進階文法L12 第二十章 條件句和願望 Conditional Sentences and Wishes

Jessie has such a bad memory that she would forget her head if it weren’t attached to her body.

潔西超健忘到假如她的頭不是接在她的身體上的話,她一定會把頭也給忘掉XD

呵呵,沒錯,這是真的。今天要說的是有點小複雜,有點難的假設語氣,或叫做條件句,條件子句等等。在英文因為有時態的關係,所以if所帶領的假設條件的句子會依照有可能發現在現在,未來的事實,還有跟現在事實相反的假設,過去事實相反的假設等等句子的時態會有所不同。而這些不同的時態也就代表了不同的意思。

每本書用的都不太一樣,潔西覺得Oxford用0,1,2,3條件句來分,還挺清楚的。

0條件句:If + S + V1, S + V1.  if條件句跟主要子句都用過去簡單式。兩者是一對一之間的關係,每次if子句的條件成立時,後面的子句就會跟著成立。

If I heat the water, it boils. 假如我煮水,水會沸騰。

If I drink too much, I have a headache the day after. 我只要喝太多酒,隔天就頭痛。

1條件句:If + S + V1, S + will + V1.  if條件句用現在簡單式代替未來是,主要子句用未來是,表達未來可能發生的假設。

If it rains tomorrow, I will stay home. 假如明天下雨,我就會待在家。(可能下雨也可能不下雨,下雨的話我就會在家)

If I get married, I will invite all my friends and students. 假如我結婚,我會邀請我所有的朋友跟學生。(可能會也可能不會結婚)

2條件句:If + S + V2, S + would + V1.  if條件句用過去式,主要子句用would加動詞原型。表示跟現在事實相反的假設。

If I had two children, my life would be very different. 假如我有兩個孩子,我的生活會非常不同。(但是我沒有兩個孩子,所以不能用If I have

two children)

If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. 假如我是你的話,我就不會那麼做。(但是我不是你,所以be要用過去式,所有人稱都用were)

3條件句:If + S + had + V3, S + would + have + V3.  if條件句用過去完成式,主要子句用would have 加過去分詞。表示跟過去事實相反的假設。常用

在懊悔,批評,指責等等。

If I had gotten married twenty years ago, I would have been divorced. 假如我二十年前結婚的話,我應該早就離婚了。(但沒結婚,所以也沒

離婚)

If you had worked harder, you wouldn’t have gotten fired.  假如你過去努力一點工作,你就不會被開除了。(但是你沒有努力工作,所以你被

開除了。)

簡單來說就是上面幾個例子,比較複雜的,詳細的部分可以看下面的說明。假如基礎比較差的人可以看每個句型的前面幾個重點就可以了。這次潔西放了很多例題。多做例題多想想就會比較有概念。就會發現,其實也沒有那麼難喔。 請勿任意轉載使用,歡迎個人使用, 尊重一下寫到手都快斷掉的潔西。另外裡面的例題多出自于Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。版權完全歸原書所有。

A. 條件句概論

條件句 Conditional Sentences / Conditionals 或叫做假設語氣。指的是某個先決假設的條件下,會有的結果。在不同的假設狀態下,英文會用不同的時態來表達。有時候是可能發生的現實狀況,If it rains,有時會是與現在事實相反的假設,If I were a bird,有時會是與已經發生的過去事實相反的假設,多半用於反省,指責,懊悔等,If I had studied harder。

在不同的條件下會用不同的時態,所以分零條件句Zero Conditional, 第一條件句First Conditional, 第二條件句Second Conditional, 第三條件句Third Conditional。也就是可能成真的現在或未來事實,與現在相反的事實,與過去事實相反的事實的假設。

B. 零條件句 Zero Conditional /與現在事實相符的假設條件句

這指的是一件事總是自然而然接著另外一件事發生。 這樣子的條件句,if子句用現在簡

單式,主要子句也用現在簡單式。主要子句可以放在前面,放前面時,不需要逗號。

If + S + V1, S + V1.  / S + V1  if + S + V1.

a. 用現在的事實的條件句來描述一些一般的真理general truths或科學上的事實scientific facts。

If you heat the water, it boils.

It’s 11:00 P.M. in New York if it’s noon in Taipei.

b. 也可以用來表達一些習慣habits或重複發生的活動recurring events。

If Daniel has money, he spends it.

Bill orders a special meal if he flies.

c. 主要子句的部分也可以視情況用情態助動詞modals。

If you practice your English every day, you can improve quickly.

You might learn more if you watch American TV series.

d. 主要子句的部分也可以用祈使句imperative。

If you come to Taipei, stay with me.

Don’t leave your seat if the seat belt light is on.

C.  Match the sentences and join them with if.  (Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate P.347)

  1. You get promoted.   2. I drink coffee late at night.     3. You don’t pay the bill.
  2. I try to fun fast.    5. Someone enters the building.    6. You lose your credit card.
  1. I can’t sleep.           b. You get a warning letter.           c. You have to ring the bank.
  2. Your salary goes up.    e. The alarm goes off.               g. I get out of breath.

1. ______________________________________________________________

2. ______________________________________________________________

3. ______________________________________________________________

4. ______________________________________________________________

5. ______________________________________________________________

6. ______________________________________________________________

D. 第一條件句First Conditional / 與未來事實相符的假設條件句

這指的是在某些特定的條件下,未來會發生什麼事,這個假設跟結果都是可能發生的。

這時if子句用現在簡單式來代替未來式,主要子句用未來式。

If + S + V1, S + will/be going to + V1.  / S + will + V1 if S + V1.

a. 當要描述未來可能會發生的事,跟這樣的事產生的結果時,if子句用來描述可能的條件,主要子句描述產生的結果。if子句是副詞子句,所以用現在簡單式代替未來式,主要子句可以用will或be going to表達未來的結果,也可以用情態助動詞,或祈使句。

If we hurry, we’ll catch the bus.

If she wins, she’s going to fight crime.

If it rains, everyone can eat inside.

If you don’t vote, you might regret it.

If anyone calls, please take a message.

b. 在if子句中,有時會用情態助動詞 should ,這個用法跟用現在簡單式的差別在於多了一些不確定性。當基本上意思是相同的。

If anyone should call, please take a message.

If it should rain tomorrow, we’ll cancel the picnic.

c. if跟unless兩者都可以用在條件句,但兩者意思非常不同。unless用在否定的條件,相當於if…not。

If you vote, you’ll have a say in the future of our city.

Unless you vote, you won’t have a say in the future of our city.

If you don’t vote, you won’t have a say in the future of our city.

d. if子句可以用現在進行式或現在完成式,主要子句用未來式。

If we’re expecting visitors, the flat will need a good clean.

If you’ve finished with the computer, I’ll put it away.

e. 第一條件句可以用來表示提供幫助或給予建議。

If you need a ticket, I can get you one.

We can take a bus tour if you feel like seeing the sights.

f. 第一條件句可以用來也可以用來警告或威脅。

If you go on like this, you’ll make yourself ill.

I’ll never speak to you again if you don’t apologize.

g.  if 子句通常不會用未來式,但是假如用來表達請求時,可以用未來式。

If you’ll just wait a moment, I’ll find someone to help you. (Please wait a moment…)

h. 條件句的if子句為副詞子句,通常不會用未來式,會用現在簡單式代替未來式,但是名詞子句中if帶領的名詞子句在表達未來的時候用未來式。

If it snows tomorrow, the roads will be closed.

I don’t know if it will snow tomorrow.

E. a. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses and if or unless. (Longman Grammar Express P.284)

  1. A: What’s the first thing you ___________ (do) ______________ (if/unless) you __________ (get) elected?
  2. B: Well, it’s been a long, hard campaign. _________ (if/unless) I _________(win), I _________ (take) a short vacation before I begin my new job.
  3. A: Sounds good. Where to?
  4. B: Sorry, but I’d rather not say. ___________ (if/unless) I __________ (become) mayor, I _____________ (try) to keep my personal life private. Even mayors need privacy.
  5. A: I can understand that. Now, every election has a winner and a loser. What ________ you _______ (do) ___________ (if/unless) you _________ (lose)?
  6. B: _______ (if/unless) I ________ (lose) this election, I _________ (continue) to be active in politics as a private citizen. ____________ (if/unless) both parties _______________ (cooperate), this city __________ (not be) as great as it can be. Finally, __________ (if/unless) the people ____________ (not elect) me to office this time, I ____________ (be) back in four years to try again!

b. Comment of the situations.  (Oxford Practice Grammar Intermediate P.347)

example:

It might rain. If it does, everyone can eat inside.

–If it rains, everyone can eat inside.

The children mustn’t go near Nick’s dog. It’ll bite them.

—If the children go near Nick’s dog, it’ll bite them.

1. Rachel might fail her driving test. But she can take it again.

__________________________________________________________

2. United might lose. If they do, Tom will be upset.

__________________________________________________________

3. The office may be closed. In that case Mark won’t be able to get in.

__________________________________________________________

4. Nick may arrive a bit early. If he does, he can help Tom to get things ready.

__________________________________________________________

5. The party might go on all night. If it does, no one will want to do any work tomorrow.

__________________________________________________________

6. Emma may miss the train. But she can get the next one.

__________________________________________________________

7. Is Matthew going to enter the race? He’ll probably win it.

__________________________________________________________

F. 第二條件句Second Conditional / 與現在或未來事實相反的假設條件句

這指的是用在假設跟現在或未來事實相反的條件下,所會產生的結果。這樣的句子中,

if子句用過去簡單式,假如是be動詞時,不論主詞,多用were,主要子句用主詞加

would加動詞原型。

If + S + V2, S + would + V1.  / S + would + V1 if S + V2.

a. 這個句型用在描述與現在的事實不符,相反的假設條件,可能是不真實unreal,假的

untrue,想像的imagined,或不可能的impossible的條件,跟可能產生的結果。這樣的

先決條件下所會產生的結果。

If I loved him, I would marry him. (But I don’t love him, so I won’t marry him.)

If I had more time, I would travel. ( But I don’t have time, so I don’t travel.)

If I told you, I’d have to kill you. (But I don’t tell you, so I don’t have to kill you.)

b. if子句雖然用的是過去簡單式,但沒有過去的意思,指的是與現在事實相反。

If I had money now, I would take a trip around the world.

If it were sunny now, I would go to the beach with you.

c. if子句不可以用would,would用在主要子句。

If she knew the answer, she would tell you.

Not If she would knew the answer, she would tell you.

d. 主要子句也可以用could或might。

If we had a calculator, we could work this out a lot quicker.

If Rachel worked harder, she might do even better at her studies.

e. if子句的動詞是be動詞時,不論人稱,通通用were。在非正式談話中,was會與I, he, she, it跟任何可用這些代名詞代替的名詞連用。

If I were rich, I would travel around the world.

Sally would answer the phone if she were in her office right now.

f. 當句子以 If I were you開始,常常會用在給予忠告give advice。

If I were you, I would study harder.

If I were you, I’d ask a lawyer for some advice.

g. if子句可以用過去進行式,表示與現在正發生的事實是相反的。

If Rachel was playing her stereo, it wouldn’t be so quiet in here.

h. 第二條件句可用來提供幫助或給予建議。但比較不那麼直接,說話的人沒有那麼確定。

If you needed a ticket, I could get you one.

If you felt like seeing the sights, we could take a bus tour.

G. 第一條件句跟第二條件句的比較

第一條件句,if子句為現在簡單式,表示這個條件,這個狀況有可能,但也可能不會發生。

第二條件句,if子句為過去件單式,表示這個條件是非真實的,是假的,是不會發生的。

If you have a lie-down, you’ll feel better.

If I had a million pounds, I’d probably buy you a yacht.

比較下面兩個句子

If we take the car, we’ll have to pay for parking.

If we took the car, we’d have to pay for parking.

這兩個句子都表達未來的可能性,但是第二條件句表示那個行為是比較不可能的。可能是我們已經決定不開車後說的話。

H. a. Comment on these situations. Use a Second Conditional with would or could.

Examples:

Andrew is such a boring person because he works all the time.

—You know, if Andrew didn’t work all the time, he wouldn’t be such a boring person.

You can’t take a photo because you don’t have your camera.

—How annoying. If I had my camera, I could take a photo.

1. You can’t look the word up because you don’t have a dictionary.

I’m sorry. ____________________________________________________

2 .You don’t write to your friends because you’re so busy.

I’ve got so much to do. ___________________________________________

3. You can’t play tennis because your back is aching.

It’s a nuisance. ________________________________________________

4. Claire won’t marry Henry because she doesn’t love him.

Of course, ____________________________________________________

5. Nick can’t find the way because he doesn’t have a map.

Nick’s lost, but ________________________________________________

6. David has so many accidents because he’s so clumsy.

You know, ____________________________________________________

H. b. Complete the conversation. Put the correct form of the verb. You may need to use will or would.

A: I haven’t forgotten your birthday, you know. If you like, I’ll book (I/book) a table

for Thursday at our favorite restaurant.

B: My birthday is on Wednesday, Matthew. You’re playing basketball then, aren’t you?

If you cared for me, (1) _______________ (you/not/play) basketball on my

birthday.

A: What’s the difference? If (2) __________________ (we/go) out on Thursday,

it’ll be just the same. If (3) ______________ (I/not/play), I’d be letting the

team down.

B: Yes, I suppose (4) ______________ (it/be) a disaster if you missed one game.

Well, if (5) _______________ (you/think) more of your friends than you do for

me, you can forget the whole thing.

A: I just don’t understand you sometimes, Emma.

B: If (6) _______________ (you/think) about it, you’d understand. And I think

(7) _______________ (it/be) better if we forgot all about my birthday.

A: Don’t be silly, Emma. If you get into one of your bad moods,

(8) ___________________ (it/not/do) any good.

B: If you were interested in my feelings, (9) _________________ (I/not/get) into a

bad mood.

H. c. Read this boy’s journal entry. Find and correct six mistakes in the use of the present unreal conditional (second conditional).

I’ve got to stop staying up late reading “Peanuts”! If I weren’t always to tired, I will be able to stay awake in class. Whenever the teacher calls on me, I don’t know what to say. Then I get really embarrassed because of that cute red-haired girl that I like. I would talk to her if I wouldn’t be so shy. My friend Jason says, “If I was you, I’d ask her to a party,” but I’m too afraid that if I asked her, she would have said no. After class, I played baseball. Nobody wanted me on their team. If I play better, I would get chosen sometimes. Life is hard! I can really understand that Charlie Brown character in “Peanuts.” If fact, if I didn’t laugh so hard while reading “Peanuts,” I would cried!

I. 第三條件句Third Conditional / 與過去事實相反的假設條件句

這是用在過去已經發生的事情,但是跟你想要的情形是不同時,用來表示假如過去是在

一個不同的條件下時,所會產生的結果。這個句型的if子句用的是過去完成式,主要子

句用的是主詞加上would have + V3(過去分詞)。

If + S + had + V3, S + would have + V3.  / S + would have + V3 if + S + had + V3.

a. 這個句型用來表達過去的條件跟結果都是不可能發生的。if子句帶領的事與過去事實相反的假設條件,而條件句則是在這個不可能的條件下所產生的結果。因為事情其實已經發生了,所以if條件子句的條件是不存在的,但我們常用這樣來表示假如過去是如何的話,就會產生怎麼樣的後果。

If we had gone two weeks earlier, we would have had better weather.

(But we didn’t go two weeks earlier, so we didn’t have better weather.)

If David had been more careful, he would have passed the exam.

(But David were careful, so he didn’t pass the exam.)

b. 主要子句可以用其他的情態助動詞如might, could,再加上have + V3。

If I had had my mobile yesterday, I could have contacted you.

We just caught the train. If we had stopped to buy a paper, we might have missed it.

c. had跟would都可以跟主詞合併縮寫成’d。

If you’d rung me, I’d have come to see you.

If you had rung me, I would have come to see you.

d. 第三條件句常用來表達後悔過去所做的事。

If I had known Mary was in town, I would have invited her to the party.

If I hadn’t fallen ill and missed the interview, I might have gotten the job.

e. 第三條件句有時可用來批評別人或指出他們的錯誤。

If you’d been a bit more careful, you wouldn’t have cut yourself.

If Matthew had set his alarm clock, he wouldn’t have overslept.

f. if 子句可以用過去完成進行式,表達過去某時點並沒有發生的某個狀態。

If it had not been raining, I would have gone for a walk.

J. 第二條件句跟第三條件句的比較

比較下列例子

If you planned things properly, you wouldn’t get into a mess. (You don’t plan.)

If you had planned things properly, you wouldn’t have gotten into a mess. (You

didn’t plan)

第一個句子表示你現在並沒有計劃,所以現在弄得一團糟。但第二個句子表示你過去沒

有計劃,所以在過去你把事情弄得一團糟。

K. a. Complete: George is thinking about the past. Complete his thoughts with the correct form of the words in parentheses.

  1. I didn’t go into business with my friend Sam. If I _____________ (go) into business with him, I __________________ (become) a success.
  2. I couldn’t go into the army because I was deaf one ear. I ________________ (go) into the army if I ___________________ (not lose) my hearing in that ear.
  3. Mary and I weren’t able to go on a honeymoon. We _________________ (can/go) away if my father ____________________ (not get) sick.
  4. Clarence showed me how the world would look without me. I _______________ (not know) that I was so important if Clarence ___________________ (not show) me.
  5. My old boss once made a terrible mistake. If I ___________________ (not help) him, he ____________________ (can/go) to jail.
  6. Mary ______________________ (may/not/lead) a happy life is she _______________ (not marry) me.
  7. Life here ____________________ (be) really different if I ________________ (not live)

b. Comment on each situation using a Third Conditional with if. Use would have, could have, or might have.

In a bookshop yesterday Daniel saw a book he really wanted. The only problem was that he didn’t have any money.

— Daniel would have bought the book if he had had any money.

Rita often goes to concerts at the town hall, although not to every one. There was one on Saturday, but she didn’t know about it.

— Rita might have gone to the concert if she had known about it.

1. On Sunday the guests had to have their lunch inside. Unfortunately it wasn’t warm enough to have it outside.

______________________________________________________________

2. There was a bomb scare last Tuesday. Sarah wanted to fly to Rome, but she wasn’t able to. The airport was closed.

______________________________________________________________

3. Laura has only met Nick once, and it’s possible she would recognize him. He passed her yesterday, but he had a crash-helmet on.

______________________________________________________________

4. Sarah has been quite busy, and she hasn’t watered her plants for some time. As a result, they’ve died.

______________________________________________________________

5. Nick likes ice hockey, but he didn’t have a ticket to the game last week, so unfortunately he wasn’t able to get in.

______________________________________________________________

L. 條件句的混合使用

條件句裡面的時間跟結果子句(主要子句)的時間可能是不同,可能是過去發生什麼事的條

件,導致現在的某個結果。或說明現在的條件是過去已經發生的結果的原因等等。可以

混合使用第二條件句跟第三條件句。

If he had eaten breakfast, he would not be hungry now.

(He didn’t eat breakfast, so he is hungry now.)

If he were a good student, he would have studied for the test yesterday.

(He is not a good student. He did not study for the test yesterday.)

If you hadn’t left all these dirty dishes, the place would look a bit tidier.

If I didn’t have all this work to do, I would have gone out for the day.

M. Complete the conversations. Put in the correct form of the verb. Use Past Simple, the Past Perfect, would, or would have.

A: You look tired.

B: Well, if you hadn’t woken (you/not/wake) me up in the middle of the night,

I wouldn’t be (I/not/be) so tired.

1. A: Is Trevor a practical person?

B: Trevor? No, he isn’t. If _______________________ (he/be) practical,

_________________________ (he/put) those shelves up a bit quicker. It

took hime ages.

2. A: Why are you sitting in the dark?

B: Let’s just say that if _________________________ (I/pay) my electricity

bill last month, ____________________________ (I/not be) in the dark now.

3. A: Why are you so angry with me? All I did yesterday was play basketball.

B: If _________________________ (you/love) me,

______________________ (you/not leave) me here alone on my birthday.

N. 條件句中if的省略

條件句中有were, had, 跟should這幾個助動詞時,條件句中的if可以省略。但在省略時,

if省略而子句必須要倒裝,也就是把助動詞were, had, should放到主詞前。

If I were you, I wouldn’t do that. — Were I you, I would do that.

If I had known, I would have told you. — Had I known, I would have told you.

If you should change your mind, please let me know immediately.

— Should you change your mind, please let me know immediately.

O. Create sentences with the same meaning by omitting if.

If you should need more money, go to the bank before six o’clock.

— Should you need more money, go to the bank before six o’clock.

  1. Your boss sounds like a real tyrant. If I were you, I would look for another job.
  2. She would have gotten the job if she had been better prepared.
  3. If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
  4. If there should be a global nuclear war, life on earth as we know it would end forever.
  5. If I were your teacher, I would insist you do better work.

P. Wish的用法

a. 當說話者所希望的跟現在或未來的事實不同,甚至相反時,wish後面接的子句中的動詞必需用過去簡單式。這種狀況下,動詞是be動詞時,所有的主詞皆用were。

S + wish (that) S + V2.

He wishes he had a yacht. (He doesn’t have a yacht, but he wants one.)

I wish I knew French. (I don’t know French.)

I wish she would tell me. (She will not tell me.)

Sometimes I wish I were a child again.

b. 當說話者要表達的是對於過去已經發生的事情的後悔或希望事情沒有發生時,wish後面接的子句中的動詞必須用過去完成式。

S + wish (that) S + had + V3.

They wish they had moved to the city. (They didn’t move to the city, and now they

think that was a mistake.)

c. 在wish後面可以接would,用來表達希望某個人或某件事會有不同的做法。表示希望未來可以按說話者的希望的方式發生,這個願望可能會實現,但也可能不會實現。常用來提出請求,或者抱怨,或後悔。

It’s raining. I wish it would stop. (I want it to stop raining.)

I’m expecting a call. I wish the phone would ring. (I want the phone to ring.)

We’re going to be late. I wish you would hurry.

I wish you would cook breakfast. You have more time than I do.

I wish she would visit more often. I really miss her.

wish後面的字句不用will。  I wish she will visit more often.

d. 在wish後面可以接could或could have 來表達想要當沒有實現的能力ability。

He wishes he could earn more money now.

He wishes he could have found a better job when he was younger.

I wish Mary could have come. (Mary couldn’t come.)

wish後面不用can。 He wishes he can earn more money.

e. wish用來祝福人的時候,不用子句的方式。直接加人跟祝福的話語

We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year!

He shook my hand and wished me luck.

Q.

a. Wish … the Past

Vicky is fed up. What is she saying? Use I wish.

(She can’t think straight.) — I wish I could think straight.

  1. (She is so tired.) ________________________________________________
  2. (She gets headaches.) ____________________________________________
  3. (Her work isn’t going well.) _________________________________________
  4. (She can’t concentrate.) ___________________________________________
  5. (Life is so complicated.)___________________________________________

b. Wish… Past Perfect

Complete the sentences. Use these words: accepted, caught, found ,played, saved, stayed

I spent all my money. — I wish now that I had saved it.

  1. I missed the train. I really wish ______________________________________
  2. Rita left the party early. I really wish _________________________________
  3. Emma refused the offer. But her parents wish ___________________________
  4. I looked everywhere for the key. I wish ________________________________
  5. The injured player could only watch. He wishes ___________________________

c. Complete: Read this article from a psychology magazine. Complete it with the correct form of the verbs in parentheses.

Wishes and Solutions

The old saying goes, “If wishes were horses, then beggars would ride.” “ I wish it

1. __________ (be) that easy,” says the therapist Joel Grimes. “But we can’t just wish problems 2. ________________ (will/go away). We have to make our own solutions. “ According to him, complainers are really saying, “I wish I                         3. ______________ (have) a magical solution. I wish I                                              4. _______________________ (not have to / deal) with this myself.” One client, for example, kept complaining, “ I wish I 5. ______________ (can/entertain) people, but my apartment is too small.” Grimes urged her to solve the problem. This year, she hosted a holiday open house, with people coming at different times. She still wishes she _________________ (can/invite) her whole family last year, but she learned she could solve her own problems. “At first clients get angry at me for not handling them solutions,” says Grimes. “But when they experience their own power, they wish they ______________ (know) about it sooner.”

Answer Key

C. 

  1. If you get promoted, your salary goes up.
  2. If I drink coffee late at night, I can’t sleep.
  3. If you don’t pay the bill, you get a warning letter.
  4. If I try to run fast, I get out of breath.
  5. If someone enters the building, the alarm goes off.
  6. If you lose your credit card, you have to ring the bank.

E. 

a. 

  1. will do, if, get
  2. If, win, will take
  3. If, become, will try
  4. will, do, if, lose
  5. If, lose, will continue, Unless, cooperate, won’t be, if, don’t elect, will be

b.

  1. If Rachel fail her driving test, she can take it again.
  2. If United loses, Tom will be upset.
  3. If the office is closed, Mark won’t be able to get in.
  4. If Nick arrives a bit early, he can help Tom to get things ready.
  5. If the party goes on all night, no one will want to do any work tomorrow.
  6. If Emma misses the train, she can get the next one.
  7. If Matthew enters the race, he’ll probably win it.

H. 

a

  1. If I had a dictionary, I could look the word up.
  2. If I wasn’t so busy, I would write to my friends.
  3. If my back wasn’t aching, I could play tennis.
  4. if Claire loved Henry, she would marry him.
  5. if he had a map, he could find his way.
  6. if he weren’t so clumsy, he wouldn’t have so many accidents.

b. 

1. you wouldn’t play   2. we go   3. I didn’t play  4. it would be   5. you think   6. you thought  7. it would be   8. it won’t be  9. I wouldn’t get

H.

c.  

I’ve got to stop staying up late reading “Peanuts”! If I weren’t always to tired, I would be able to stay awake in class. Whenever the teacher calls on me, I don’t know what to say. Then I get really embarrassed because of that cute red-haired girl that I like. I would talk to her if I weren’t so shy. My friend Jason says, “If I were you, I’d ask her to a party,” but I’m too afraid that if I asked her, she would say no. After class, I played baseball. Nobody wanted me on their team. If I played better, I would get chosen sometimes. Life is hard! I can really understand that Charlie Brown character in “Peanuts.” If fact, if I didn’t laugh so hard while reading “Peanuts,” I would cry!

M. 

  1. he were, he would have put
  2. I had paid, I wouldn’t be
  3. you loved, wouldn’t have left

K. a. 

had gone, would have become   

could (would) have one OR would have been able to go, hadn’t lost

could have gone, hadn’t gotten

wouldn’t have known, hadn’t shown

hadn’t helped, could have gone

might not have led, hadn’t married

would have been, hadn’t lived

K. b.

The guests could/would have had their lunch outside if it had been warm enough /if it hadn’t been so cold.

Sarah could/would have flown to Rome if the airport hadn’t been closed/had been open.

Laura might have recognized Nick if he hadn’t had a crash-helmet on.

Sarah’s plants wouldn’t have died/might not have died if she’d/she had watered them.

Nick could/would have got in (to the ice hockey game) if he’d/had had a ticket.

O. 

  1. Were I you, I would look for another job.
  2. Had she been better prepared, she would have gotten the job.
  3. Had they realized the danger, they would have done it differently.
  4. Should there be a global nuclear war, life on earth as we know it would end forever.
  5. Were I your teacher, I would insist you do better work.

Q. 

a. 

  1. I wish I weren’t so tired.
  2. I wish I didn’t get (these) headaches.
  3. I wish my work were going well.
  4. I wish I could concentrate.
  5. I wish life weren’t so complicated.

b. 

  1. I had caught it.
  2. she had stayed.
  3. she had accepted it.
  4. I had found it. / I could have found it.
  5. he could have played.

c. 

  1. were   2. would go away  3. had   4. didn’t have to deal  5. could entertain

6. could have invited/had been able to invite  7. had known

17 thoughts on “進階文法L12 第二十章 條件句和願望 Conditional Sentences and Wishes

  1. Yi Ching Chen says:

    潔西老師你好~~~
    請問一下:
    1)) H.b的題目中, 第(7)題: And I think (7) _______________ (it/be) better if we forget all about my birthday.
    答案是: it would be.
    我剛剛做題目的時候也是it would be better就這樣下意識地唸出來, 但是我看到後面if子句裡的forget是原型動詞, 所以我就有點困惑是否這裡要變成it will be better. 因為如果是would的話if子句不是就該變成forgot了嗎?還是這裡有例外呢?

    2)) Q.c題目中, 第(1)題: The old saying goes, “If wishes were horses, then beggars would ride.”“ I wish it 1. __________ (be) that easy,” says the therapist Joel Grimes.
    答案是:were
    我是寫would be. 感覺他有在埋怨 not easy的感覺.

    還請潔西老師幫我解答一下…
    謝謝!!!

    另外"第三條件句"K題目沒有找到答案耶…

    1. jessie says:

      You couldn’t download it because it was a .page file which only works on Mac. I changed it to PDF and you should be able to download it now. Try again and I think it should work. If not, please let me know. Thanks a lot 🙂

  2. Sanny says:

    老師你好想請問妳零條件句中的例句

    c. 主要子句的部分也可以視情況用情態助動詞modals。

    You might learn more if you watch American TV series.
    這裡的might為什麼是用過去式

    第三條件句中的例句

    c. had跟would都可以跟主詞合併縮寫成’d。

    If you’d rung me, I’d have come to see you.

    If you had rung me, I would have come to see you.
    這裡的come不用過去分詞嗎

    不好意思問題好多:’)

  3. Lucy says:

    抱歉想問一下這句:
    It was his father’s wish that he become reconciled with his family.

    這句應該也算假設句吧? 為何 後面是用that he “become"…他不是第三人稱嗎?為何不用加S? 或用became?

    此句來源:http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/reconcile
    (第二點的例句)

    真的是想破頭也不知道為什麼,想麻煩Jessie老師解惑一下,謝謝您。

  4. Lucy says:

    抱歉想問一下這句:
    It was his father’s wish that he become reconciled with his family.

    這句應該也算假設句吧? 為何 後面是用that he “become"…他不是第三人稱嗎?為何不用加S? 或用became?

    此句來源:http://www.macmillandictionary.com/dictionary/british/reconcile
    (第二點的例句)

    http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-02-14/crimes-of-passion-on-show-at-national-portrait-gallery/7165750

    還有這篇外國文章也是假設語氣,第三人稱用單數形式:
    “"So Moonlite’s wish that he be buried alongside Nesbitt in Gundagai was not realised until 1995, when his body was exhumed and buried next to Nesbitt’s – which is what he wanted all along," she said."

    So Moonlite’s wish that he be buried alongside….(wish that he “be"….)

    真的是想破頭也不知道為什麼,請問這是甚麼用法? 有規則嗎?
    想麻煩Jessie老師解惑一下,謝謝您。

    1. jessie says:

      我不是那麼確定,不過覺得這應該不是假設語氣的問題,而是 subjective noun clauses 的用法

      英文有個 Subjunctive Noun Clauses ,用在某些特定的獨立子句中的動詞與形容詞是用來表達緊急urgency,勸告advisability,必須necessity,與慾望desirability時,在這種狀況下,他的後面的that名詞子句中的動詞必須用動詞原型。表達否定則在動詞前面加not。

      動詞:advise, ask, command, demand, direct, insist, move, order, prefer, propose, recommend, request, require, suggest, urge,等。
      形容詞:advisable, better, desirable, essential, imperative, important, mandatory, necessary, urgent, vital, 等。

      下面這些句子是從 Writing Academic English Longman 出來的句子,在這樣的動詞的後面,子句的動詞都是用原形,一般比較沒有那麼常見,比較正式的寫作會比較常看到

      The company president urged that the market department be more aggressive.
      She insisted that the company not lose any customers to its competitors.
      It’s necessary that each salesperson work long hours.
      It was recommended that the department not hire new staff at this time.

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