基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態

這一章講的是動詞的被動語態,所以首先要對時態的句型很清楚,不然改被動的時候容易出錯。另外這裡還有說到也是很容易混淆的ed形容詞,ing形容詞,也就是用現在分詞跟過去分詞當形容詞的用法,考試超愛考,超容易弄混淆。這個部分有給了很多例子,也有新的練習。最後也有be used to + V-ing/N表目前已習慣於跟used to + V1的表過去的習慣,但現在已經不錯了。也是容易弄錯的。多做例子應該會比較容易懂。這個部分是用先前寫過的講義。

打講義真的要花很多時間,潔西綜合了好幾本書,找出自己覺得比較常用,然後還要好好的想想整理一下,覺得怎麼樣同學比較容易理解,所以,真的需要很多時間,所以可能會有些錯誤,因為用腦過度,呵呵,請大家見諒跟幫忙校對。感激不盡:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用,  潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血, 並且標明出處。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                     Jessie Lin    P.1

jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A.  主動與被動The Active and the Passive

英文的句子焦點多放在主詞上

1. 主動句型:強調的是人,老鼠

Millions of people read the magazine. (The focus is on the people.)

The mouse ate the cheese.

2. 被動句型:強調的是雜誌,起士

The magazine is read by millions of people. (The focus is on the

magazine.)

They cheese was eaten by the mouse.

非必要時,英語多用主動句型來表達,主動句型用的比被動多得多

B.   被動語態使用的時機

1. 當做該行為動作的人未知或不重要時,使用被動語態。

The magazine was founded by 1992. (I don’t know who founded it.)

2. 當從上下文中可以清楚地得知做該行為動作的人或事物。

The magazine was sold at newsstands. (We can assume that the newsstand owners and employees sell it. We don’t need to mention them.)

3. 當想要避免提到做該行為動作的人時。

Some mistakes were made in that article. (I know who made the mistake, but I don’t want to blame the person who made them.)

4. 被動語態比較常用在書寫,口語也可以用,相對來說比較少。

Payment can be made at any post office.

Cars left here will be towed away.

5. 被動語態也常用在新聞報導

A number of political prisoners have been released.

Talks will be held in London next week.

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                     Jessie Lin    P.2

C. 主動改被動

主動的句型:主詞+動詞+受詞

被動的句型:原受詞+時態(be+V3)+by+原主詞

改被動時,

  1. 把受詞跟主詞的位置互換,原受詞變成新的句子的主詞
  2. 動詞依時態不同,把主要動詞的部分改成be加上過去分詞V3
  3. 再加上by與上原主詞,變成新的受詞。
  4. 注意主詞跟受詞交換後,需依新的主詞對動詞作適當的變化。

Farmers grow corn.

Corn is grown by famers.

David helped me.

I was helped by David.

David helped them.

They were helped by David.

D. 被動時態使用by+做該行為動作的人或事物的時機

使用被動語態時常常會省略掉做行為動作的人事物,因為英文句子強調的是主詞,可以直接用主動時態,但是在某些狀況下用被動會把該人事物提出

1. 當你要表達這是某人的創作

The article was written by John Delgado.

“Romeo and Juliet” was written by William Shakespeare.

2.  當做該動作的人事物是令人感到訝異的

Our windows are washed by a robot.

The cake was eaten by a mouse!

3. 當你要介紹做動作的人事物的必要新資訊時

John Delgado is a famous sports writer. He has just been hired by National Sports to write a monthly column. (The name of John’s employer is necessary new information.

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                     Jessie Lin    P.3

E.  及物動詞與非及物動詞

英文的動詞可以分為及物動詞與非及物動詞,只有及物動詞的句型才可以改被動。不及物因為沒有受詞,所以不可以改被動。

1. 及物動詞:動詞後面一定要接受詞,必須有接受這個動作的對象的受詞。

Andy bought those flowers.

Those flowers were bought by Andy.

Betty sold those clothes.

Those clothes are sold by Betty.

2. 非及物動詞:在動詞後面不可以接受詞。動詞只可以單獨存在。

Cathy smiles all the time.

Something happened.

F.  被動的句型

被動的要素是be + V3。被動一定會有be動詞跟動詞的第三態,過去分詞。依時態不同會有所改變。

1. 肯定句:時態不變,把主要動詞按時態帶入be+V3

It is written in nineteen languages.

It has just printed.

2. 否定句:時態不變,找出改完被動後句子中的助動詞,後面加not。

These computers aren’t produced anymore.

Scotch whiskey isn’t made in England.

3. 疑問句:時態不變,找出改完被動後句子中的助動詞,放到主詞前面。

When is breakfast served in this hotel?

Where was the car repaired.

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                     Jessie Lin    P.4

G.  主動與被動句型比較

主動 S + V + O

被動 S + be + V3 + by + O

1. 現在簡單式

The mouse eats the cheese.

   The cheese is eaten by the mouse.

    2. 現在進行式

   The mouse is eating the cheese.

   The cheese is being eaten by the mouse.

3. 現在完成式

The mouse has eaten the cheese.

The cheese has been eaten by the mouse.

4. 過去簡單式

The mouse ate the cheese.

The cheese was eaten by the mouse.

5. 過去進行式

The mouse was eating the cheese.

The cheese was being eaten by the mouse.

6. 過去完成式

The mouse had eaten the cheese.

The cheese had been eaten by the mouse.

7. 未來式

The mouse will eat the cheese.

The cheese will be eaten by the mouse.

The mouse is going to eat the cheese.

The cheese is going to be eaten by the mouse.

8. 未來完成

The mouse will have eaten the cheese.

The cheese will have been eaten by the mouse.

9. 情態助動詞

Decisions should be made too quickly.

It can’t be done.

Reports have to be filed.

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                     Jessie Lin    P.5

H.  被動語態練習題

You are telling a friend some news. Use the notes and complete the second sentences. Sometimes you need to use the active and sometimes the passive.

根據前後文跟提示的字完成句子,可能是主動或被動。

 

1. (Past Simple: Claude Jennings / win / the quiz competition)

Did you hear about the quiz competition? It ___________________.

2. (Past Simple: Mrs. Miles / do / a parachute jump / last week)

You know Mrs. Miles? She _______________________________.

3. (Present Perfect: a bull / attack / David)

Have you heard about David? He’s__________________________.

4. (Present Continuous: build / the house)

Trevor and Laura have bought a house. It’s still ________________.

5. (Present Simple: Andrew / like / Jessica)

Did I tell you about Andrew? He ___________________________.

6. (Present Perfect: throw away / your stamp collection)

Bad news about your stamp collection. It’s ___________________.

7. (Present Perfect: Martins / kidnap / my neighbors)

Did I mention my neighbors? They’ve _______________________.

8. (Past Simple: five people / see / the ghost)

Did you hear about the ghost? It ___________________________.

9. (Past Simple: Claire / go / to Florida / last month)

You remember Claire? She _______________________________.

10. (Present Perfect: send / our luggage / to Australia)

Bad news about our luggage. It’s __________________________.

 

 

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                     Jessie Lin    P.6

I.  過去分詞當形容詞用

動詞的第三態過去分詞有時可以形容詞用,常常與be動詞連用,後面也可以加介系詞一起組合成含特定意義的片語。

I’m interested in foreign movies.

This table is made of wood.

這裡的用法是把過去分詞當做形容詞用,而不是被動語法,所以要特別注意時態。

He is married to Sue. 是表狀態,而飛過去動作,所以不要說He was married to Sue.

J.  分詞形容詞

1. 現在分詞present participle與過去分詞past participle都可以當形容詞用,描述感情,情緒或反應。

The last Star Wars movie was amazing!

I was amazed by the special effects.

2. 現在分詞present participle / V-ing用來描述某個人或某件事引起的感受或反應。表示描述的人事物”令人感到…”

The actor is always amusing. (He causes amusement.)

These directions are confusing. (They cause confusion.)

3. 過去分詞past participle / V3 (V-ed) 用來描述某個人的經驗感受或反應,表示描述某人”感到…”

We were amused by that actor. (We felt amusement.)

I’m really confused by these directions. (I feel confusion.)

4. 過去分詞通常用在人的感受,所修飾的對象都半是人,也可以是動物。而現在分詞用在修飾的名詞令人的感受,修飾的對象可能是人事物。

This book is very interesting.

Mike is very interested in UFOs.

She is a boring person.

I have nothing to do. I’m bored.

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                     Jessie Lin    P.7

J.  分詞形容詞

1. 多看一些例子會比較有概念

a. The two-hour delay was annoying.

The passengers were annoyed about the delay.

b. I didn’t enjoy the party. It was boring.

I went to the party, but I felt bored.

c. The computer has some very confusing instruction.

I got very confused trying to make sense of the instructions.

d. This wet weather is so depressing.

This weather makes me so depressed.

e. It was very disappointing not to get the job.

I was very disappointed not to get the job.

f. The game was really exciting.

The United fans were excited.

g. Going for a jog with Matthew is exhausting.

I’m exhausted after jogging all that way.

h. I thought the program on wildlife was fascinating.

I watched the program on wildlife. I was absolutely fascinated.

i. For one frightening/terrifying moment I thought I was going to fall.

When I got onto the roof, I felt frightened/terrified.

j. I just don’t understand. I find the whole thing rather puzzling.

I must say I’m puzzled. I just don’t understand.

k. Lying in a hot bath is relaxing.

I feel relaxed when I lie in a hot bath.

l. I think the way Jessica behaved was quite shocking.

I was quite shocked to see Jessica behaving like that.

m. The test results were surprising.

I was surprised at the test results.

n.  What thrilling news this is! Congratulations!

We were thrilled to hear your good news.

o.  The journey took all day and night. They found it very tiring.

After traveling all day and night they were very tired.

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                     Jessie Lin    P.8

K.分詞形容詞練習題

Complete the conversations using a word ending in –ing or –ed.

1. A: That was an ____________(exict…) film, wasn’t it?

2. B: Oh, do you think so? I’m _____________(surpris…) you liked it.

I thought it was rather _______________(disappoint…).

3. A: Well, I was _____________(puzzl…) once or twice. I didn’t

understand the whole story. It was ____________(confus…) in

places. but the end was good.

4. B: I was ___________(bor…) most of the time. I didn’t find it very

_______________(interest…).

5. A: I’m surprised how warm it is for March.

B: Yes, all this sunshine is quite ___________.

6. A: I’m not very fit. I was pretty tired after climbing the mountain.

B: Yes, I think everyone felt _________.

7. A: I think I need to relax.

B: Well, lying by the pool should be _____________.

8. A: It was annoying to lose my ticket.

B: You looked really _____________ when you had to buy another one.

9. A: The cabaret was amusing.

B: Claire was certainly ____________. She couldn’t stop laughing.

10. A: The museum was interesting, wasn’t it?

B: It was OK. I was quite _____________ in those old maps.

11. A: I’m fascinated by these old photos.

B: I always find it _________________ to see what people looked like

as children.

12. A: Was it a big thrill meeting Tom Hanks?

B: You bet. It was just about the most _____________ moment of my life.

13. A: You look exhausted. You should go to bed.

B: Driving down from Scotland was pretty ______________.

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                     Jessie Lin    P.9

L. used to be used to  的用法與不同

1.  S + be used to + V-ing/N:表達現在習慣,某件事不是新事物,也不陌生,後面接的是現在分詞或名詞

I’m used to the weather in Taipei.

我習慣台北的天氣了。(可能我在國外住很久,剛回來不習慣,但現在習慣了)

I’m used to driving on the right because I have lived in Taiwan for a long time.

我很習慣開車開右邊,因為我住台灣很久了。

2. S + used to + V1:表達過去的習慣,從前固定做某件事,現在不做了,後面接的是動詞原形。

I used to drive to work every day, but these days I usually go by bike.

我從前每天開車上班,但是最近我通常都騎腳踏車。(現在不開車了)

We used to live in a small village, but now we live in Taipei.

我們從前住在一個小村莊,但是我們現在住台北。(現在不住小村莊)

 

M. 表達現在已經習慣於be + used to 句型

由於經驗的關係,對某件事不再感到驚訝,奇怪或困難,所以已經習慣於某件事。

句型:主詞+be used to +現在分詞/名詞

  1. 肯定句:S+ be used to + V-ing/N

I do the dishes every day, so I’m used to it.

我每天都洗盤子,所以我已經習慣了。

His new job is very busy and he is used to working late until 10 or 11 p.m.

他的新工作非常忙,他已經習慣於工作到十點,十一點。

2. 否定句:S + be + not + used to + V-ing/N

He isn’t used to driving on the left.

他不習慣開車開左邊。(現在還是不習慣)

He wasn’t used to driving on the left, but now he’s used to it.

他先前不習慣開左邊,但是他現在習慣了。

3. 疑問句: Be + S + used to + V-ing/N

Are you used to your new school?

你習慣於你的新學校了嗎?

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                    Jessie Lin    P.10

N.  表達過去習慣的used to 句型

表示過去經常性動作或習慣或狀態,現在已經沒有這樣的習慣或狀態。

句型:主詞+used to+動詞原形 (S + used to + V1)

1. 肯定句 S + used to + V1:過去曾經…

He used to play basketball five days a week before he hurt his leg.

他腳受傷前,他曾經一個星期打五天籃球。

I used to smoke a lot, but I quit a few years ago.

我從前抽煙很兇,但是我幾年前戒了。

2. 否定句 S + didn’t use to + V1 / S + didn’t used to + V1

I didn’t use to drink coffee at breakfast, but now I always have coffee in the morning.  ( I didn’t used to drink coffee.)

I never used to drink coffee at breakfast, but now I always have coffee in the morning.

我從前不在早餐的時候喝咖啡,但是我現在總是在早上喝咖啡。

(Azar文法書指出didn’t use to 跟 didn’t used to 都可以,但比較常見的是never used to)

3. 疑問句 Did + S + use to + V1? / Did + S + used to + V1?

Did you use to live in Paris? (Did you used to live in Paris?)

你從前住在巴黎嗎?

Did you use to fight with your brother? (Did you used to fight?)

你從前常跟你的弟弟打架嗎?

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                    Jessie Lin    P.11

O. used to be used to 的練習題

用括號中提示的動詞來完成句子,動詞可能須要做適當變化

  1. Jane is used to _____________ (drive) on the left.
  2. He used to ________ (live) in New York, but now he lives in a small town.
  3. Tom used to __________ (drink) a lot of coffee. Now he prefers tea.
  4. I feel very full after that meal. I’m not used to _________ (eat) so much.
  5. I wouldn’t like to share an office. I’m used to _________ (have) my own office.
  6. I used to ________ (have) a car, but I sold it a few months ago.
  7. When we were children, we used to ___________ (go) swimming every day.
  8. There used to __________ (be) a cinema here but it was knocked down a few years ago.
  9. I’m the boss here. I’ not used to ________ (be) told what to do.
  10. 我從前一星期游泳三次,但我現在我慢跑。(不游泳了)

11. 他去年搬到台北。剛開始他一個人住覺得很寂寞,但是現在他已經習慣一個

人住了。 

 

 

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                    Jessie Lin    P.12

P. be supposed to用法

1. be supposed to可以用來表示現在或未來通常會有的狀況或正確做某事件的方法。也可以用在談論預期會發生的事件。

The guests are supposed to buy flowers for the hostess.

The bus driver needs to concentrate. You’re not supposed to talk to him.

How am I supposed to cook this? – It tells you on the packet.

I’m supposed to get home before midnight.

He is supposed to call me tomorrow.

2. be supposed to 也可以用來表達過去預期,但是沒有發生的事。

It’s eleven o’clock. You were supposed to be here at ten thirty, you know.

The train was supposed to arrive ten minutes ago. It’s late again!

Add a sentence using be (not) supposed to and these words:

leave it outside, report to the police, stand in a queue, take two before meals, watch it

用上面的詞加上be (not) supposed to來完成句子

  1. I’ve got some pills. ______________________________________
  2. Foreign visitors can’t travel freely here. ______________________
  3. Be careful waiting for a bus in England. _______________________
  4. This file isn’t for under-sixteens. __________________________
  5. You shouldn’t bring your bike in here._________________________

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                    Jessie Lin    P.13

Answer Key  解答

H.  被動語態練習題

  1. It was won by Claude Jennings.
  2. She did a parachute jump last week.
  3. He’s been attacked by a bull.
  4. It’s still being built.
  5. He likes Jessica.
  6. It’s been thrown away.
  7. They’ve been kidnaped by Martins.
  8. It was seen by five people.
  9. She went to Florida last month.
  10. It’s been sent to Australia.

K.分詞形容詞練習題

  1. exciting
  2. surprised, disappointing
  3. puzzled, confusing
  4. bored interesting
  5. surprising
  6. tired
  7. relaxing
  8. annoyed
  9. amused
  10. interested
  11. fascinating
  12. thrilling
  13. exhausting

基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態                    Jessie Lin    P.14

O. used to be used to 的練習題

1. driving  2. live  3. drink  4. eating  5. having  6. have  7. go  8. be

9. being

10. I used to swim three times a week, but I go jogging.

11. He moved to Taipei last year. At the beginning he felt lonely to live on

his own, but now he is used to living alone.

P. be supposed to用法

  1. I’m supposed to take two before meals.
  2. They are supposed to report to the police.
  3. You are supposed to stand in a queue.
  4. You’re not supposed to watch it.
  5. You’re supposed to leave it outside.

9 thoughts on “基礎文法L8 第十章 被動語態

  1. Yao says:

    您好:
    百忙之中打擾您,因近日有用老師您的文法講義重新複習基本文法,但因近幾天點擊您的dropbox並無檔案,故想請問老師您目前是將相關檔案連結都為移除了嗎~?

    1. jessie says:

      您好,先前因為某些因素把 dropbox 中的檔案全部移除了,目前身體狀況有些問題所以可能暫時沒時間跟心緒整理部落格的東西。但是其實內容都還是在上面,只是可能格式亂掉,在閱讀方面比較困難。Dropbox的檔案或許過一陣子狀況好一點的時候會再整理放上去:)

  2. Harry says:

    你好,請問"Muslim woman attacked in Bloomington says suspect could’ve killed her"這新聞標題attacked是被動式嗎?還是當形容詞用?為甚麼前面沒有加be動詞?但是文章裡"A Muslim woman in Bloomington said she’s still shaken after being attacked over the weekend…………."attacked前又有加be動詞。我真的被搞混了@@"
    原文網址:http://fox59.com/2015/10/19/muslim-woman-attacked-in-bloomington-says-suspect-couldve-killed-her/

    感謝!!!

        1. jessie says:

          不太清楚耶。新聞常會這樣用,我自己是覺得一般應該都可以,不過有什麼特殊條件我就真的不知道了,因為畢竟不是新聞從業人員,可能要找相關的資料才會比較清楚喔

  3. 訪客 says:

    你好~我寫作業的時候有一題
    there always have been ____(demand) jobs allocated to me.
    我選擇demanded 但老師給的答案是demanding
    我不懂為何是ing 我選擇ed是因為被高要求的工作
    可以幫幫我解釋嗎 真的非常感謝~ > <

    1. jessie says:

      可以去查字典,比方說劍橋字典就有解釋 demanding: needing a lot of time, attention or energy,這裡就是當形容詞用了,表示需要很多的時間注意力精力,常用來形容人,工作,可以當作慣用法來記。不是所有的動詞都有對應的 -ing 跟 -ed 形容詞,我沒記錯的話。有時候就是一個慣用搭配字,這樣比較好記,我自己覺得。

      http://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english-chinese-simplified/demanding

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