基礎文法L11 第十三章 動名詞與不定詞

動詞三態用在哪裡?什麼時候用動詞原型?什麼時候用不定詞?什麼時候用動名詞?什麼是現在分詞?什麼又是過去分詞呢?天啊!

呵呵,不要捉狂雖然動詞是個令人捉膜不定的變色龍,今天下午潔西難得頭不痛,大腦有點清楚,整理了一下動詞的用法,想了很久,改了又改,花了兩個小時寫了第一頁跟第二頁,真的有用力思考,用潔西最近非常笨的大腦整理思考,想想怎麼樣能說的讓同學容易理解,希望看完這兩頁有比較清楚有概念。主要是說明每個動詞形態的常見用法,也算是個整理。晚上上課的時候,同學似乎有些理解,耶,開心。

這一課主要就是說動名詞與不定詞,另外還有用法,用在哪裡。歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但是請勿任意轉載或公開使用。潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血, 雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的練習題來自下面的書,所有版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L11 第十三章 動名詞與不定詞                    Jessie Lin  P.1

A. 動詞的面貌

動詞像變色龍一樣,在不同時態下,不同情態下,會配合時態或其他動詞作不同的變化。記清楚動詞的四個面貌跟用法對於學好英文有很大的幫助。

1. 動詞原型(V1) Present

a. 動詞的第一個形態,在字典中查到的原形:work, play, eat, drink

b. 用在現在簡單式,但是現在簡單式的主詞為第三人稱單數名詞時,該動詞要加s。

I usually take a shower in the morning, but my brother takes a shower before he goes to bed.

c. 用在助動詞do, did, can, could, will, would, may..等後面的原形。

They didn’t go home until midnight.

I could swim when I was a kid.

d. 用在不定詞動詞中的to的後。to+V1叫做infinitive,不定詞動詞。

Sam wanted to go to the party, but his parents didn’t allow him to go.

2. 動詞過去式(V2) Past Tense:

a. 動詞的第二個形態,規則變化在動詞後面加ed,不規則變化需要查字典,字典通常只會寫出不規則的變化:worked, played ate, drank,

b. 只用在過去簡單式。

He worked hard and played hard all his life.

I ate a hamburger and drank some coke for breakfast this morning.

3. 動詞過去分詞(V3) Past Participle:

a. 動詞的第三個形態,有時簡稱PP,規則變化在動詞後面加ed,不規則變化需要查字典,字典通常只會寫出不規則的變化:worked, played, eaten, drunk

b. 用在完成式,搭配have/has/had用在完成式。可能是現在完成,過去完成,未來完成式。

They have worked for this company since 2000.

I have never eaten Greek food.

c. 用在被動,搭配be動詞一起表達被動。

His wallet was stolen.

d. 用在語語態助動詞搭配,加上have與V3,表示對於過去的推斷或表達與過去事實相反的假設等。

She must have been sick yesterday.

I would have passed the exam if I had studied harder.

基礎文法L11 第十三章 動名詞與不定詞                    Jessie Lin  P.2

A.  動詞的面貌

3. 動詞過去分詞(V3) Past Participle:

d. 用來當形容詞,

The cooked noodles needed some more salt.

The confused students couldn’t answer the questions.

I was shocked by the news.

4.      動詞現在分詞(V-ing) Present Participle:  

a. 動詞的第四個形態是在動詞原形的後面加ing (V-ing):working, playing, eating, drinking

b. 用在進行式,跟不同時態的be動詞一起表達各種進行式

I have been working for 12 hours. I need a break.

They were eating dinner when I arrived.

c. 用來當形容詞

A wok is a cooking utensil.

5.      動名詞(V-ing) Gerund

a. 動名詞跟現在分詞長得一模一樣,都是在動詞原形後面加ing (V-ing):working, playing, eating, drinking

b. 動名詞顧名思義就是拿來當名詞用,所以動名詞就相當於是一個名詞,用法也跟名詞一樣可以當主詞,受詞,跟補語。

Working 12 hours a day is stressful.

Seeing is believing.

c. 某些特定的動詞或是動詞片語後面只可以接動名詞

I enjoy cooking.

Keep on working!

6.      不定詞(to+V1) Infinitive

a. 不定詞infinitive指的是to加上原形動詞(to + V1):to work, to play, to eat, to drink

b. 某些特定的動詞後面只可以接不定詞

He decided to work for Google.

My little sister asked me to play with her.

c. 用來表目的

I need an organizer to help me remember my schedule.

基礎文法L11 第十三章 動名詞與不定詞                    Jessie Lin  P.3

B. 動詞的接續                             

英文的句子都要有一個主詞一個動詞,有了一個主要動詞後,後面可以再接續其他動詞,但會依主要的動詞不同,將在後面接續的動詞改成不同的動詞形態,

1. 有些特定的動詞後面只可以加不定詞(to+V1)

如:want, need, hope, expect, decide, plan, agree, seem, appear, offer, intend,

refuse, promise, wish, wait…等。

a. S + V + to + V1 

They want to get married.

I hoped to get a quick reply.

b. S + V + O + to + V1 有些動詞需要受詞才可以接不定詞

She invited Mary to celebrate with us.

I reminded her to come.

c. S + V + not + to + V1  否定時,在不定詞前面加not即可

I told my students not to give up.

He asked Jane not to call after 10:00.

2. 有些特定的動詞或動詞片語後面只可以加動名詞(V-ing)

如:enjoy, appreciate, avoid, finish, quit, mind, keep (on), consider, think about,

talk about, discuss, can’t help, postpone, put off…等。

a. S + V + V-ing

I’ve considered joining a gym.

He’s thinking about getting a master degree.

Would you mind opening the window?

They couldn’t help crying after they lost the game.

b. S + V + not + V-ing 否定時在動名詞前面加not即可

They discussed not getting a new car.

They talked about not taking a vacation this year.

3. 有些特定動詞後面可以加不定詞(to+V1),也可以加動名詞(V-ing),意思都不變

如:begin, start, continue, like, love, hate, can’t stand, prefer

S + V + to + V1 = S + V + V-ing

I love to meet new people. = I love meeting new people.

It began raining. = It began to rain.

4. go + V-ing 表示從事某樣活動,中間不可以接to。go to + place 用在去某個地方

I used to go swimming three times a week.

I go to shopping.  I go to the shopping mall. / I go shopping.

基礎文法L11 第十三章 動名詞與不定詞                    Jessie Lin  P.4

B.   動詞的接續

1. 特定的動詞後面只可以加不定詞(to+V1)

a.   S + V + to + V1 

afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, can(can’t) afford, can(can’t)

wait, choose, consent, decide, deserve, expect, fail, grow, help, hesitate, hope,

hurry, intend, learn, manage, mean, need, neglect, offer, pay, plan, prepare,

pretend, promise, refuse, request, seem, struggle, swear, volunteer, wait,

want, wish, would like, yearn

b. S + V + O + to + V1

advise, allow, ask, cause, challenge, choose, convince, dare, enable, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, help, hire, invite, need, order, pay, permit, persuade, promise, remind, request, require, teach, tell, urge, want, warn, wish, would like

2. 特定的動詞或動詞片語後面只可以加動名詞(V-ing)

S + V + V-ing

acknowledge, admit, advise, appreciate, avoid, can’t help, celebrate, consider, delay, deny, detest, discontinue, discuss, dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, explain, feel like, finish, forgive, give up(stop), imagine, justify, keep(continue), mention, mind(object to), miss, postpone, practice, prevent, prohibit, propose, quit, recall, recommend, regret, report, resent, resist, risk, suggest, support, tolerate, understand

3. 有些特定動詞後面可以加不定詞(to+V1),也可以加動名詞(V-ing),意思都不變

S + V + to + V1 = S + V + V-ing

begin, can’t stand, continue, hate, like, love, prefer, start

4. go + V-ing 表示從事某樣活動

go boating, go bowling, go camping, go dancing, go fishing, go hiking, go jogging, go running, go sailing, go (window) shopping, go sightseeing, go (ice) skating, go (water) skiing, go skydiving, go swimming, go birdwatching, go canoeing, go hunting, go mountain climbing

整理1,2,3出自Longman Grammar Expre 4出自Azar Fundamentals of English Grammar

基礎文法L11 第十三章 動名詞與不定詞                    Jessie Lin  P.5

B. 動詞的接續

練習題:出自Azar Fundamentals of English Grammar

  1. We finished (eat) ____________ around seven.
  2. My roommate offered (help) ___________ me with my English.
  3. I’m considering (move) ____________ to a new apartment.
  4. Some children hate (go) ____________ to school.
  5. What seems (be) ____________ the problem?
  6. I don’t mind (live) ____________ with four roommates.
  7. My boss refused (give) ____________ me a raise, so I quit.
  8. That’s not what I meant! I meant (say) ____________ just the opposite.
  9. Julia can’t stand (sleep) ____________ in a room with all of the windows closed.
  10. Max seemed (want) ____________ leave ____________ the party, but he kept (talk) ____________ anyway.
  11. Sam’s tomato crop always failed. Finally he quit (try) ____________ to grow tomatoes in his garden.

5. 有些特定的動詞後面加不定詞與加動名詞後的意義不同。

做過的事多用動名詞表達,還沒做的事用不定詞。

所以不要忘了關燈:Don’t forget to turn off the light.

記得回家要打電話給我:Remember to give me a call when you get me.

如:remember, forget, stop, try

I stopped to watch TV.  這一句是說我停下原本做的事去看電視。

I stopped watching TV.  這一句則是說我停下看電視這個動作。

She remembered to lock the door. 她記得去關門。(記得去做某件事)

She remembered locking the door.  她記得關了門。(記得做過某件事)

He forgot to mail the letter. 他忘記去寄信了。(忘記去做某件事)

He forgot mailing the letter. 他忘記做過寄信這個動作。(忘記做過某件事)

I tried to control my voice.  我試著控制我的聲音。(企圖做某件事)

Try logging off and logging on again. 試試看登出再登入。(嘗試,測試)

基礎文法L11 第十三章 動名詞與不定詞                    Jessie Lin  P.6

B. 動詞的接續

6. 感官動詞後面可以加動詞原型(V1)或動名詞(現在分詞)或過去分詞。語意有點不同。接原型表示看到或聽到某動作從開始到結束,而接動名詞表示只看到或聽到某個時間點,接過去分詞表示受詞正被加諸某行為。

如:see, watch, listen, hear, feel, notice

I saw him play basketball. 我看著他打完整場籃球。

I saw him playing basketball.  我看到他在打籃球。(可能路過看到一下下)

I saw him scolded by his mother. 我看他被他媽媽責罵。

7. 使役動詞Causative Verbs是表示要求某人去做事,或讓某一件事被完成。

a. 使役動詞接原型動詞     S + CV + O + V1

make, let, have 這三個使役動詞後的受詞常為人,表達要求某人做某事時,

接原型動詞

Her mother made her stay home.

She had the doctor check her leg.

Her father does not let her go out at night.

b. 使役動詞接不定詞       S + CV + O + to + V1

除 make, let, have 之外的使役動詞如: get, want, permit, allow, order, 等後面

接了受詞(人)後要先接不定詞 to 再接動詞原型

I got Ben to mail the letter.

The girl wants her boyfriend to apologize.

I am not allowed to tell you the secret.

c. 使役動詞接過去分詞     S + CV + O + V3

have, get 或其他使役動詞後面接的受詞(多為事物,也可為人)表達了接受其後

的動作,也就是被動地完 成了某事時,受詞後接的是過去分詞(V3)

I had my car washed.

She got her hand burned.

We had our customers satisfied.

基礎文法L11 第十三章 動名詞與不定詞                    Jessie Lin  P.7

C.   動名詞用法

1. 某些動詞後面必須接動名詞

I enjoy teaching English.

2. 動詞片語(動詞+介系詞)後面必須接動名詞

Thank you for helping me with my homework.

3. by + V-ing 可用來表示事情如何完成

Students practice written English by writing compositions.

by可以接運輸工具與通訊方式

I go to work by bus.

They keep in touch by email.

with接工具或身體部位

I cut down the tree with an ax/by using an ax.

I swept the floor with a broom.

She pointed to a spot on the map with her finger.

4. 動名詞當做主詞

Walking alone at night is dangerous.

D.  不定詞用法

1.  某些動詞後面必須接不定詞

Tim wants to study abroad.

2. 某些特定的形容詞後面會接不定詞,尤其是It’s adj + to + V1 的句型。常用在一般的觀察(general observation)

I’m glad to hear that.

It’s great to see you.

It’s convenient to eat fast food.

當這個不定詞的動作是某人做的時,我們常會用下面這個句型

It is + adj + to + for + someone + to + V1

It’s hard for us to get here on time.

It’s difficult for students to work full time.

3. 某些特定的名詞後面會接不定詞,尤其是It’s noun + to + V1 的句型。

常用在表達忠告或必要性。

I have the right to eat what I want.

It’s time to take a break. / I have a test to study tomorrow.

He has permission to stay out late. / It’s a high price to pay.

基礎文法L11 第十三章 動名詞與不定詞                    Jessie Lin  P.8

D.  不定詞用法

4. 用來表達目的相當於in order to + V1。for 也可以用來表目的,但是後面只可以接名詞,不可以接動名詞

a.  S + V + to + V1

She went to the hospital to visit a friend.

I went to the post office to busy some stamps.

b.  S + V + for + N

I ask him for some help.

I went to the post office for some stamps.

I went to the post office for buying some stamps.

5. 與too連用,來表達原因

She’s too young to drive.

They are too young for people to trust them.

He arrived too late to take the test.

6. 與enough連用,來表達原因,enough可以用來修飾名詞,也可以放在修飾的片語後面

He has enough money to buy the car.

I don’t have enough time to make dinner.

I’m old enough to go to the army.

She didn’t run fast enough to pass the physical.

E. Self Test 自我測試

原講義第八頁

  在dropbox文法講義裡面有

F. Exercise 練習題 (原講議第九頁)

決定下面劃線動詞應該是不定詞infinitive,動名詞gerund,還是動詞原型base form (V1)還是其他合適的動詞變化。有些為正確不需要改。

  1. I’m used study English.
  2. I quit smoke a year ago.
  3. She avoids do laundry.
  4. She pretends listen to you.
  5. I resent your answer for me.
  6. Are you going shop today?
  7. Have you decided buy a new car?
  8. She opened the jar by twist the lid.
  9. I was sorry hear the news.
  10. This box is too heavy for me lift.
  11. She came here get a good education.
  12. I was sad see you leave.
  13. I forgot tell you about the test.
  14. It is easy fool by his lies.
  15. She encouraged us get married.
  16. His not know the answer was unusual.
  17. I am lucky have you as a friend.
  18. He got me go with him.
  19. I let her ride my bike.
  20. She made me feel sorry for her.
  21. I warned you study harder.
  22.  We look forward see you next quarter.
  23. She helped me choose a new school.
  24. Do you mind not smoke in here?
  25.  He got an A by work hard.
  26. I heard it rain last night.
  27.  She is still young enough spank.
  28. We’re thinking about go swim next week.
  29. He refused help us with our problem.
  30.  I dared him jump, 
  31. I’m trying to learn Chinese.
  32.  What do you know about skiing?

基礎文法L11 第十三章 動名詞與不定詞                 Jessie Lin  P.10

Answer Key 解答

B. 動詞的接續

1. eating  2. to help  3. moving  4. to go/going  5. to be  6. living

7. to give  8. to say  9. sleeping/to sleep  10. to want, to leave, talking  11. trying

 

E.  Self Test

Section One

1. C  2. A  3. A  4. B  5. D  6. C  7. A  8. C  9. A  10. D  11. B  12.C

13. B  14. A

Section Two

15. B (to change)  16. C (trying)  17. B (finding)  18. A (Getting)

19. B (not to)  20. C (old enough)  21. D ( to seeing)  22. A (to buy)

23. D (not to fall)  24. B (watching)  25. D (to do)

F.Exercise 練習題

  1. I’m used to studying English.
  2. I quit smoking a year ago.
  3. She avoids doing laundry.
  4. She pretends to listen to you.
  5. I resent your answering for me.
  6. Are you going shopping today?
  7. Have you decided to buy a new car?
  8. She opened the jar by twisting the lid.
  9. I was sorry to hear the news.
  10. This box is too heavy for me to lift.
  11. She came here to get a good education.
  12. I was sad to see you leave.
  13. I forgot to tell you about the test.
  14. It is easy to be fooled by his lies.
  15. She encouraged us to get married.
  16. His not knowing the answer was unusual.
  17. I am lucky to have you as a friend.
  18. He got me to go with him.
  19. I let her ride my bike.
  20. She made me feel sorry for her.
  21. I warned you to study harder.
  22. We look forward to seeing you next quarter.
  23. She helped me choose a new school.
  24. Do you mind not smoking in here?
  25. He got an A by working hard.
  26. I heard it raining last night.
  27. She is still young enough to spank.
  28. We’re thinking about going swim next week.
  29. He refused to help us with our problem.
  30. I dared him to jump.
  31. I’m trying to learn Chinese.
  32.  What do you know about ski?

 

4 thoughts on “基礎文法L11 第十三章 動名詞與不定詞

    1. jessie says:

      Hi, Hank,

      Thanks a lot for your message. Sharing is how the Internet works and I think it makes this world a better place. I gained so much from what other people share with us on the Net, so I hope that I can be part of it that I have a chance to share some of my thoughts or my work with people. I’m glad if anyone can find anything helpful here 🙂

  1. 訪客 says:

    Dear Jessie,

    可以請教一個問題? 每次要寫Mail時遇到動詞是用過去式時, 若不是很確定時, 我就拿出The Cobuild series English dictionary 這本不錯, 若是動詞的話會列出三態.

    我的疑問是難道外國人不用查? 外國人如何查動詞三態的呢? 哈, 希望不會讓老師捧腹大笑

    Jeff

    1. jessie says:

      Hi, Jeff,

      我覺得是其實習慣問題吧,從小我們就說國語,看到一個破音字,怎麼要知道唸得是哪個音呢?好了。了解。我們不用查字典就知道這兩個了的發音不一樣。因為環境聽到,從小學習,所以我們就知道了啊。

      外國人對於動詞三態我覺得應該也差不多,你不斷地聽到別人怎麼說,你就會這麼說,有沒有他們不知道的字,也會有,不知道的時候當然也跟我們一樣去查字典。不過先上網找也很快。幾乎所有的字典的動詞都會有,有時候有寫,通常沒寫的就是規則變化,不規則的話都會列出來:)

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