基礎文法L7 第九章 比較

這一章說的是比較級,最高級。用來表較兩樣多樣事情的不同時的用法。還挺實用的,而且不難。口頭禪差點要說簡單,恩,比較時態來說潔西覺得算簡單,但是還是有它複雜的地方。多看例句,多做練習會比較有概念。所以上星期上課因為來不及,所以沒有給很多的練習題。這幾天把練習題都補齊了,所以沒有買課本的人可以做做練習,比較有概念。有課本的人做完練習可以再來做這兒的練習。

Why study? 為什麼要唸書?

The more I study, the more I know. 我唸的越多,我懂得越多。

The more I know, the more I forget. 我懂得越多,我忘得越多。

The more I forget, the less I know. 我忘得越多,我知道的越少。

So why study? 那麼,為什麼要唸書?

這超好用又超好笑,潔西昨天睡不著的時候寫了一堆,

為什麼要吃飯?
我吃得越多,我拉得越多。
我拉得越多,我肚子越餓。
所以為什麼要吃飯?

為什麼要睡覺?
我睡得越多,我越感到累。
我越感到累,我睡得越多。
所以為什麼要睡覺?

為什麼要賺錢?
我賺得越多,我花得越多。
我花得越多,我越沒有錢。
所以為什麼要賺錢?

有夠白癡吧,哇哈哈。

打講義真的要花很多時間,潔西綜合了好幾本書,找出自己覺得比較常用,然後還要好好的想想整理一下,覺得怎麼樣同學比較容易理解,所以,真的需要很多時間,所以可能會有些錯誤,因為用腦過度,呵呵,請大家見諒跟幫忙校對。感激不盡:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用,  潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血, 並且標明出處。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.1

jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A.  形容詞與副詞:程度相同的Adjectives and Adverbs: Equatives

1. 用as + adj + as 來表示比較人,事物,地方等在某方面是相同。

Tom is 180 cm.  Peter is 180 cm.  John is 178 cm.  Gary is 170 cm.

a. as…as : N1 + be + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是相同的

Tom is as tall as Peter.

b. just as…as: N1 + be + just + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是正好相同的。just 用來強調。

Peter is just as tall as Tom.

c. nearly as…as: N1 + be + nearly + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是幾乎相同的。nearly表示差別不大。

John is nearly as tall as Peter.

d. almost as…as: N1 + be + almost + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是幾乎相同的。almost表示差別不大。

John is almost as tall as Tom.

2. 用not as + adj + as 來表示比較人,事物,地方等在某方面是不同的。

a. not as…as: N1 + be + not + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是不同的。N2並不像N1那樣的

Gary is not as tall as Tom.

b. not quite as…as: N1 + be + not + quite + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是不同的,但是之間的差異不大。

John is not quite as tall as Tom.

c. not nearly as…as: N1 + be + not + nearly + as + adj + as + N2 表示N1跟N2是不同的,但是之間的差異很大。

Gary is not nearly as tall as John.

3. 用as + adv + as 來表示比較行為的程度是相同的

a. as…as: N1 + V + as + adv + as N2. 表示N1的行為跟N2是相同的

He runs as fast as she does. (They run equally fast.)

b. just as…as: N1 + V + just + as + adv + as N2. 表示N1的行為跟N2是正好相同的。just 用來強調。

He rides just as well as she does.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.2

A. 形容詞與副詞:程度相同的Adjectives and Adverbs: Equatives

4. 用not as + adv + as 來表示比較行為的程度是不相同的

a. not as…as: N1 + V + not as + adv + as N2. 表示N1的行為跟N2是不相同的

He doesn’t ride as skillfully as she does.

5. 當意思明顯的時候,不需要比較的雙方都提到,可以省略後面比較的對象。

Tom and Nick are both tall, but Tom isn’t as tall (as Nick).

Tom and Nick both run fast, but Tom doesn’t run as fast (as Nick).

用as…as或not as…as 加上給予的形容詞或副詞來完成句子

1.

A: My old bike wasn’t _______________ (expensive) my new one. Of

course, it doesn’t perform _______________ (well) the new one.

B: And it didn’t look ___________ (good) the new one either.

2.

A: We need a name for this product. It should show this detergent

______________________ (clean/effectively) the others but

______________________ (not be/unfriendly) to the environment.

B: I like “GreenKleen.” It _________________ (sound/exciting) other

product names, and it __________________ the message

_________________ (express/clear) theirs too.

3.

A: The last group I rode with _______________ (be/noisy) a herd of

elephants. I prefer to ride alone, but I know it’s dangerous.

B: Ride with me next weekend. I __________________ (pedal/quietly) a

mouse. I promise.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.3

B. 形容詞與副詞比較級與最高級變化規則

1. 一個音節的形容詞或副詞在字尾加er形成比較級,加est形成最高級。

cheap-cheaper-cheapest, slow-slower-slowest, fast-faster-fastest, hard-harder-hardest

2. 一個音節的形容詞或副詞字尾為e時,只要加r形成比較級,加st形成最高級。

nice-nicer-nicest, safe-safer-safest, close-closer-closest, late-later-latest

3. 一個音節的形容詞或副詞(多為三或四個字母)字尾結構是子音加母音加子音時,則要重複字尾加er來形成比較級,加est形成最高級

big-bigger- biggest, hot-hotter-hottest, slim-slimmer-slimmest

4. 兩個音節的形容詞或副詞字尾為y時,則去y加ier形成比較級,加iest形成最高級。

pretty-prettier-prettiest, friendly-friendlier-friendliest, funny-funnier-funniest

5. 兩個或兩個音節以上的形容詞或副詞則在前面加more形成比較級,加most形成最高級。字尾是ly的副詞通常在前面加more或most。

convenient-more convenient-most convenient, comfortable-more comfortable-most comfortable, skillfully-more skillfully-most skillfully, handsome-more handsome-most handsome

6. 有少數特殊變化需牢記。

good-better-best, bad-worse-worst, far-farther/further-farthest/furthest (兩者都可表物理上的距離,但是只有further可以表更進一步)

7. 有些兩個音節的形容詞或副詞可在字尾加er/est或前面加more/most形成比較級或最高級。

clever, friendly, gentle, handsome, likely, narrow, pleasant, polite, stupid, quiet

gentle-gentler/more gentle-gentlest/most gentlest,

stupid-stupider/more stupid-stupidest/most stupid,

quiet-quieter/more quiet, quietest/most quiet

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.4

B. 形容詞與副詞比較級與最高級變化規則

Write the comparative and superlative forms for the following words.寫出下列單字的比較及與最高級

1. boring  2. cheap  3. fine  4. full  5. funny  6. handsome  7. hard

8. honest  9. interesting  10. lazy  11. light  12. nervous  13. sad

14. safe  15. silly  16. sorry  17. stupid  18. uncomfortable  19. useful  20. violent  21. wet  22. thin  23. late

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

1. 句型:

a. 形容詞比較級:N1 + be + adj-er/more adj + than + N2

這個句型常用來比較人,事物,地點等的不同點,差異性。也可能用形容詞的其它句型

The new menu is bigger than the old menu.

The new waiters are more experienced than the old waiters.

b. 副詞比較級:N1 + V + adv-er/more adv + than N2

這個句型常用來描述動作的不同,差異。也可能用副詞的其它句型。

The Bulls played better than the Lakers.

Jordan played more skillfully than O’Neal.

Write the comparative sentences. 完成句子

  1. Ana is / thin / my sister.
  2. I’m / busy / this week / last week.
  3. Quebec is / far from Toronto / Ottawa.
  4. I did / bad / on the final exam / the midterm.
  5. my new job is / boring / my old one.
  6. Our team played / well / theirs
  7. Hong Kong is / expensive / Bangkok.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.5

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

2. than的使用時機:

當比較級有提到比較的對象時,需要有than,當語意清楚,沒有提到比較對象時,則不需要有than.

The apple pie is better than the cake.

The new desserts are better (than the old desserts.)

Lisa speaks English better than May.

Lisa speaks more fluently.

3. than後面用主格或受格:

a. 在正式英文中,than後面通常會接主格代名詞如I, he, she

I am taller than she is.

You are older than I am.

b. 在非正式英文中,than後面通常會接受格代名詞,如me, him, her,而且後面沒有助動詞。

I am taller than her.

You are older than me.

c. 在than後面也可以用把主詞動詞都表達出來,這時要用主格代名詞,動詞則依時態或語態用助動詞。

I am taller than she is.

He run faster than I do.

She can singer better than he can.

d. 在than後面可接名詞所有格Tom’s ,或所有格代名詞如mine, his, hers

My hair is longer than my sister’s hair.

My hair is longer than my sister’s.

My hair is longer than hers.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.6

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

3. than後面用主格或受格:

用代名詞完成句子,寫出用主格代名詞加助動詞與受格代名詞兩種用法

  1. Anne is 25. I am 18. Anne is older than ______________.
  2. I left at 7:00. Jay left at 7:30. I left earlier than __________.
  3. Mike can run fast, but I can run faster than ______________.
  4. Peter works very hard. However, Simon works harder than ___________.
  5. Tom is 1 meter 85. I am 1 meter 65. I’m much shorter than ________.

 

4. 修飾比較級時可以用much, a lot, far, rather 表示程度大,用a little, a little bit, a bit, slightly來表示程度不大

A computer will do it much more efficiently.

It’s much faster by taxi.

A bus is a lot cheaper than a taxi.

The MRT is far more convenient than a bus.

Business is rather better this year.

This bed is a little more comfortable.

I got up a little bit later than usual.

This month’s figures are slightly better.

5. less是more的相反,所以只有more adj/more adv的句型的相反才可以用less adj/less adv。假如是adj-er/adv-er的句型的相反則要用not as…as的句型。

A taxi is more expensive than a bus.

A bus is less expensive than a taxi.

A bus is cheaper than a taxi.

A taxi isn’t as cheap as a bus.

A taxi is less cheap than a bus.

I feel better today, less tired.

We go out less often these days.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.7

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

6. more與名詞連用

a. more可以當代名詞,也可以當形容詞。表達更多

Would you like some more coffee?

Would you like some more?

Not everyone is here. I expect more people to come later.

b. more跟名詞連用也可以加上than,表達比較完整的句子

There are more people in China than there are in the United States.

 

7. 重複比較級與雙重比較級

a. 重複比較級用來表示改變,程度上的增加或減少

It’s getting harder and harder to find an inexpensive restaurant.

It’s getting more and more difficult.

The queue was getting longer and longer.

As each new problem arose, we felt less and less enthusiastic.

b. 雙重比較級是用下列句型來表示前後文的因果關係。前面是因,後面是果。

The + adj-er/more adj + S + (V),  the adj-er/more adj + S + (V).

The shorter the line, the faster the service. (When the line is shorter, the service is faster.)

The higher the price (is), the more reliable the product (is).

The more the customer complained, the ruder and more unpleasant the manager became.

The sooner we leave, the sooner we’ll get there.

c. 常見的表達詞

The more, the merrier. 人越多越好。

The sooner, the better. 越快越好

The cheaper, the better. 越便宜越

Why study? 為什麼要唸書?

The more I study, the more I know. 我唸的越多,我懂得越多。

The more I know, the more I forget. 我懂得越多,我忘得越多。

The more I forget, the less I know. 我忘得越多,我知道的越少。

So why study? 那麼,為什麼要唸書?

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.8

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

7.重複比較級與雙重比較級

Read these comments about a restaurant. Complete them with the comparative form of the words in parentheses to show cause and effect or a change. 用括號中的字的比較級來完成下列句子,表達因果或改變

1. A: I can’t believe the size of this menu. It’s going to take me forever to choose.

B: ______________ (long) the menu, ________________ (difficult)   the choice.

2. A: They say the food here is getting __________ and ___________ .  (good)

B: And _______________ (good) the food, __________________  (expensive) it is.

3. A: The service seems a little slow tonight.

B: Yes, ____________________ (popular) the restaurant, ________________ (slow) the service.

4. A: The cigarette smoke here is getting ______________ and  ______________ (bad).

B: __________________ (smoky) the room, ________________ (bad) my cough gets.

5. A: It’s pretty loud in here.

B: ____________________ (crowded) the restaurant,   ______________ (noisy) it is.

6. A: They certainly give you a lot of food. I can’t eat another bite.

B: _________________ (big) the portions, ________________ (hard) it is to finish.

7. A: Their desserts keep getting ______________ and _____________. (delicious)

B: And I keep getting ________________ and ____________. (heavy)

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.9

D. 形容詞與副詞最高級 Adjectives and Adverbs Superlatives

1.  句型

a. S + be + the + adj-est/most adj + in ___/of ______ (in/of表示範圍)

這個句型常用來表示特定的人,事物,地點相當突出,而跟其他的人,事物,地點的不同。

You are the best parents in the world.

It’s the most expensive hotel in Oxford.

August is the hottest month of the year.

b. S + be + the adj-est/most adj + n + S + V

S + be + the adj-est/most adj + n + S + have/has + (ever) + V3.

最高級常常搭配形容詞子句使用,尤其是表示經驗地完成式的句子。

That was the most delicious meal that I have ever eaten.

You are the most wonderful friend I have ever had.

You have the loveliest smile I have ever seen.

Mandy is the nicest person you could meet.

c. S + be + one of the adj-est/most adj + Ns + in ____/of_____/ever

He is one of the best students in this class.

Madonna is one of the most famous pop singers ever.

d. S + V + the adv-est/most adv + of _____ 用來表示特定的動作比其他的動作突出特別。

Bryant worked the hardest.

He scored the most frequently of anyone in the team.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.1

D. 形容詞與副詞最高級 Adjectives and Adverbs Superlatives

1.  句型

Complete the sentences with a superlative.

  1. Yesterday was ____________ day of the year. (hot)
  2. This is _______________ time of day to drive downtown. (bad)
  3. She’s _______________ person in the class. (friendly)
  4. This is ________________ part of the test. (difficult)
  5. The _______________ month to visit is September. (good)
  6. It’s ________________ city in the world. (polluted)
  7. The ______________ I’ve ever flown is to Australia. (far)
  8. Is this _______________ city in the world? (noisy)

Write sentences with ever.

9. it / good / movie / I / see

10. he / unfriendly person / I / meet

11. it / hard test / he / take

12. they / expensive shoes / she / buy

13. it / long book / I / read

14. she / beautiful woman / I / see

15. it / bad meal / I / eat

16. it / hot country / I be to

 

2.  never + comparative = superlative

never 加上比較級就相當於最高級

I’ve never taken a harder test. = This is the hardest test I’ve ever taken. 這是我參加過最難的考試。

I’ve never taken a hard test. 我從來沒有考過很難的考試。

 

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.11

E.  same, similar, different, like alike的用法

1. same, similar, different都是形容詞。same表示相同的,前面一定有the,the same可以一起記。similar表示類似的。different表示不同的。可以放在名詞前面,也可以放在連綴動詞的後面。

I have an iPhone 5. Ben has an iPhone 5. Leo has an iPhone 4S.

Tim has an HTC One.

Ben and I have the same phones.

Leo and I have similar phones.

Tim and I have different phones.

Ben’s phone and my phone are the same.

Leo’s phone and my phone are similar.

Tim’s phone and my phone are different.

2. N1 + be + the same + as + N2

N1 + be + similar to + N2

N1 + be + different from + N2

當後面有比較的對象時,必須用the same as, similar to, different from的片語,形容詞後面的介系詞是固定的,要一起記,不要弄混淆。

Ben’s phone is the same as my phone.

Leo’s phone is similar to my phone.

Tim’s phone is different from my phone.

3. the same + N + as:可以在the same跟as中間加入名詞,表示相同的東西。

Ben’s phone is the same price as my phone.

Gary is the same age as my father.

My shoes are the same size as yours.

4. N1 + be + like + N2 = N1 and N2 are alike

like當介系詞時,有像…的意思。後面一定要接名詞。

alike可以當形容詞跟副詞。這個用法是形容詞用法,表示兩者很相似。

Leo’s phone is like my phone.

Leo’s phone and my phone are alike.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.12

F.  same, similar, different, like alike的用法

5. N1 + V + like + N2

like當介系詞,也可以放在某些特定的動詞,尤其是感官動詞後面,表示看起來像,聽起來笑,感覺好像,聞起來像…。介系詞後面一定要加名詞。

She looks like her sister.

It looks like rain.

It sounds like thunder.

The material feels like silk.

That smells like gas.

This chemical tastes like salt.

Stop acting like a fool.

He seems like a nice fellow.

6. N1 and N2 + V + alike

alike可以當副詞,表示兩個動作是很像的時候,接在動作後面。修飾動詞,因為是副詞,所以放在動詞後面,不接名詞。

The twins are alike.

Most four-year-olds act alike.

My sister and I talk alike.

The little boys dressed alike.

Great minds think alike.

用 the same (as), similar (to), different (from), like and alike 完成句子

  1. Ants and fascinating. An ant colony is ____________ a well-disciplined army.
  2. In terms of shape, cabbage looks ______________ lettuce. But cabbage and lettuce don’t taste ___________.
  3. My dictionary is _________________ yours.
  4. A crocodile and an alligator are _____________ in appearance.
  5. Gold is similar __________ silver. They are both valuable metals that people use for jewelry, but they aren’t _________ same. Gold is not ________ same color ________ silver. Gold is also different ___________ silver in cost: gold is more expensive than silver.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.13

Answer Key 答案

A. 形容詞與副詞:程度相同的Adjectives and Adverbs: Equatives

  1. as expensive as,  as well as,  as good as
  2. cleans as effectively as, isn’t as unfriendly, sounds as exciting as, expresses … as clear as
  3. was as noisy as, (will) pedal as quietly as

B. 形容詞與副詞比較級與最高級變化規則

  1. more boring, most boring  2. cheaper, cheapest  3. finer, finest

4. fuller, fullest  5. funnier, funniest  6. more handsome, most handsome

7. harder, hardest  8. more honest, most honest

9. more interesting, most interesting  10. lazier, laziest

11. lighter, lightest  12. more nervous, most nervous  13. sadder, saddest

14. safer, safest  15. sillier, silliest  16. sorrier, sorriest

17. more stupid, most stupid / stupider, stupidest

18. more uncomfortable, most uncomfortable 19. more useful, most useful

20. more violent, most violent  21. wetter, wettest  22. thinner, thinnest  23. later, latest

C. 形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

1.  句型:

  1. Ana is thinner than my sister.
  2. I’m busier this week than last week.
  3. Quebec is farther from Toronto than Ottawa.
  4. I did worse on the final exam than the midterm.
  5. My new job is more boring than my old one.
  6. Our team played better than theirs.
  7. Hong Kong is more expensive than Bangkok.

基礎文法L7 第九章 比較                        Jessie Lin    P.14

C.形容詞與副詞比較級 Adjectives and Adverbs Comparatives

3.than後面用主格或受格:

1. I am  2. he did  3. he can  4. he does  5. he is

7.重複比較級與雙重比較級

  1. The longer, the more difficult
  2. better, better, the better, the more expensive
  3. the more popular, the slower
  4. worse, worse, The smokier, the worse
  5. The more crowded, the noisier
  6. The bigger, the harder
  7. more, more delicious, heavier, heavier

D.形容詞與副詞最高級 Adjectives and Adverbs Superlatives

1.句型

  1. the hottest  2. the worst  3. the most friendly  4. the most difficult

5. best  6. the most polluted  7. farthest  8. the noisiest

9. It’s the best movie I’ve ever seen.

10. He’s the most unfriendly person I’ve ever met.

11. It’s the hardest test he has ever taken.

12. They’re the most expensive shoes she has ever bought.

13. It’s the longest book I’ve ever read.

14. She is the most beautiful woman I’ve ever seen.

15. It’s the worse meal I’ve ever eaten.

16. It’s the hottest country I’ve ever been to.

  1. G.  same, similar, different, like alike的用法

1. like/similar to  2. like, alike  3. the same as/similar to/different from/like  4. similar/alike  5. to, the, the, as, from

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8 thoughts on “基礎文法L7 第九章 比較

  1. Sherry Li says:

    想要請問
    比較級題目A isn’t ______B.

    a)popular as
    b)popular than
    c)as popular than
    d)so popular that
    e)as popular as

    答案是E,但是我想請問,為什麼b不對?換成中文意思應該和e一樣的。還是因為沒有人這樣使用呢?

    謝謝妳

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