基礎文法L12 第十四章 名詞子句Noun Clauses

耶!基礎第十二課,上完一本課本了,萬歲!然後暑假也過了,不知該笑還該哭,對於這淒慘的暑假,還沒跟我的陽光,我的沙灘,我的比基尼約會,暑假就這樣溜走了。算了,反正並沒有穿比基尼的身材,還是不要嚇人,呵呵。

超忙的暑假,而且發生很多事,潔西的心情大致上除了上課外,還挺常處在一個不好的狀態,主因之一也是頭痛不斷,身體大小突發狀況一堆,一天到晚中暑到一個不行,然後呢忙到頭痛?還是常頭痛到什麼都不能做,所以壓縮時間變得更忙呢?就一整個英文的vicious circle惡性循環啊!覺得非常對不起星期五這個文法班的同學,因為這12堂課,頭痛比沒頭痛的天數還多。翻了一下記事本,天啊,12天中有記錄吃強力英明格的日子就有五天,沒寫到的,沒有痛到吃藥的天數可能更多,然後因為不舒服,也因為忙,所以每次上課都是當天才開始寫講義,常常是跟頭痛作戰還要一邊寫講義,潔西是個講義狂,有多少時間就花多少時間寫,有沒有時間概念,幾乎每次都寫到最後一分鐘,欲罷不能,所以三不五十騎老爸的車子去上課,也趕了幾次計程車,然後當然常常趕到沒時間吃晚餐,像今天這樣還有悠哉的一邊吃一邊看影集的時候真的是難得。

雖然希望可以上的更好,說得更清楚,但是常常心有餘力不足,也覺得課上得不夠有趣啊,但是,唉,一言難盡。其實這個文法課潔西是幫別的老師代課,而且是自己閒閒很悠哉的時候問主管有沒有文法課可以上,剛好有老師請假,潔西就來代課了。結果一不小心開始超忙碌,外加暑假,人狂多,天氣狂熱,潔西狂生病,就是一個字,慘。真的非常謝謝這個班的同學的體諒,老師有時說話都口齒非常得不清,因為吃了英明格,這強力止痛藥,對大腦影響不下,另外潔西幾乎都睡不著,所以三不五十的安眠藥也讓大腦變得遲鈍,口條非常差,這真的不是藉口,是不想要的親身體驗。

其實已經有放掉一個班了,可是上個星期上課前頭又痛到快捉狂的時候,想說,要不要跟主管說把這個文法班下一期也放掉,會不會對學生比較好?但是呢,想說有潔西的學生已經說要去上潔西的班了,又不想讓同學失望,掙扎了很久,決定還是繼續上,不過下一期就不寫講義了。藍色的課本編的比較好,整理也比較齊全,不寫講義也有比較多時間思考上課的方式,講解的方式,或許還可以做一兩個活動。今天的講義只有9張,其中三張是文法書上的題目跟答案。所以呢,總共潔西寫的是6張,從一起床11點到下午5點,寫6個小時加打字。潔西自己都覺得很誇張,再說這名詞子句沒有很難。當然當中有吃點早餐跟午餐,跟同學聊一下天,不過還是大部分時間有專心寫。寫足五個小時絕對有,寫很久是因為潔西在想說怎麼樣說,怎麼樣寫,舉怎麼樣的例子才會讓同學比較容易懂。

因為其實市面上的文法書包括這本Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar很多都是英文翻中文,翻過來其實有時候是中文,但還是很難看得懂,還有說明的方式,或很少的說明,潔西自己都不愛,有時候還要看很久,看英文還比較容易理解。潔西真的覺得文法這東西其實沒有那麼難,恩,好啦,老實說,文法其實有難,但是一般人日常生活需要用的其實不難,不用所有都記起來所有都懂,但是呢要能夠理解,會應用才算學到。但是文法書寫得很難懂,所以大家就只能打退堂鼓。很可惜啊!潔西一直有個心願,希望可以寫一本簡單易懂的文法書讓同學,讓想學習的人可以比較容易懂。不過呢有了部落格這種東西,其實也不一定要寫書,效果一樣啊,呵呵。

潔西有時候覺得自己跟個傻瓜一樣啊,2個小時的課,花6個小時寫講義,怎麼算都不合成本原則,呵呵,還好,潔西的人生不是以賺錢為目的,是以讓自己開心為目的。潔西也不知道為什麼,很喜歡文法,因為是喜歡的東西,所以會花時間,看不同的文法書,整理一些用法,好東西想要跟別人分享,呵呵。還有,真的一路教書十多年來覺得台灣人的文法真的有夠需要加強,即便說得很流利的人有時候還是亂七八糟令人頭痛的文法啊。真的很可惜。

潔西很喜歡學生,這個暑假常常頭痛到一個想哭的地步,還是不得不一邊上課,然後呢看到可愛的學生,自己都覺得不可思議怎麼笑得出來,但上課的時候還是很開心地笑了,跟同學有說有笑,下課後繼續痛,哇哈哈。這個暑假最大的安慰就是上課的時候大部分都是很開心的,有很多很棒的學生超開心。不過呢有時候也是為了學生的事很傷心啊,呵呵。有時候想說能不能不要那麼在乎,但是就是很難,所以呢就多找一些開心的事做來分散注意力。寫講義就挺開心的,呵呵,印出來的時候,覺得很有成就感,但是常常有錯誤@_@大家幫忙校對吧,大大感恩。

最近好少照顧部落格,因為一二要準備一二三四的課,星期五一整天備課。今天天氣好好,好想出去走走,但是就寫不完啊,還好在五點多寫完,所以還可以騎個車,吃個飯再去上課。明天一早要上課,下午通常放空。然後星期天要打掃洗衣,覺得好久沒休息了喔。身體狀況問題有點嚴重,希望可以趕快找到解決方案,然後好好的休息一下。

廢話說很多,呵呵,這一課主要在說名詞子句 noun clause,direct speech/quoted speech 引用句,也就是某人說什麼,還有當改成 indirect speech/reported speech報導句時,時態該怎麼改,不會很難,可是假如時態沒學好,這裡就會很難理解。

再次聲明歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:)  又今天摘要使用的練習題來自下面的書,所有版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.1

A.  名詞子句概述

1. 名詞子句是一個非獨立子句,本身有主詞,有動詞,但是語意不完整,整個子句當做名詞用,必須跟一個主要子句結合才能成一個完整的句子。

名詞子句 :  where he lives

主要子句:I don’t know something.

完整的句子:I don’t know where he lives.

2. 名詞子句的功用是把整個子句當名詞用,所以可以當主詞,受詞,主詞補語等。

a. 當主詞:That the earth is getting warmer is true.

b. 當受詞:I wonder why he didn’t show up.

c. 當主詞補語:Tom’s problem is that he works too hard.

3. 名詞子句的主要三種句型

a. 用WH疑問詞帶領的名詞子句

I remember what he said.

b. 用if/whether帶領的名詞子句

He wants to know if she will join us.

c. 用that帶領的名詞子句

I’m sorry that I skipped class yesterday.

B. 嵌入問句embedded questions:英文當要表達對於某些事情不了解或要客氣地問一些問題時,常會用嵌入問句。也就是把一個原本的問句改成直述句,放入句子當中。嵌入問句可分成由WH疑問詞帶領的名詞子句跟if/whether帶領的名詞子句。

1. 嵌入問句本身為直述句,所以要先把原本的問句改為直述句才是一個嵌入問句。

Which way is the MRT station? —- which way the MRT station is

He wants to know which way the MRT station is.

Is there an MRT station nearby? — there is an MRT station nearby

He wants to know if/whether there is an MRT station nearby.

2. 嵌入問句不影響原本主要子句的標點符號。原主要子句是直述句時,句尾用句號,原主要子句是疑問句時,句尾用問號。

I don’t know whose bag this is.

Do you know whose bag this is?

I don’t know if he is married.

Do you know if he is married?

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.2

C.   WH疑問詞帶領的名詞子句

嵌入問句的原問句為WH問句,也就是由疑問詞what, where, when, why, who,

how, which, whose等帶領的問句時,嵌入問句為WH疑問詞帶領的名詞子句。

1. 當WH疑問詞帶領的子句中的原問句WH疑問詞本身不是主詞時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述句。當助動詞為do/does/did時必須省略。把主要動詞作變化改為正確的時態。

Why do they like online games? — why they like online games

I wonder why they like online games.

How long does the movie last? —  how long the movie lasts

I wonder how long the movie lasts.

Where did he go last night? —- where he went last night

I wonder where he went last night.

2. 當WH疑問詞帶領的子句中的原問句WH疑問詞本身不是主詞時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述句。當助動詞是be動詞(am/is/are/was/were),has/have/had或will等助動詞時,則把該助動詞放回主詞的後面即可。

Who is that tall woman? — who that tall woman is

I’m not sure who that tall woman is.

How long has he lived in Taipei? — how long he has lived in Taipei

I’m not sure how long he has lived in Taipei.

When will they come back? — when they will come back

I’m not sure when the will come back.

3. 當WH疑問詞帶領的子句中的原問句WH疑問詞本身是主詞時,則不需改變。

What happened?

Tell me what happened.

Who took my umbrella?

Tell me who took my umbrella.

Whose phone is ringing?

Tell me whose phone is ringing.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.3

D.  if/whether帶領的名詞子句

嵌入問句的原問句為Yes/No問句時,也就是由be動詞(am/is/are/was/were),do/does/did, have/has/has, will, 或其它助動詞等所帶領的問句時,嵌入問句為if/whether帶領的名詞子句。

1. 當if/whether帶領的名詞子句中的原Yes/No問句的助動詞為do/does/did時,必須把原本的疑問句改成直述句。助動詞為do/does/did必須省略。把主要動詞作變化改為正確的時態。

Do teenagers shop online? —teenagers shop online

I wonder if teenagers shop online.

Does he love me? — he loves me

I wonder if he loves me.

Did she go to the concert?  — she went to the concert

I wonder if she went to the concert.

2. 當if/whether帶領的名詞子句中的原Yes/No問句的助動詞為be動詞(am/is/are/was/were),has/have/had或will等助動詞時,則把該助動詞放回主詞的後面即可由疑問句改為直述句。

Is he leaving? — he is leaving

I’m not sure if he is leaving.

Has he been abroad? — he has been abroad

I’m not sure if he has been abroad.

Will it rain tomorrow? — it will rain tomorrow

I’m not sure if it will rain tomorrow.

3. whether比if正式,口語多用if。在whether跟if的名詞子句最後面都可以加or not,但是只有在whether子句中才可以把or not拉到前面跟whether放在一起。

I wonder if he will pass the exam.

I wonder if he will pass the exam or not.

I wonder whether he will pass the exam.

I wonder whether or not he will pass the exam.

I wonder whether he will pass the exam or not.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.4

E.   Exercise                     from P.333 Grammar Express (Longman)

1. Can you tell me whether _______________________________________

(Should I tip in Canada?)

2. I’m going to France. Please explain ________________________________

(How can I tell if the tip is included in the bill?)

3. Can you tell me ______________________________________________

(Why did service people in Iceland refuse my tips?)

4. I’m moving to Japan. I’d like to know ______________________________

(How much should I tip airport porters?)

5. We’re visiting Australia. Please tell us _____________________________

(Who expects a tip and who doesn’t?)

6. I’m vacationing in Norway. I’d like to know if ________________________

(Should I tip my ski instructor?)

7. I took a job in China. I need to know whether ________________________

(Is tipping still illegal there?)

8. In Germany the tip is included. I don’t know whether __________________

(Should I tip anyway?)

 

10. 閱讀下面文章,找出七個錯誤改正,錯誤可能為標點符號

When you live in a foreign country even a small occasion can be an adventure! Before my date with Janek tonight, I didn’t even know what should I wear! A dress? John’s Grill isn’t a fancy restaurant, but it was Janek’s birthday and I wanted to make it a big occasion. Miuki was very helpful, as always. I knew how to get to John’s Grill, but I didn’t know how long it was going to take to get there? I left at 6:00, which should have given me plenty of me, but when I got off the bus, I wasn’t sure if should I turn left or right. I asked a police officer where was John’s Grill, and I was only a few minutes late. I had planned to take Janke out for a special dessert afterward, but I couldn’t remember how can I find the place Miuki had suggested, and Janek has been here even less time than me. (Anyway, the desserts at John’s turned out to be very good.) Then, when we got the bill, I was wondering whether I should tip or no. I had to ask Janek did he know. Fortunately, he had read an article called Tips on Tipping, so he told me to leave about 15%.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.5

F.   that帶領的名詞子句

that帶領的名詞子句,語意清楚時可以省略that,但that在句首時一定不能省略。

1. that帶領的名詞子句在獨立子句的最前面當主詞

That the world is round is true.

然而將名詞子句放在句首對英語系人士來說不是很自然,所以常會把that子句在句首的改為一個由it帶領的句子,而常會是被動語態,尤其在學術寫作時。

That carbon dioxide is responsible for global warming is believed.

It is believed that carbon dioxide is responsible for global warming.

That the world’s deserts are expanding has been proven.

It has been proven that the world’s deserts are expanding.

2. that帶領的名詞子句在獨立子句的動詞後面當受詞。這些動詞多是表達心裡活動的動詞如:agree, assume, believe, decide, discover, doubt, dream, feel, forget, guess, hear, hope, know, learn, notice, predict, prove, read, realize, remember, say, suppose, think, understand等。

I agree that you are right.

She realized that it’s time to let go.

3. that帶領的名詞子句在特定名詞後面。如:fact, idea, theory, thought, claim, assertion, statement, belief, notion, opinion等。

It’s a fact that the world is round.

No one believed Galileo’s theory that Earth revolves around the sun.

4. that帶領的名詞子句在特定形容詞後面。如:afraid, angry, aware, certain, convinced, disappointed, glad, happy, lucky, pleased, sad, shocked, sorry, sure, surprised, upset, worried, true等。

The class was surprised that the instructor canceled the final exam.

I’m sorry that I couldn’t make it last night.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.6

G.   引用句Quoted Speech/Direct Speech與報導句Reported Speech/Indirect Speech                      

1. 引用句直接重述說話者所說的切確內容,在書寫時用引號quotations表示。

The kid said, “I’m hungry.”

2. 報導句重述說話者說的內容,但不是用完全一樣的字,人稱代名詞跟動詞都可能

會有所改變,不用引號。that常常可以省略掉。

The kid told his mom that he was hungry.

H.  引用句Quoted Speech/Direct Speech

1. 當引用句在動詞後面時 S + V, “S + V.”

  1. 在動詞後面加上逗號 He said,
  2. 加上引號的第一個部分 He said, “
  3. 引號內的第一個字大寫 He said, “It
  4. 在引號內的句子用原本的標點符號 He said, “It’s too late.
  5. 在標點符號之後加上引號的第二個部分 He said, “It’s too late.”
  6. 引用句的標點可能為句號,問號,驚歎號都不變,放在第二個引號前。

She said, “ I had a good time.”

She asked, “Where’s the party?”

They shouted, “Look out!”

2. 當引用句在動詞前面時 “S + V,” S +V.

a. 句子從引號的第一個部份開始 “

b. 加上引用句,字首大寫 “It’s too late

c. 假如引用句為肯定句時句尾使用逗號 “It’s too late,

d. 在標點符號後加上引號的第二個部分 “It’s too late,”

e. 接下來的句子從小寫開始 “It’s too late,” he said

f. 句尾用句點 “It’s too late,” he said.

g. 引用句在前面時,注意肯定句時句尾必須改變用逗號,但是假如為疑問句則用

問號,假如為感嘆句則用驚嘆號,不需要改變

“I have a good time,” she said.

“Where’s the party?” she asked.

“Look out!” they shouted.

3. 當引用句有好幾個句子時,在動詞後面時,按照原說話者內容加上適當的標點

符號。在第一個句子的前面跟最後一個句子的標點符號後加引號即可。

He said, “I forgot my wallet. Can you lend me some money?”

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.7

I.   報導句Reported Speech/Indirect Speech

1. 在報導句中,需要做一些改變來維持原本說話者的意思

a. 改變代名詞與所有格代名詞

He said to Ann, “Tell me your problem.”

He told Ann to tell him her problem.

b. 改變時間片語

“Call me tomorrow.”

She said to call her the next day.

c. 改變this跟here

“Sign this form here.”

She told him to sigh that form there.

2. 當主要子句的動詞是過去簡單式時said, told, asked等,報導句中的動詞會跟

引用句也就是原本說話者說出的句子的時態會有所不同。

a. 現在簡單式變為過去簡單式

He said, “It’s great.”    He said it was great.

b. 現在進行式變為過去進行式

“I’m leaving.”           She said she was leaving.

c. 過去簡單式變為過去完成式

“I made it.”            He said he had made it.

d. 現在完成式變為過去完成式

He said to her, “I’ve never lied.”   He told her that he had never lied.

e. 某些助動詞變成過去式助動詞

He said, “I can work hard.”    He said he could work hard.

3.  在某些情況下,報導句中的子句可以改,也可以不改變時態。

a. 某人剛剛說的話

What did you just say?    I said I’m tired. / I said I was tired.

b. 仍舊還是真實的事情

Rick said the bank wants a check. / Rick said the bank wanted a check.

c. 一般的事實或科學定律

She said that everyone lies sometime.

She said that everyone lied sometime.

4. 當主要子句的動詞是現在簡單式時,不要改變報導句的時態。

“I run a mile every day.”  She says that she runs a mile every day.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.8

J. Exercise                  from P.321 Grammar Express (Longman)

Lisa and Ben are talking about Ben’s job search. Use the verbs in parentheses to report their conversation. Make necessary changes in verbs and pronouns.

1. Ben: I’m still looking for a job.

(tell) __________________________________________________

2. Lisa: I just heard about a job at a scientific research company.

(say) __________________________________________________

3. Ben: I majored in science at Florida State.

(say) __________________________________________________

4. Lisa: They want someone with some experience as a programmer.

(tell) __________________________________________________

5. Ben: I work as a programmer for Data systems.

(tell) __________________________________________________

6. Lisa: They don’t want a recent college graduate.

(say) __________________________________________________

7. Ben: I got my degree four years ago.

(tell) __________________________________________________

8. Lisa: It sounds like the right job for you.

(say) __________________________________________________

答案

Answer Key

E. Exercise                     from P.333 Grammar Express (Longman)

1.  Can you tell me whether I should tip in Canada.

2. I’m going to France. Please explain how I can tell if the tip is included in the bill.

3. Can you tell me why service people in Iceland refused my tips?

4. I’m moving to Japan. I’d like to know how much I should tip airport porters.

5. We’re visiting Australia. Please tell us who expects a tip and who doesn’t.

6. I’m vacationing in Norway. I’d like to know if I should tip my ski instructor.

7. I took a job in China. I need to know whether tipping is still illegal there.

8. In Germany the tip is included. I don’t know whether I should tip anyway.

基礎文法L12 第十四章  名詞子句Noun Clauses             Jessie Lin  P.9

E. Exercise

10. 閱讀下面文章,找出七個錯誤改正,錯誤可能為標點符號

When you live in a foreign country even a small occasion can be an adventure! Before my date with Janek tonight, I didn’t even know what I should(1) wear! A dress? John’s Grill isn’t a fancy restaurant, but it was Janek’s birthday and I wanted to make it a big occasion. Miuki was very helpful, as always. I knew how to get to John’s Grill, but I didn’t know how long it was going to take to get there.(2) I left at 6:00, which should have given me plenty of me, but when I got off the bus, I wasn’t sure if I should(3) turn left or right. I asked a police officer where  John’s Grill was(4), and I was only a few minutes late. I had planned to take Janke out for a special dessert afterward, but I couldn’t remember how I can(5) find the place Miuki had suggested, and Janek has been here even less time than me. (Anyway, the desserts at John’s turned out to be very good.) Then, when we got the bill, I was wondering whether I should tip or not(6). I had to ask Janek if he knew. Fortunately, he had read an article called Tips on Tipping, so he told me to leave about 15%.

 J.  Exercise

  1. Ben told her he was still looking for a job.
  2. Lisa said she had just heard about a job at a scientific research company.
  3. Ben said he had majored in science at Florida State.
  4. Lisa told him they wanted someone with some experience as a programmer.
  5. Ben told her he worked as a programmer for Data systems.
  6. Lisa said they didn’t want a recent college graduate.
  7. Ben told her he had gotten his degree four years ago.
  8. Lisa said it sounded like the right job for him.
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7 thoughts on “基礎文法L12 第十四章 名詞子句Noun Clauses

  1. Leo Chen says:

    想請問潔西一個問題,就是當一個句子有兩個名詞子句當受詞,而第二個用對等連接詞連接時,那個that可不可省?如以下範例
    We all know ( that ) he is crazy about you and that he wants to marry you.
    謝謝

    1. jessie says:

      那也可能他是對的,我也不確定,口語的話我不會加that,很正式的我倒是沒看過這個規則,或許是個比較細的規則,我不知道也不一定。你可以寫信去問他:)

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