, I’ll put it away.
If you need a ticket, I can get you one.
We can take a bus tour if you feel like seeing the sights.
If you go on like this, you’ll make yourself ill.
I’ll never speak to you again if you don’t apologize.
g. if 子句通常不會用未來式，但是假如用來表達請求時，可以用未來式。
If you’ll just wait a moment, I’ll find someone to help you. (Please wait a moment…)
If it snows tomorrow, the roads will be closed.
I don’t know if it will snow tomorrow.
E. a. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses and if or unless. (Longman Grammar Express P.284)
- A: What’s the first thing you ___________ (do) ______________ (if/unless) you __________ (get) elected?
- B: Well, it’s been a long, hard campaign. _________ (if/unless) I _________(win), I _________ (take) a short vacation before I begin my new job.
- A: Sounds good. Where to?
- B: Sorry, but I’d rather not say. ___________ (if/unless) I __________ (become) mayor, I _____________ (try) to keep my personal life private. Even mayors need privacy.
- A: I can understand that. Now, every election has a winner and a loser. What ________ you _______ (do) ___________ (if/unless) you _________ (lose)?
- B: _______ (if/unless) I ________ (lose) this election, I _________ (continue) to be active in politics as a private citizen. ____________ (if/unless) both parties _______________ (cooperate), this city __________ (not be) as great as it can be. Finally, __________ (if/unless) the people ____________ (not elect) me to office this time, I ____________ (be) back in four years to try again!
b. Comment of the situations. (Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate P.347)
It might rain. If it does, everyone can eat inside.
–If it rains, everyone can eat inside.
The children mustn’t go near Nick’s dog. It’ll bite them.
—If the children go near Nick’s dog, it’ll bite them.
1. Rachel might fail her driving test. But she can take it again.
2. United might lose. If they do, Tom will be upset.
3. The office may be closed. In that case Mark won’t be able to get in.
4. Nick may arrive a bit early. If he does, he can help Tom to get things ready.
5. The party might go on all night. If it does, no one will want to do any work tomorrow.
6. Emma may miss the train. But she can get the next one.
7. Is Matthew going to enter the race? He’ll probably win it.
F. 第二條件句Second Conditional / 與現在或未來事實相反的假設條件句
If + S + V2, S + would + V1. / S + would + V1 if S + V2.
If I loved him, I would marry him. (But I don’t love him, so I won’t marry him.)
If I had more time, I would travel. ( But I don’t have time, so I don’t travel.)
If I told you, I’d have to kill you. (But I don’t tell you, so I don’t have to kill you.)
If I had money now, I would take a trip around the world.
If it were sunny now, I would go to the beach with you.
If she knew the answer, she would tell you.
Not If she would knew the answer, she would tell you.
If we had a calculator, we could work this out a lot quicker.
If Rachel worked harder, she might do even better at her studies.
e. if子句的動詞是be動詞時，不論人稱，通通用were。在非正式談話中，was會與I, he, she, it跟任何可用這些代名詞代替的名詞連用。
If I were rich, I would travel around the world.
Sally would answer the phone if she were in her office right now.
f. 當句子以 If I were you開始，常常會用在給予忠告give advice。
If I were you, I would study harder.
If I were you, I’d ask a lawyer for some advice.
If Rachel was playing her stereo, it wouldn’t be so quiet in here.
If you needed a ticket, I could get you one.
If you felt like seeing the sights, we could take a bus tour.
If you have a lie-down, you’ll feel better.
If I had a million pounds, I’d probably buy you a yacht.
If we take the car, we’ll have to pay for parking.
If we took the car, we’d have to pay for parking.
H. a. Comment on these situations. Use a Second Conditional with would or could.
Andrew is such a boring person because he works all the time.
—You know, if Andrew didn’t work all the time, he wouldn’t be such a boring person.
You can’t take a photo because you don’t have your camera.
—How annoying. If I had my camera, I could take a photo.
1. You can’t look the word up because you don’t have a dictionary.
I’m sorry. ____________________________________________________
2 .You don’t write to your friends because you’re so busy.
I’ve got so much to do. ___________________________________________
3. You can’t play tennis because your back is aching.
It’s a nuisance. ________________________________________________
4. Claire won’t marry Henry because she doesn’t love him.
Of course, ____________________________________________________
5. Nick can’t find the way because he doesn’t have a map.
Nick’s lost, but ________________________________________________
6. David has so many accidents because he’s so clumsy.
You know, ____________________________________________________
H. b. Complete the conversation. Put the correct form of the verb. You may need to use will or would.
A: I haven’t forgotten your birthday, you know. If you like, I’ll book (I/book) a table
for Thursday at our favorite restaurant.
B: My birthday is on Wednesday, Matthew. You’re playing basketball then, aren’t you?
If you cared for me, (1) _______________ (you/not/play) basketball on my
A: What’s the difference? If (2) __________________ (we/go) out on Thursday,
it’ll be just the same. If (3) ______________ (I/not/play), I’d be letting the
B: Yes, I suppose (4) ______________ (it/be) a disaster if you missed one game.
Well, if (5) _______________ (you/think) more of your friends than you do for
me, you can forget the whole thing.
A: I just don’t understand you sometimes, Emma.
B: If (6) _______________ (you/think) about it, you’d understand. And I think
(7) _______________ (it/be) better if we forgot all about my birthday.
A: Don’t be silly, Emma. If you get into one of your bad moods,
(8) ___________________ (it/not/do) any good.
B: If you were interested in my feelings, (9) _________________ (I/not/get) into a
H. c. Read this boy’s journal entry. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of the present unreal conditional (second conditional).
I’ve got to stop staying up late reading “Peanuts”! If I weren’t always to tired, I will be able to stay awake in class. Whenever the teacher calls on me, I don’t know what to say. Then I get really embarrassed because of that cute red-haired girl that I like. I would talk to her if I wouldn’t be so shy. My friend Jason says, “If I was you, I’d ask her to a party,” but I’m too afraid that if I asked her, she would have said no. After class, I played baseball. Nobody wanted me on their team. If I play better, I would get chosen sometimes. Life is hard! I can really understand that Charlie Brown character in “Peanuts.” If fact, if I didn’t laugh so hard while reading “Peanuts,” I would cried!
I. 第三條件句Third Conditional / 與過去事實相反的假設條件句
句用的是主詞加上would have + V3(過去分詞)。
If + S + had + V3, S + would have + V3. / S + would have + V3 if + S + had + V3.
If we had gone two weeks earlier, we would have had better weather.
(But we didn’t go two weeks earlier, so we didn’t have better weather.)
If David had been more careful, he would have passed the exam.
(But David were careful, so he didn’t pass the exam.)
b. 主要子句可以用其他的情態助動詞如might, could，再加上have + V3。
If I had had my mobile yesterday, I could have contacted you.
We just caught the train. If we had stopped to buy a paper, we might have missed it.
If you’d rung me, I’d have come to see you.
If you had rung me, I would have come to see you.
If I had known Mary was in town, I would have invited her to the party.
If I hadn’t fallen ill and missed the interview, I might have gotten the job.
If you’d been a bit more careful, you wouldn’t have cut yourself.
If Matthew had set his alarm clock, he wouldn’t have overslept.
f. if 子句可以用過去完成進行式，表達過去某時點並沒有發生的某個狀態。
If it had not been raining, I would have gone for a walk.
If you planned things properly, you wouldn’t get into a mess. (You don’t plan.)
If you had planned things properly, you wouldn’t have gotten into a mess. (You
K. a. Complete: George is thinking about the past. Complete his thoughts with the correct form of the words in parentheses.
- I didn’t go into business with my friend Sam. If I _____________ (go) into business with him, I __________________ (become) a success.
- I couldn’t go into the army because I was deaf one ear. I ________________ (go) into the army if I ___________________ (not lose) my hearing in that ear.
- Mary and I weren’t able to go on a honeymoon. We _________________ (can/go) away if my father ____________________ (not get) sick.
- Clarence showed me how the world would look without me. I _______________ (not know) that I was so important if Clarence ___________________ (not show) me.
- My old boss once made a terrible mistake. If I ___________________ (not help) him, he ____________________ (can/go) to jail.
- Mary ______________________ (may/not/lead) a happy life is she _______________ (not marry) me.
- Life here ____________________ (be) really different if I ________________ (not live)
b. Comment on each situation using a Third Conditional with if. Use would have, could have, or might have.
In a bookshop yesterday Daniel saw a book he really wanted. The only problem was that he didn’t have any money.
— Daniel would have bought the book if he had had any money.
Rita often goes to concerts at the town hall, although not to every one. There was one on Saturday, but she didn’t know about it.
— Rita might have gone to the concert if she had known about it.
1. On Sunday the guests had to have their lunch inside. Unfortunately it wasn’t warm enough to have it outside.
2. There was a bomb scare last Tuesday. Sarah wanted to fly to Rome, but she wasn’t able to. The airport was closed.
3. Laura has only met Nick once, and it’s possible she would recognize him. He passed her yesterday, but he had a crash-helmet on.
4. Sarah has been quite busy, and she hasn’t watered her plants for some time. As a result, they’ve died.
5. Nick likes ice hockey, but he didn’t have a ticket to the game last week, so unfortunately he wasn’t able to get in.
If he had eaten breakfast, he would not be hungry now.
(He didn’t eat breakfast, so he is hungry now.)
If he were a good student, he would have studied for the test yesterday.
(He is not a good student. He did not study for the test yesterday.)
If you hadn’t left all these dirty dishes, the place would look a bit tidier.
If I didn’t have all this work to do, I would have gone out for the day.
M. Complete the conversations. Put in the correct form of the verb. Use Past Simple, the Past Perfect, would, or would have.
A: You look tired.
B: Well, if you hadn’t woken (you/not/wake) me up in the middle of the night,
I wouldn’t be (I/not/be) so tired.
1. A: Is Trevor a practical person?
B: Trevor? No, he isn’t. If _______________________ (he/be) practical,
_________________________ (he/put) those shelves up a bit quicker. It
took hime ages.
2. A: Why are you sitting in the dark?
B: Let’s just say that if _________________________ (I/pay) my electricity
bill last month, ____________________________ (I/not be) in the dark now.
3. A: Why are you so angry with me? All I did yesterday was play basketball.
B: If _________________________ (you/love) me,
______________________ (you/not leave) me here alone on my birthday.
條件句中有were, had, 跟should這幾個助動詞時，條件句中的if可以省略。但在省略時，
if省略而子句必須要倒裝，也就是把助動詞were, had, should放到主詞前。
If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. — Were I you, I would do that.
If I had known, I would have told you. — Had I known, I would have told you.
If you should change your mind, please let me know immediately.
— Should you change your mind, please let me know immediately.
O. Create sentences with the same meaning by omitting if.
If you should need more money, go to the bank before six o’clock.
— Should you need more money, go to the bank before six o’clock.
- Your boss sounds like a real tyrant. If I were you, I would look for another job.
- She would have gotten the job if she had been better prepared.
- If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
- If there should be a global nuclear war, life on earth as we know it would end forever.
- If I were your teacher, I would insist you do better work.
S + wish (that) S + V2.
He wishes he had a yacht. (He doesn’t have a yacht, but he wants one.)
I wish I knew French. (I don’t know French.)
I wish she would tell me. (She will not tell me.)
Sometimes I wish I were a child again.
S + wish (that) S + had + V3.
They wish they had moved to the city. (They didn’t move to the city, and now they
think that was a mistake.)
It’s raining. I wish it would stop. (I want it to stop raining.)
I’m expecting a call. I wish the phone would ring. (I want the phone to ring.)
We’re going to be late. I wish you would hurry.
I wish you would cook breakfast. You have more time than I do.
I wish she would visit more often. I really miss her.
wish後面的字句不用will。 I wish she will visit more often.
d. 在wish後面可以接could或could have 來表達想要當沒有實現的能力ability。
He wishes he could earn more money now.
He wishes he could have found a better job when he was younger.
I wish Mary could have come. (Mary couldn’t come.)
wish後面不用can。 He wishes he can earn more money.
We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!
He shook my hand and wished me luck.
a. Wish … the Past
Vicky is fed up. What is she saying? Use I wish.
(She can’t think straight.) — I wish I could think straight.
- (She is so tired.) ________________________________________________
- (She gets headaches.) ____________________________________________
- (Her work isn’t going well.) _________________________________________
- (She can’t concentrate.) ___________________________________________
- (Life is so complicated.)___________________________________________
b. Wish… Past Perfect
Complete the sentences. Use these words: accepted, caught, found ,played, saved, stayed
I spent all my money. — I wish now that I had saved it.
- I missed the train. I really wish ______________________________________
- Rita left the party early. I really wish _________________________________
- Emma refused the offer. But her parents wish ___________________________
- I looked everywhere for the key. I wish ________________________________
- The injured player could only watch. He wishes ___________________________
c. Complete: Read this article from a psychology magazine. Complete it with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses.
Wishes and Solutions
The old saying goes, “If wishes were horses, then beggars would ride.” “ I wish it
1. __________ (be) that easy,” says the therapist Joel Grimes. “But we can’t just wish problems 2. ________________ (will/go away). We have to make our own solutions. “ According to him, complainers are really saying, “I wish I 3. ______________ (have) a magical solution. I wish I 4. _______________________ (not have to / deal) with this myself.” One client, for example, kept complaining, “ I wish I 5. ______________ (can/entertain) people, but my apartment is too small.” Grimes urged her to solve the problem. This year, she hosted a holiday open house, with people coming at different times. She still wishes she _________________ (can/invite) her whole family last year, but she learned she could solve her own problems. “At first clients get angry at me for not handling them solutions,” says Grimes. “But when they experience their own power, they wish they ______________ (know) about it sooner.”
- If you get promoted, your salary goes up.
- If I drink coffee late at night, I can’t sleep.
- If you don’t pay the bill, you get a warning letter.
- If I try to run fast, I get out of breath.
- If someone enters the building, the alarm goes off.
- If you lose your credit card, you have to ring the bank.
- will do, if, get
- If, win, will take
- If, become, will try
- will, do, if, lose
- If, lose, will continue, Unless, cooperate, won’t be, if, don’t elect, will be
- If Rachel fail her driving test, she can take it again.
- If United loses, Tom will be upset.
- If the office is closed, Mark won’t be able to get in.
- If Nick arrives a bit early, he can help Tom to get things ready.
- If the party goes on all night, no one will want to do any work tomorrow.
- If Emma misses the train, she can get the next one.
- If Matthew enters the race, he’ll probably win it.
- If I had a dictionary, I could look the word up.
- If I wasn’t so busy, I would write to my friends.
- If my back wasn’t aching, I could play tennis.
- if Claire loved Henry, she would marry him.
- if he had a map, he could find his way.
- if he weren’t so clumsy, he wouldn’t have so many accidents.
1. you wouldn’t play 2. we go 3. I didn’t play 4. it would be 5. you think 6. you thought 7. it would be 8. it won’t be 9. I wouldn’t get
I’ve got to stop staying up late reading “Peanuts”! If I weren’t always to tired, I would be able to stay awake in class. Whenever the teacher calls on me, I don’t know what to say. Then I get really embarrassed because of that cute red-haired girl that I like. I would talk to her if I weren’t so shy. My friend Jason says, “If I were you, I’d ask her to a party,” but I’m too afraid that if I asked her, she would say no. After class, I played baseball. Nobody wanted me on their team. If I played better, I would get chosen sometimes. Life is hard! I can really understand that Charlie Brown character in “Peanuts.” If fact, if I didn’t laugh so hard while reading “Peanuts,” I would cry!
- he were, he would have put
- I had paid, I wouldn’t be
- you loved, wouldn’t have left
had gone, would have become
could (would) have one OR would have been able to go, hadn’t lost
could have gone, hadn’t gotten
wouldn’t have known, hadn’t shown
hadn’t helped, could have gone
might not have led, hadn’t married
would have been, hadn’t lived
The guests could/would have had their lunch outside if it had been warm enough /if it hadn’t been so cold.
Sarah could/would have flown to Rome if the airport hadn’t been closed/had been open.
Laura might have recognized Nick if he hadn’t had a crash-helmet on.
Sarah’s plants wouldn’t have died/might not have died if she’d/she had watered them.
Nick could/would have got in (to the ice hockey game) if he’d/had had a ticket.
- Were I you, I would look for another job.
- Had she been better prepared, she would have gotten the job.
- Had they realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
- Should there be a global nuclear war, life on earth as we know it would end forever.
- Were I your teacher, I would insist you do better work.
- I wish I weren’t so tired.
- I wish I didn’t get (these) headaches.
- I wish my work were going well.
- I wish I could concentrate.
- I wish life weren’t so complicated.
- I had caught it.
- she had stayed.
- she had accepted it.
- I had found it. / I could have found it.
- he could have played.
- were 2. would go away 3. had 4. didn’t have to deal 5. could entertain
6. could have invited/had been able to invite 7. had known