進階文法L8 第十六章,第十九章 連接詞

這是Azar的Understanding and Using English Grammar的第十六章跟第十九章的重點整理。潔西今天不小心修修改改又弄了一天,怎麼一下子天就黑了,真的是粉會摸啊!早上被吵醒,做點scone比斯吉,然後磨個咖啡豆,打個奶泡,做了三個口味的比斯吉加上黑糖拿鐵,還上傳照片到FB才九點不到,然後開始備課,真的是會摸會拖會改,一整天下來,下午昏迷了不到十分鐘,然後繼續用咖啡跟比斯吉撐,一邊吃比斯吉,一邊覺得,恩,真的很好吃耶,呵呵,就一個老王啊XD

這篇的重點的是希望給同學一個概念,從八個詞性,五個基本句型,三種子句的簡述,四種句子的句型,有了概念後就會知道要如何來連接句子,也比較可以寫出正確的文章。其實也就是整個英文大致上的基本架構,一直以來講了很多文法都是一部份一部份,見樹不見林,可因為這東西很多,每次一講起來同學就暈倒,沒有點概念的聽了可能會一個頭兩個大,今天改了一些,希望可以清楚一點,其實今天主要在說的是怎麼樣把詞性跟做正確的句子的聯結,潔西覺得還是不是寫的很好,但目前也就只能寫到這兒,不然頭又要痛起來了,喝喝。

再次聲明歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但是請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血, 尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:)  又今天摘要使用的練習題來自下面的書,所有版權屬原公司所有。摘自Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar

A. 文章的元素

letter – word – phrase – clause – sentence – paragraph – essay

1. letter 字母:英文有二十六個"字母" ,如”b”

2. word 單字: 一個或一個以上的字母組合就形成單字,如”a”, “book”

3. phrase 片語:兩個以上單字形成片語,有動詞、名詞、形容詞與副詞片語。如“get up”

4. clause 子句: 有一組主詞與動詞與其他必要部分就叫一個子句。

非獨立子句independent clause:子句中有主詞,有動詞,但語意不完整,無法單獨成為

一個完整的句子,一定要要再加上一個主要子句才可。

如: Before I go to bed

獨立子句dependent clause:子句中有主詞,有動詞,語義完整。相當於一個句子。

如: I brush my teeth.

5. sentence 句子: 一個句子有主詞,有動詞,語義完整。一個非獨立子句可以跟一個獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

如:I brush my teeth before I go to bed.

三種非獨立子句都可以與獨立子句結合成完整的句子。

  1. noun clause 名詞子句 I don’t think that’s a good idea.
  2. adjective clause 形容詞子句 I like the cafe which we went yesterday.
  3. adverb clause 副詞子句  If you don’t study hard, you will fail the exam.

6. paragraph 段落:幾個句子就形成一個段落。每個段落都有一個主旨,短的段落可能只有一句,長的可以到十句或更多。常見的段落模式如下

  1. topic sentence 主題句,用來說明段落大意
  2. supporting sentences 支持句,用來闡述說明主題
  3. concluding sentence  結論句,用來結尾

7. essay 文章   幾個有組織的段落就形成一篇文章

B. 八大詞類( the parts of speech)               

要學好英文,詞性非常重要。學到一個新單字的時候要先注意它的詞性,不同詞性的用法可能不同,適用於不同句型的句子。千萬不可以只是中翻英。

翻譯這兩個句子:

他對小孩子沒耐心。 He has no patience with kids. / He is not patient with kids.

我對英文很有興趣。 I’m interested in English. / I have an interest in English.

每個英文單字都可以歸類為英文的八大詞類之一。同一個字可能有好幾種不同的詞性。如: Love is in the air. 與 I love you. 這兩個句子中love 分別是名詞與動詞。同一個字的詞性不同時,意義也可能不同。如:在The exam was really hard.中這個句子的hard是形容詞,表示困難的。work hard, play hard這個片語的hard是副詞,表示程度上很努力地做某事。所以記單字時要一併把詞性跟用法記住才能寫出與說出正確的句子。

八大詞類( the parts of speech) 

分別是動詞,名詞,代名詞,形容詞,副詞,連接詞,介系詞跟感歎詞。

1. 動詞 (verbs):

用來描述一個動作或狀態的字。在英文當中可說是最重要也最困難的。一般放在主詞的後面。英文用動詞來表達時態,主動被動。動詞主要分三種。

a. 行為動詞:用來表達主詞的行為或動作。又可分

(a.)不及物動詞 intransitive verb

不及物動詞表達主詞所作的動作,後面不需要受詞。

Time flies. / Time flies when you’re having fun.

My father shaves. / My father shaves every morning before he goes to work.

(b.)及物動詞 transitive verb

及物動詞把主詞的動作轉移到另外一個名詞,也就是受詞的身上,所以及物動詞後

面一定有一個接受動作的受詞。有些特別的動詞(授與動詞)會有兩個受詞。

He bought a diamond engagement ring.

He bought a diamond engagement ring for his girlfriend last night.

Tim ate three hamburgers.

Tim ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

b. 連綴動詞 linking verb

連綴動詞經常用來表達狀態,或一些小動作。連綴動詞把主詞動詞後面的主詞補語連

接在一起。主詞補語通常是名詞或形容詞。主詞補語為名詞時,會等於主詞。主詞補

語為形容詞是用來修飾主詞。

I feel sick.  / You look tired.

My mother is a housewife.

c. 助動詞 auxiliary verb

助動詞與主要動詞合併起來成為一個動詞片語,用來表達時態或語態等。

The band is coming to Taiwan next month.

He didn’t go to school yesterday.

I can’t swim.

動詞: 動詞的四個面貌:動詞依時態不同會有不同的面貌

  1. Present (V1) 動詞原型: I work from nine to five.
  2. Past (V2) 動詞過去式: I worked late last night.
  3. Past Participle (V3) 動詞過去分詞: I have worked hard.
  4. Present Participle (V-ing) 動詞現在分詞: I am working now.

2. 名詞 (nouns):名詞用來表達人、事、物、地等。英文句子的構成要件就是主詞跟動詞。名詞用來當主詞、受詞與補語。名詞當主詞時放在句首,當受詞與補語時放在動詞後面。主詞一定要是名詞,所以當要表達的字是動詞時,必須把動詞加上ing成為動名詞或加上不定詞to。名詞可以接在其他詞類後形成片語。只有形容詞才可以用來修飾名詞。

如:Peter, Taipei, table, truth..等。

Albert is a nice guy.

Barack Obama is the current President of the United States.

Baking and swimming are my hobbies.

B. 八大詞類( the parts of speech) 

3. 代名詞 (pronouns):是用來取代名詞的字。前面已經提過的名詞或是說話的人彼此都知道的名詞都可用代名詞代替。主要是避免重複。用法與主詞雷同。

如:you, him, herself, everyone, this, which, what…等。

Will you give me your name and phone number?

My father is very tall. He’s one meter 85.

4. 形容詞 (adjectives):用來形容、描述、說明一個名詞或代名詞。形容詞多放在修飾的名詞前或放在連綴動詞後。用時注意形容詞有表達正面的跟表達負面的形容詞,另外有比較級,有最高級。

如:hot, Taiwanese, her, that, some, whose…

The most popular Taiwanese drink is probably pearl milk tea.

The coffee tastes bitter.

5. 副詞 (adverbs):用來修飾動詞、形容詞,副詞,或整個句子,表達程度,次數,頻率等等。副詞不可以修飾名詞。副詞的移動性很高,常放在動詞後,形容詞前,也可放句首或句尾。不同的副詞按照強調的部分不同,可放不同地方,意義也會有所不同。頻率副詞多放一般動詞前,be動詞後。

如:always, usually, sometimes, quickly, late, very…等。

Fortunately, she won the lottery.

It’s appropriate not to take your shoes off at the door.

not為副詞,修飾to take your shoes off at the door,意思是在門口不脫鞋是恰當的。

在有些國家,鞋子可以直接穿進屋子裡,所以在門口不用脫鞋子,這是合宜的做法。

It’s not appropriate to take your shoes off at the door.

not 為副詞,修飾appropriate,意思是在門口脫鞋是不恰當的。

在台灣,可以在門口脫鞋子,可是在有些國家,把門口把鞋子脫掉卻是不合宜的做法。

It’s okay not to take medicine.  不吃藥沒關係。

It’s not OK to take medicine.     吃藥是不可以的。

6. 連接詞 (conjunctions):用來連接單字 (words)、片語 (phrases)或子句 (clauses)。注意連接詞所連接的詞性必須一致。

  1. 對等連接詞 coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, yet, so
  2. 從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunctions: if, before, because, when
  3. 關係連接詞 correlative conjunctions: either…or, neither…nor, both…and,  whether…or, not only…but also

It was raining, but they still went to the park.

Although John was sick, he still went to work.

He’s the kind of person you either love or hate.

B. 八大詞類( the parts of speech)

7. 介係詞 (prepositions):用來表達兩件事物的關係,如位置、方向、空間、時間或因果等。後面一定要加名詞,代名詞或動名詞結合成介係詞片語。

如:about, around, in, on under, of, under, with, between, for… 等。

He arrived in London on Sunday morning.

I get up at 7 o’clock from Monday to Friday.

I’m looking forward to seeing you.

8. 感嘆詞 (interjections):用來表達強烈的情緒或驚訝。

如:oh, wow, yeah, ouch…等。

Oh! I didn’t know that was you.

Wow! It’s unbelievable.

Ouch! You stepped on my foot!

閱讀下列短文,寫出每個詞性的前三個字,不要重複。

Tom thinks Mary is wonderful. He loves her madly, and he dreams of marrying her,

but unfortunately he is too old for her. Today they are at a café with their friends

Mandy and Jack, so Tom can’t get romantic with Mary.

  1. 動詞verb:
  2. 名詞noun:
  3. 代名詞pronoun:
  4. 形容詞adjective:
  5. 副詞adverb:
  6. 連接詞conjunction:
  7. 介系詞preposition:

五大基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns)  

英文有五個基本句型,但是這些句型會加上其他的詞性或子句而形成不同的句型。先記

住基本的句型概念,在解讀句子跟選擇詞性方面都會比較容易。也比較容易寫出正確的

句子。就像蓋房子,先打好地基,再把房子一層層往上蓋會比較容易。

英文是主動詞的語言。就是一個句子至少都要有要有一個主詞,一個動詞。

動詞分a. 行為動詞(action verbs)與b. 連綴動詞 (linking verbs)。

a. 行為動詞:用來描述主詞的動作或狀態:

(a.) 及物動詞 (transitive verbs):此類動詞的後面一定要接受詞,受詞可為人或物。這

概念與中文不太一樣。中文可以說我喜歡,英文不可說I like. 因為like是及物動詞,

後面一定要加受詞。

(b.)非及物動詞 (intransitive verbs):此類動詞的後面不接受詞。

b. 連綴動詞:用來連接主詞與主詞補語,表狀態,其後通常接名詞或形容詞。

S主詞,V動詞,O受詞,SC主詞補語,OC受詞補語,IO間接受詞,DO直接受詞

Sentence Patterns Examples
1. S + V Time flies.
2. S + V + O I love you.
3. S + V + SC You are late.
4. S + V + IO + DO He wrote her a letter.
5. S + V + O + OC We elected Tom class leader.

1. S + V (主詞 Subject + 不及物動詞Intransitive Verb)

因為不及物動詞後不須加受詞,所以只要有主詞與不及物動詞就可以表達一個完整的句

子。但是英文句子一般不會只有兩個字,而會加上修飾語來修飾。

Peter shaves every morning.

The children are dancing happily.

2. S + V + O (主詞 Subject + 及物動詞 Transitive Verb + 直接受詞 Direct Object

及物動詞後要有接受動作的對象,所以一定要加受詞。受詞可以是人也可以是物。

Andrew calls his girlfriend every day.

My mother cleans the house twice a week.

3. S + V + SC (主詞Subject + 連綴動詞 Linking Verb + 主詞補語 Subjective Complement)

連綴動詞是連接主詞語主詞補語的橋樑。補語主要是用來補充說明。主詞補語可為名詞或形容詞,用來說明或描述主詞。

Nancy is a housewife.

The boy became angry.

4. S + Vt + IO + DO = S + Vt + DO + Preposition + IO

(主詞 Subject + 及物動詞 Transitive Verb + 間接受詞 Indirect Object + 直接受詞 Direct Object

=主詞 Subject + 及物動詞 Transitive Verb + 直接受詞 Direct Object + 介係詞 Preposition +

間接受詞 Indirect Object)

有些及物動詞比較特殊,這些動詞又叫授與動詞。授與動詞有兩個受詞,一個為間接受詞,多為人,另一個為直接受詞,多為物。當動詞後先接直接受詞時要加上介係詞才再加上間接受詞。

The secretary made the boss a cup of coffee.

= The secretary made a cup of coffee for the boss.

Kenny bought his wife a diamond ring.

= Kenny bought a diamond ring for his wife.

5. S + V + O + OC

(主詞 Subject + 及物動詞 Transitive Verb + 直接受詞 Direct Object + 受詞補語 Objective Complement)

少數的特殊及物動詞後即使加了受詞,語意還是不完整所以還要再加上受詞補語來讓語意完整。受詞補語可以是名詞或形容詞。這些特殊動詞不多,常用的記住就可以了。如:elect, vote, appoint, consider, label, designate, name, prove, declare, think, call, believe, pronounce…等。

The voters elected Ma Ying-jeou president.

The students considered the class interesting.

將下列句子的主詞、動詞、受詞、補語等標出,並決定該句子為五大句型中的哪一個句型。

1. He writes his girlfriend a love letter every day.

2. My mom enjoys cooking for our family.

3. She bought a necklace for her mother.

4. She felt her heart beating fast.

5. She sells seashells on the seashore.

6. The baby has been crying for an hour.

7. The coffee smells good.

8. The judge proved the woman innocent.

9. Time flies quickly.

10. Time is money.

D. 子句的種類  types of clauses 

子句有三種,分名詞子句、形容詞子句跟副詞子句。

1. 名詞子句noun clause:整個子句當名詞用,不是當句子的主詞就是受詞。

2. 形容詞子句adjective clause:整個子句當形容詞用,一定是用來修飾名詞。

3. 副詞子句adverb clause:整個子句當副詞用,像時間子句,條件子句等都是副詞子句,整個子句當副詞用,用來修飾動詞或整個句子。

1. 名詞子句 noun clause

I   think  that Jessie  is  a crazy teacher.

(    S            V                           )    —noun clause

S    V                 O

That the earth  is  round  is   true.

(         S             V          )                   —noun clause

S                       V   SC

I don’t know where she lives.

(            S   V  )                 —noun clause

S    V              O

名詞子句放在最前面帶領子句的有that,whether,if,疑問詞what、when、where、who等。that除了在句首外一般可以省略,其他的疑問詞等則不可省。

2. 形容詞子句 adjective clause

The book  which  I  read  last night  was  great.

(         S   V                    )             —adjective clause

S                                                 V    SC

I  like  movies   that  make  me laugh.

(  S     V                   )         —adjective clause

S  V    O

I’ll never forget the day when I  got married.

(        S   V              )        —adjective clause

S        V       O

形容詞子句又叫關係子句。而放在最前面帶領形容詞子句的字就叫做關係代名詞,如that、what、who、when、where、whose等。通常做為受詞的關係代名詞如which、whom、that,可以省略,可是在限定子句時又不能省。名詞與副詞子句都有who、what、where這些疑問詞,所以容易混淆。其實只要注意子句本身的功能與修飾的對象,應該就可以分得很清楚了。

D. 子句的種類  types of clauses

3. 副詞子句 adverb clause

He ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

(              S   V                     )     –adverb clause

S  V        O

If you don’t have enough money, you can give it to me next time.

(     S       V                              )               –adverb clause

S     V

He was talking on the phone while he was driving.

(       S       V          )              –adverb clause

S          V

副詞子句一般是大家最熟悉的,種類也最多。副詞子句可以用來表達時間、因果、對比、條件、讓步等等。副詞子句最前面帶領子句的字叫做從屬連接詞subordinating conjunctions,是用來連接主要子句跟副詞子句的橋樑。

當主要子句在前面時,因為很清楚的可以知道副詞子句是由從屬連接詞開始,所以不需要逗號,如第一與第三句。而當副詞子句在句首時,要有一個逗號清楚地把副詞子句跟主要子句隔開來,如第二個句子。當然這些從屬連接詞是都不能省略的囉。

例外:

當while表示對比,或者是though, 或although在中間時,也會有逗號,但是其他連接詞在中間時,則不需要逗號。

Schools in the north tend to be better equipped, while those in the south are relatively poor.

I thought he’d been drinking, though I wasn’t completely sure.

You can copy down my answers, although I’m not sure they’re right.

E. 句子的種類 types of sentences

四個句子的種類

1. simple sentences 簡單句

I love beef.

2. compound sentences 並和句

I love beef, but I hate pork.

3. complex sentences 複合句

Although I love beef, I hate pork.

4.compound-complex sentences 混合句

My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a day.

1. 簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,但整體視為

一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

2. 並合句是由對等連接詞(and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet,可以用fanboys記)將兩個獨立

子句連接而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.

3. 複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(如because, although, when, before等)所帶

領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。可能包

含了一個名詞子句,或形容詞子句,或副詞子句。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

I can’t believe she is only 17.

4. 混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句形成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did

nothing.

轉折語Transitional signals       

要把兩個句子連接在一起的時候,有不同的方式。但是必須要按照適當的句型,用適當的連接詞來連接。千萬不要用逗號把兩個獨立子句連接在一起。

1. 對等詞 coordinators

對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個,可用fanboys來記:  and, but, so, or, nor, for, yet

b.  配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 有五個:

both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor,

whether … or。

這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

Would you rather take a written or an oral exam?

The system is not only complicated but also inefficient.

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句, 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

S + V, CC S + V.

I was feeling hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

2. 從屬詞subordinator

從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction 是帶領副詞子句的連接詞,如although, when, while, before, after, because, if, as, 等。

它會放在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

SC + S + V, S + V.     or    S + V + SC + S + V.

Because I was feeling hungry, I made myself a sandwich.

I made myself a sandwich because I was hungry.

3. 轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

S + V; CA, S + V.       or    S + V. CA, S + V.

I was feeling hungry; therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. Therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. I made myself a sandwich, therefore.

I was feeling hungry. I, therefore, made myself a sandwich.

4. 其他others

有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語如in addition to,動詞如cause等也可以用來表示轉折語。這些次沒有特定的標點符號規則,必須注意前後的字詞的用法。

An additional reason for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

G. 轉折語列表 Chart of Transition Signals                

用法 1. 對等詞 2. 從屬詞 3. 轉折語 4. 其他
additional idea

附加

and

nor

also

besides

furthermore

in addition

moreover

too

another

an additional

compare things

比較

and

both…and

not only …

but also

neither…

nor

as

just as

also

likewise

similarly

too

as…as

like/alike

just like

similar to

be alike

be similar

opposite idea

contrast things

相反

對比

but

yet

although

even though

though

whereas

while

however

nevertheless

nonetheless

on the other

hand

on the contrary

in contrast

instead

in/by comparison

still

despite

in spite of

compared to

compared with

differ from

be different

be dissimilar

be unlike

alternative

選擇

or if

unless

otherwise
cause or reason

理由或原因

for because

since

as

due to

because of

result from

as a result of

effect or result

影響或結果

so thus

hence

therefore

accordingly

as a result

as a consequence

consequently

result in

cause

affect

the cause of

the reason for

example

舉例

for example

for instance

such as

like

an example of

chronological order

時間順序

first, second,

first of all

then, next

now, then, soon

last, finally

meanwhile

gradually

after that

since then

the first

the next

the last

the final

before lunch

after the war

since 1999

explain and restate

解釋或陳述

indeed

that is

emphasize

強調

in fact
order of importance

重要性

above all

first and foremost

most importantly

primarily

the most important

the primary

to conclude

結論

all in all

in brief

in conclusion

in short

in summary

indeed

It is clear

that…

We can see

that..

The evidence   suggests that…

上面的表格提供在連接句子時可以用的字的參考,一定要按照每個字的用法不同,比方說是對等連接詞,從屬連接詞,與轉折語,或其他用字,正確連接兩個句子。

1.  對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句,連接詞一 定放在兩個句子中間。

It is an old car, but it is very reliable.

2. 從屬連接詞帶領非獨立子句來連接另一個 獨立子句,從屬連接詞在句首句子

需要逗號分開,在句中則不需要。

Although I can’t help admiring the man’s courage, I do not approve of

his methods.

This is my responsibility, although I appreciate your offer.

3. 轉折字或連接副詞用來連接兩個獨立子句時,需用分號把子句分開。或可連

接兩個句子。

This is a cheap and simple process. However, there are dangers.

though跟although的用法相同,但though比較非正式。even though跟although相似,但是even though語氣比較強烈。

  1. Exercise

a. Complete the report by putting in correct linking words (but, although, however, even though, in spite of, and despite). There is always more than one possible answer.

1____________ the ground was very wet, it was decided to go ahead with United’s game against City. United were 1-0 winners 2______________ not playing very well.   3____________ the poor conditions, City played some attractive football, 4____________ they just couldn’t score.  5. _______________  they lost, their fans gave the a big cheer.

b. Put in these words: although, because, due to, if, in case, in order to, in spite of, so, so that, unless

  1. __________ it was late, Nick didn’t seem in a hurry to leave.
  2. They put video cameras in shops _____________ stop people stealing things.
  3. We decided to go out for a meal ____________ we were simply too tired.
  4. _____________ you’re ready, we can start now.
  5. Our room was very small, ____________ we didn’t really mind.
  6. No one was watching the television, ______________ I switched it off.
  7. You can’t drive a car ______________ you’ve got a license.
  8. ______________ having absolutely no talent, Guy became a popular TV personality.
  9. I think my answer are right, but can I just check them with yours ___________.
  10. The road was closed ________________ an accident.
  11. Olivia booked a babysitter ______________ she could go out for the evening.

Answer Key

  1. 八大詞類( the parts of speech)
  1. 動詞verb: thinks, is, loves
  2. 名詞noun: Tom, Mary, café
  3. 代名詞pronoun: He, her, they
  4. 形容詞adjective: wonderful, old, romantic
  5. 副詞adverb: madly, unfortunately, too
  6. 連接詞conjunction: and, but, so
  7. 介系詞preposition: of, for, at

五大基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns) 

1. He writes his girlfriend a love letter every day.

S  +  V      +   IO             + DO

2. My mom enjoys cooking for our family.

S         + V      +  O

3. She bought a necklace for her mother.

S     + V      + DO        + prep  +  IO

4. She felt her heart beating fast.

S   + V    + O           + OC

5. She sells seashells on the seashore.

S   + V    +  O

6. The baby has been crying for an hour.

S                + V

7. The coffee smells good.

S           + V     + SC

8. The judge proved the woman innocent.

S         + V          + O          + OC

9. Time flies quickly.

S     + V

10. Time is money.

S    + V + SC

H. Exercise 

a.

1. Although    2. in spite of / despite   3. In spite of / Despite    4. but / although / though   5. Even though / although / though

b.

1. Although   2. in order to   3. because   4. If    5. but   6. so  7. unless  8. In spite of  9. in case   10. due to   11. so that

4 thoughts on “進階文法L8 第十六章,第十九章 連接詞

  1. 方子仁 says:

    剛好看到這篇在講連接詞,所以想問老師!
    If you don’t respect my country, nor do I.
    看到朋友很氣憤地講了這句,我聽的懂他的意思,但我猜English speaker是否聽不懂?

    因為這句話是不是變成 如果你不尊重我的國家 那我也不尊重(我的國家)
    但是他要表達的意思應該不是這樣

    所以如果是要說 我也不會尊重你的國家,要該怎麼說呢?是不是就不會用這種句型了?

    謝謝老師的解答!(太愛這個部落格惹)

    1. jessie says:

      native speaker 懂不懂的話就看他跟外國人接觸多少,對語言的敏感度,情境,還有上下文。

      我先前一些外國朋友的中文都怪怪的,恩,中文很難啦,要說好真的不容易,但是其實我跟周遭的朋友也都能懂,尤其我們這些語言老師,然後跟他說的中文也變得怪怪了…因為要讓他懂

      就句型來說 if 帶領的是副詞子句,後面需要一個主要子句, nor 會連接兩個獨立子句,所以用法不是很正確。 nor do I 的這個部分也會覺得是要說 i don’t respect my country ,就語意省略的部分來說。

      單純說我不會尊重你的國家,我大概會用 I won’t respect your country, either. 但是應該還是要看上下文前後說什麼。不敢保證一定正確。覺得怪怪的句子。另外連中文都有點小孩在吵架那種味道…哈哈。

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