基礎文法L6 情態助動詞

很多人怎麼樣都弄不清楚的情態助動詞can, could, would, must, may, should等等。其實分開看不難,合在一起大家就瘋了,恩,沒有啦,是弄混淆了。主要是中文很多時候都用相同的字來表達。潔西覺得最好的方式是一個用法一個用法記,知道這個助動詞在什麼地方用,然後多做練習,多注意在什麼樣的場合這些字出現。與其背單字,不如背句子,因為記句子就會連語意一起記住了,不錯吧!

這其實是上星期的講義,配合Azar文法中級課本的第七章的助動詞。但是潔西太忙了,所以做講義的時候沒有附上練習題,想說有空再加上練習題,那沒有用這本書的人也可以做做練習比較有概念,所以就拖了很久。打講義真的要花很多時間,潔西綜合了好幾本書,找出自己覺得比較常用,然後還要好好的想想整理一下,覺得怎麼樣同學比較容易理解,所以,真的需要很多時間,所以可能會有些錯誤,因為用腦過度,呵呵,請大家見諒跟幫忙校對。感激不盡:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用,  潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血, 並且標明出處。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.1

 jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

 

A. 助動詞的定義

什麼叫助動詞呢?顧名思義就是幫助動詞的詞。助動詞用來幫助動詞表達動作的時間(時態),或是說話的人的態度(情態)。也用來幫忙造問句,改否定。

比方說am, is, are, was, were, do, does, did, have, has, can, could, may, might, must, should, will, would等都是助動詞。

He is studying. (表現在進行式)

He must study hard. (表必須)

Where have you been?  (表現在完成式)

You should not go out.  (表應該)

 

B. 助動詞的類別:

1. 表達時態的助動詞

英文的十二個時態中用到的助動詞有 be, have, do, will ,這些助動詞與動詞變化結合用來表達時態,造問句,改否定。其中be, have, do這三個本身都可以當動詞,也可以當助動詞,而be後面可以接V-ing表達進行式,接V3表被動。have當助動詞時,後面的接V3表示完成。而do, will這兩個助動詞要接的是原型動詞。因為不同助動詞後面的接續不同,所以比較容易混淆,須特別注意。

2. 表達情態的助動詞 modal verbs

can, could, had better, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would 這些助動詞用來表達說話者的態度,可能用在表達能力,請求,建議,允許,可能性等不同情態,表達不同語義。相同的字在不同用法中可能表達的不同意思。

C. 表達能力 Ability: can, could, be able to

1. 表示現在的能力可用S + can + V1, S + be able to + V1

I can drive a car.  I can’t drive a truck.  Can you ride a scooter?

She’s able to cook.  He’s not able to ski.  Are they able to swim?

  1. 表示現在多用can,少數表正式的時候才會用be able to
  2. can 的否定可以用can’t, cannot, can not。口語多用can’t,can not比較不常用。

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.2

C. 表達能力 Ability: can, could, be able to

2. 表示未來可能擁有的能力或狀況可用:S + can + V1,  S + will be able to + V1

If we earn some money, we can go on holiday next summer.

If we earn some money, we will be able to go on holiday next summer.

I’m afraid I can’t come to the party next Saturday.

I’m afraid I won’t be able to come to the party next Saturday.

3. 表示過去擁有的能力可用:S + could + V1,  S + was/were able to + V1

He could read when he was four.

He was able to play the piano when he was five.

It was foggy, so the plane couldn’t take off.

The pool was closed, so they weren’t able to have a swim.

Could you describe the man to the police?

Were you able to describe the man to the police?

4. 表示能力時,除了現在跟過去的的時態外,其他全部都用be able to

Jen wants to be able to write programs.

I haven’t been able to sleep well for two weeks.

填空:用can, could, be able to來完成句子,可以用can, could時先用can, could,可能為肯定或否定。

  1. Stefan is enjoying his computer class. Two weeks ago, he __________ even use the mouse, but now he __________ edit his homework. By next wee, he ______________ do research on the Internet.
  2. Eleni misses her family in Greece. She ____________ visit them for years, but they just got an e-mail account, so now they ___________ keep in touch daily.
  3. I ____________ understand how to set up a presentation. The software instructions don’t help. I think I’ll take a professional development course. In a few months maybe I ___________ make that presentation.
  4. Mike and I _____________ get along since we started this business. He _____________ work alone (he needs people), and I __________ work in a group (I have to work alone). I hope we ____________ work out our problems soon.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.3

D. 表達可能性Possibilitymay, might, could, maybe (adv)

1. 表示現在或未來可能發生的事S + may/might/could + V1

It may snow tomorrow. There’s a 60 % chance.

明天可能會下雪。有百分之六十的機會。

I might leave work early. I’ll decide tomorrow.

我可能會提早走。我明天決定。

Schools could close. They usually close for heavy snow.

學校可能會休息。他們通常下大雪時會休息。

2. 表示現在或未來可能不會發生的事S + may not / might not + V1

I may not pass the quiz. I didn’t study.

我小考可能不及格。我沒唸書。

Don’t worry. The quiz might not be hard.

不要擔心。小考可能不會很難。

There are a lot of clouds, but it might not rain.

有很多雲,但是可能不會下雨。

 

3. 表示現在或未來不可能會發生的事S + could not + V1

The quiz couldn’t be hard.

小考不可能很難。

Why don’t you ask John for a ride? I couldn’t do that. He’s too busy.

你怎麼不要求John載你一程?我不可能這麼做。他太忙了。

Vicky is afraid of heights. She couldn’t climb onto the roof.

Vicky怕高。她不可能爬到屋頂上去。

I’m completely unfit. I couldn’t run a marathon.

我是完完全全的不健康。我不可能跑馬拉松。

4. 表示未來可能性的疑問時,用進行式, be going to 或will,而不用may,

might, could來造問句。

Be + S + Ving? / Be + S + going to + V1 ? / Will + S + V1?

When are you leaving?  I may leave now.

Are you going to drive to work tomorrow? I might take the bus instead.

When will it starts snowing?  It might snow around the lunch time.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.4

5當用may (not), might (not), could 在簡答時,表示不確定,但有可能性。在回答的時候通常不用Yes或No來回答。

Will it snow tomorrow?

It may. There’s a 60% chance of snow. (It’s possible that it will snow.)

It may not. There’s only a 20 % chance. (It’s possible that it won’t snow.)

It might not.

6.  maybe 跟may be 的區別:

maybe 是個副詞,不是助動詞,可以表達可能性。常放在句首,句尾。

may be則用在表達可能性的句子,沒有一般動詞,有be 加上名詞,形容詞,

介系詞片語等時用。。

Maybe I will stay home tonight. / I may be home tonight.

Maybe it will be sunny tomorrow.  / It may be sunny tomorrow.

Maybe he’ll take the train.  / He may take the train.

He maybe take the train.

 

改錯,閱讀文章,改正九個錯誤。

Read this student’s report about El Nino. Find and correct nine mistakes in expressing future possibility.

Every few years, the ocean near Peru becomes warmer. Called El Nino, this variation in temperature maybe cause weather changes all over the world. The west coasts of North and South American might to have heavy rains. On the other side of the Pacific, New Guinea might becomes very dry. Northern areas could have warmer, wetter winters, and southern areas could become much colder. These weather changes affect plants and animals. Some fish maybe not survive in warmer waters. Droughts could causing crops to die, and food may get very expensive. El Nino may happen every two years, or it could not come for seven years. Might El Nino get worse in the future? They could be. Pollution holds heat in the air, and it will increase the effects of El Nino, but no one is sure yet.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.5

E. 表達允許Permission: may, can, could

1. 表示請求允許時可用Can + S +V1?/Could + S +V1? /May + S + V1 ?

Can I come in? / Can I use your pen?

Could I sit here? / Could we borrow your ladder, please?

May I ask a question? (Is it OK to ask a question?)

May I see the letter?

這個句型是禮貌地請求允許,表示詢問他人可不可以做某件事,主詞不

會是you。

2. 表示非正式,用在朋友時,用Can + S + V1? / Could + S + V1? 其中could比較有禮貌。

表示正式,用在老師或不認識的成人時,用May + S + V1?  的用法是正式的formal,用在老師或不認識的成人。

Can we swim here?

Could I open the window?

May I start the test now, Mr. Brown?

3. 讓詢問更有禮貌時,可以在動詞前面或最後面加please。

Can/Could/May + S + please + V1 ?/ Can/Could/May + S + V1, please?

Can I please close the door?

Could I please open the window?

May I go to the bathroom, please?

4. 表示請求允許的回答是肯定的時候可以用。Yes, S + can. / Yes, S + may.  但是切記肯定回答的時候不用could這個助動詞。肯定的回答常常不需要用助動詞,多用一些禮貌的表達與如Certainly. / Of course. / Sure. / Go ahead. /Okay. /Uh-huh這些表達語。

A: Can I turn on the TV?              B: Yes, you can.

A: Could I use your computer?         B: Yes, you can.

A: May I sue this phone?              B: Yes, you may.

A: Can I take pictures here?           B: Of course.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.6

E. 表達允許Permission: may, can, could

5. 表示請求允許的回答是否定的時候可以用No, S+ can’t. / No, S + may not. 但是切記否定回答的時候不用而不用 couldn’t這個助動詞。另外記住may 與 not不可縮寫。也可以用No, please don’t. 的表達語。通常在拒絕請求的時候多會先道歉apology,再加上一個原因reason,比較有禮。

A: Could I use my cell phone now?

B: I’m sorry, but it’s dangerous. The plane is going to land soon.

(apology)   (reason)

A: Can I please have a little more time?

B: I’m sorry, but the time is up.

通常假如規則是很明顯的時候,就可以不用道歉或解釋。

Driver: Can I park here?

Officer: No, you can’t.

6. 表示允許做某件事時,可以用S + can + V1. / S + may + V1. 但是切記不可以

用could。

You can wait in my office if you like.

Yes, children, you can have a cookie after dinner.

You may telephone from here. (a written notice寫出來的公告)

You could leave now.  You may leave now.

 

7. 表示不允許做某件事時,可以用S + can’t + V1. / S + may not + V1. 但是切記不可以用couldn’t。

You can’t picnic here.

Members may not bring more than two guests into the club.

8. 當覺得可能打擾到對方時,可以用Do you mind if S + V? 來詢問允許。

回答時說No才是允許做某事,表示不介意。Yes則表示在意,不允許。

Do you mind if I clean up tomorrow?

Yes, actually, I do mind. I hate to see a mess.

Do you mind if I leave the room?

Not at all. (You may leave the room.)

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.7

改錯整段是相關的,必須看前後文回答

  1. Can he comes on the train with me or does he need a ticket?
  2. I’m sorry, he couldn’t. Only passengers can board the train.
  3. Could I changed seats with you? I’d like to sit next to my son.
  4. Yes, you could. Go right ahead. I’m getting off soon.
  5. Mom, may I to have some candy? I’m hungry.
  6. No, you mayn’t. I’m sorry, but you’ve already had enough candy.
  7. Do you mind if he play his computer game?
  8. Yes, I do. He can play if he wants. It won’t bother me.
  9. I’m still hungry. Can we’ll get a sandwich soon?
  10. Not at all. We can go find the club car.

F. 要求別人做某事:禮貌請求Polite Requests: will, would, can, could

1. 表示請求別人為你做某事時,可以用Will/Would/Can/Could you + V1 ?

在這些助動詞後的動詞用原型V1。主詞多為you。

Will you please open the door for me?

Would you help me clean the room?

Can you lend me your pen?

Could you answer the phone?

2. 表示非正式,用在朋友間時,用Will/Can you + V1?

表示正式,用在老師或不認識的成人時,用Would/Could you + V1?

Hey, Sandy. Can you give me a ride?

Could you explain the homework, Professor Smith?

3. 讓請求更有禮貌時,可以在動詞前面或最後面加please。Will/Would/Can/Could you please + V1?

Will you please close the door?

Would you please come here?

Can you close the door, please?

Could you turn down the music, please?

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.8

F. 要求別人做某事:禮貌請求Polite Requests: will, would, can, could

4. 表示禮貌請求的回答是肯定的時候可以用Of course. / Certainly. / No problem. / Sure. 其中Sure. / No problem. 是用在非正式的場合,如朋友,小孩。切記回答的時候不用will, would, can, could這些助動詞。

A: Will you help me with my homework?         B: Sure.

A: Would you please close the window?          B: Certainly.

A: Can you turn on the air conditioner for me?   B: No problem.

A: Could you call me tomorrow?                 B: Of course.

A: I’m cold. Would you shut the window, please?  B: Yes, I would.

5. 表示禮貌請求的回答是否定的時候可以用I’m sorry. I can’t. I ….。否定的回答用只可用I can’t。而不用I won’t, I wouldn’t, I couldn’t這些用法。通常在拒絕請求的時候多會先道歉apology,再加上一個解釋explanation,比較有禮。

A: Could you lend me $10,000?

B: I’m sorry, I can’t. I don’t have that much money.

(apology)          (explanation)

A: Would you take this to Susan Lane’s office for me?

B: I’m sorry, I can’t. I’m expecting an important phone call.

6. 表示客氣地請求時,可以用Would you mind + V-ing? 回答時,肯定回打表示在意,否定回答表示不介意,答應請求。

Would you mind waiting for a few minutes?

Not at all. (OK. I’ll do it.)

選擇最適當的回答

Lorna’s roommate, Joan, is having problems today. Check the appropriate response to each of Joan’s request.

1. Lorna, would you please drive me to class today? My car won’t start.

a. Yes, I would.  b. I’d be glad to.

2. Would you mind lending me five dollars? I’m getting paid tomorrow.

a. Not at all.  b. Yes.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                          Jessie Lin    P.9

F. 要求別人做某事:禮貌請求Polite Requests: will, would, can, could

3. Lorna, can you take theses books back to the library for me? I’m running late.

a. I’m late too. Sorry.  b. No, I can’t.

4. Could you lock the door on your way out? My hands are full.

a. Yes, I could.  b. Sure.

5. Can you turn the radio down? I need to study for my math quiz this morning.

a. Certainly.  b. Not at all.

6. Will you pick up some milk on the way home this afternoon?

a. No, I won’t.  b. Sorry. I’ll be at work until 8:00.

 

G. 要求別人做某事:祈使句Imperative                   

1. 定義:

祈使句是英文的句子的一種,其主詞通常省略,用來表達命令,給與建議等。

2. 句型:

祈使句的主詞為你或你們,通常主詞省略,動詞皆為原形。

否定句則在動詞前面加 Don’t

Stand up! / Shut up. / Be quiet. / Be careful.

Don’t yell at me. / Don’t think too much.

3. 用法:祈使句常用在下列狀況:

a. 給方向或指示 give directions and instructions

Turn left at the traffic light.

b. 給命令與指令 give orders or commands

Don’t move.

c. 做要求 make requests

Please read this article.

d. 給忠告或建議 give advice or make suggestions

Don’t exercise when you’re sick.

e. 給警告 give warnings

Be careful! Don’t trip!

f. 邀請某人 invite someone

Work out with us tomorrow.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                        Jessie Lin    P.10

G. 要求別人做某事:祈使句Imperative

4. 注意事項:

a. 注意祈使句的你或你們通常省略,有主詞時語氣會變得很不客氣。

You sit down! / You listen!

b. 祈使句可以把說話的對象的人名或稱呼放在句子的最前面或最後面,但

要用逗號與句子分開。

Marla, please get ready.

Get ready, guys.

c. 祈使句表達客氣的語氣時可加please,放在句首不用逗號,放句尾需用

逗號與句子隔開。

Please follow me. / Follow me, please.

填空。

Make complete sentences by filling gaps with phrases from the box. Use each phrase once.

Turn left  Come in  Don’t wait  Don’t forget  Stop the car!  Help me!Have  Don’t listen  Pass  Don’t be late!  Open  Come  Catch  Take

1. _______________ for me. I’m not coming tonight.

2. _______________ an umbrella with you. It’s raining.

3. _______________ a rest. You look tired.

4. _______________ at the end of the road.

5. _______________ I can’t swim!

6. _______________ to take your passport.

7. _______________ There’s a cat in the road.

8. _______________ to my party, please.

9. _______________ your book to page 84.

10. _______________ the salt, please.

11. _______________ to that record. It’s terrible.

12. _______________ The bus leaves at 9 o’clock.

13. _______________and have a glass of lemonade.

14. _______________ the first train in the morning.

 

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.11

H. 表示忠告建議:Advice: should, ought to, had better

1. 表示給予忠告建議時肯定句可以用S + should / ought to / had better + V1.

It’s late. Would should leave soon.

My clothes are dirty. I ought to wash them.

You’d better leave now, or you’ll be late.

You’re driving too fast! You’d better slow down.

had better常縮寫為’d,這個用法比較有急迫性的忠告,你認為假如不這麼

做,可能會有不好的事發生的警告。比方說這裡不開慢一點可能會有車禍或

被開罰單。

2. 表示給予忠告建議時否定句可以用

S + should not + V1. / S + had better not + V1.

You need your sleep. You shouldn’t stay up late.

You’d better not eat that meat. It looks spoiled.

ought to不用在否定句

3. 表示詢問別人的忠告建議時,用Should + S + V1?

Should I apply for that job?

When should I apply?

Should I wear a suit?

ought to, had better不用在疑問句。

4. 當別人沒有問你,是你自己給予忠告建議的時候常用maybe, perhaps或I

think 顯得比較有禮貌。

Maybe you should arrive a little earlier.

I think he should smile a little more.

Perhaps you should go home and get some rest.

5. 除非跟你同等級或比社會階級比你高的人主動問你,否則用給人建議

忠告是不禮貌的。

Friend: Should I shake hands with the interviewer?

You: Yes, you should.

Boss: Where should I take our client to lunch?

You: I think you should go to the Tuscan Grill.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.12

H. 表示忠告建議:Advice: should, ought to, had better

用should, ought to, had better跟括號裡面的,再加上適當的主詞來完成句子,可能是肯定,否定,疑問句。

Kim Yee’s boss has invited him to dinner at his home. Complete Kim’s conversation with his friend.

1. A: __________________ (How/dress?) In a suit?

2. B: You don’t have to wear a suit. _________________ (look/neat), but

you can wear casual clothes.

3. A: ________________________________ (What time/arrive?)

4. B: It’ really important to be on time. Your boss and his wife are

expecting you at 7:00, so ________________________ (arrive

after 7:15). It’s OK to be a little late, but don’t make them wait too

long for you!

5. A: ____________________________ (bring a gift?)

6. B: Yes, but get something small. __________________________ (buy

an expensive gift). It would embarrass them.

7. A: I think ___________________________. (get some flowers)

 

I. 表達提議做某件事Suggestions: Let’s, Why don’t, How about

1. 表示提供建議做某件事或不要做某件事時可以用Let’s + V1. / Let’s not + V1.   Let’s = Let us 讓我們,多用縮寫Let’s。Let是使役動詞,所以後面要接動詞原型。 Let’s not後面接原型表示建議不要做某件事。

Let’s go to the park.

Let’s take the bus.

Let’s not walk. We don’t have enough time.

2.  表示提供建議做某件事時,也可以用Why don’t + I/you/we/they + V1?        Why doesn’t + he/she/it + V1?  本身沒有否定的意思。第三人稱單數he/she/it或其他可以用這些代名詞代替的主詞用Why doesn’t…?,其他用Why don’t…?的句型。因為有助動詞do/does,所以後面接動詞原型。

It’s a beautiful day. Why don’t we go to the park.

It’s going to rain. Why don’t you bring your umbrella?

Why doesn’t your brother come with us?

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.13

I. 表達提議做某件事Suggestions: Let’s, Why don’t, How about

3. 表示提供建議做某件事時,也可以用How about + V-ing? 這個句型中about是介系詞,後面必須接名詞,所以要把動詞加上ing變成動名詞。

How about taking a taxi?

How about walking?

How about having some ice cream?

J. 表達必須性Necessityhave to, have got to, must

1. 表示必須做某件事時可以用

S + have to + V1. / S + have got to + V1. / S + must + V1.

have to 用在當狀況讓某些事情變的是必須時。

have to的第三人稱單數用has to。

have to 比must常用。have got to 只用在非正式的口語中。

I have to exercise. (The doctor told me.)

We have to be quiet. (That’s the rule.)

I have to buy a newspaper. The boss asked me to get one.

Mark has to get the car repaired. There’s something wrong with the

brakes.

Bye now! I’ve got to go. My wife’s waiting for me. I’ll call you later.

must 用在說話的人覺得某件事是必須的。或表達個人的願望。must的語氣

表較強烈,可能是老師或家長對學生或小孩子,或是用在書面指示或規定條

文中。

You must exercise. (I’m telling you.)

We must be quiet. (I’m telling you.)

I must buy a newspaper. I want to see the racing results.

All passengers must present their passports at custom upon arrival.

 

2. 表示過去必須做某件事時用 S + had to + V1.

I had to study last night.

They had to work late yesterday.

過去式只用had to,have got to跟 must只用來表達現在跟未來。

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.14

J. 表達必須性Necessityhave to, have got to, must

3. 表示詢問某件事是否是必要的時候疑問句用 Do/Does + S + have to + V1?

Does Paul have to drive?

When will he have to leave?

疑問句用have to很少用have got to 或must

4. 表示某件事是不必要的。是有選擇性的,可以用S + don’t have to + V1.

You don’t have to finish this now. You can give it to me tomorrow.

He doesn’t have to turn here. He can turn at the next intersection.

You don’t have to drive. I can do it.

5.表示某件事是違反規則的,不可以做,是禁止的,是沒有選擇性的用

S + must not + V1.  在口語的時候常用 S + can’t + V1。

Students must not leave the building during school hours.

You must not enter the room without wearing a mask.

You mustn’t take off your seat belt while the car is driving.

We can’t park here. It’s a tow-away zone.

依下列不同狀況放入最適當的用字,填入must, have to, 或has to

  1. You ______________ lock the door when you go out. There’ve been a lot of break-ins recently.
  2. Daniel ______________ go to the bank. He doesn’t have any money.
  3. I ______________ work late tomorrow. We’re very busy at the office.
  4. You really ______________ make less noise. I’m trying to concentrate.
  5. I think you ______________ pay to park here. I’ll just go and read that notice.
  6. You really ______________ hurry up, Vicky. We don’t want to be late.
  7. I ______________ put the heating on. I feel really cold.
  8. I ______________ go to the airport. I’m meeting someone.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.15

J. 表達必須性Necessityhave to, have got to, must

填入must, mustn’t或 don’t have to

9.  A: You ______________ take an umbrella. It isn’t going to rain.

B: Well, I don’t know. it might do.

A: Don’t lose it then. You ______________ leave it on the bus.

10. A: Come on. We ______________ hurry. We ______________ be late.

B: It’s only ten past. We ______________ hurry. There’s lots of time.

11. A: My sister and I are going a different way.

B: Oh, you ______________ go off on your own. It isn’t safe. We ______________ keep together in a group.

12. A: I’ll put these cups in the dishwasher.

B: No, you ______________ put them in there. It might damage them.

In fact, we ______________ wash them at all. We didn’t use them.

13. A: I ______________ forget to type this letter.

B: Yes, it ______________ go in the post today because it’s quite urgent. But the report isn’t so important. You

______________  type the report today.

K. 表達合邏輯的推論Logical Conclusion: must

1. 表示合邏輯的推論時,可以用must

Nancy is yawning. She must be sleepy.

She must not feel well. She looks pale.

2. 表示合邏輯的推論推論跟表示必須的must

Amy plays tennis every day. She must like to play tennis.

If you want to get into the movie theater, you must buy a ticket.

 

3. 表示合邏輯的否定推論與表示禁止

Eric ate everything on his plate except the pickle. he must not like pickles.

There are sharks in the ocean near our hotel. We must not go swimming there.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.16

L. 表達偏好Preferenceprefer, like…better, would rather

1. 表示比較兩件東西中的偏好時可以用下面句型來表示比較喜歡前面的那一樣

S + prefer + N + to + N. / S + prefer + V-ing + to + V-ing.

S + like + N + better than + N. / S + like + V-ing + better than + V-ing.

S + would rather + V1 + than + V1.

I prefer coffee to tea.

I prefer watching TV to studying.

I like coffee better than tea.

I like watching TV better than studying.

I would rather drink coffee than drink tea.

I would rather watch TV than study.

would 本身是助動詞,would rather…than的句型不可以直接加名詞,would

後面只可以用原型動詞。

2. 表示比起其他事物,比較喜歡某些事物時,可以用

S + prefer + N. / S + prefer + to + V1. / S + prefer + V-ing.

S + would rather + V1.

I usually prefer the newspaper.

Bill prefers to read magazines.

Tom prefers watching TV.

I’d rather stay home tonight.

would可以跟主詞縮寫成’d

3. 表示詢問對方的偏好時可以用Would you rather + V1?

Would you rather eat at home or eat out? I’d rather eat at home.

改正六個錯誤

For my study, I interviewed fifty men and women. There was no difference in men’s and women’s preferences for TV. I found that everyone prefers watching TV than going to movies. Men and women both enjoy news programs and entertainment specials. However, men would rather watching adventure programs and science fiction, while women prefer soap operas. Men also like to watch all kinds of sports, but women would rather see game shows to sports. Reading preferences differ too. Men prefer to reading newspapers, while women would rather read magazines and books. When men read books, they prefer read nonfiction and adventure stories. Women are preferring novels.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.17

M. be

a. be 當動詞

V1: be 本身是原型動詞,但是它的現在式為am, is, are。

V2:過去式為was were。V3: 過去分詞為been。V-ing現在分詞為being。

be為句子裡的主要動詞時,其後可以接名詞,形容詞,地點,時間,數字等。但是不會有另外一個動詞

句型為S + be + noun/adjective/preposition + place

現在簡單式  I am a teacher. / He is hungry. / My parents are at home.

過去簡單式 I was in Japan last month. / They were not busy yesterday.

未來式 I will be happy if you can join us. / She will be home soon.

現在完成式 He has never been to the United States.

現在進行式You’re being silly.

 

b. be當助動詞

be當助動詞時,是用來幫助後面的動詞形成特別的時態或語態,所以後面一定跟著別的動詞。用在進行式後面接現在分詞be + V-ing表進行,用在被動則接過去分詞be + V3表被動。

進行式 I am teaching English.

They were dancing and singing.

He will be waiting.

They have been running for two hours.

被動   The plant is watered every day.

Romeo and Juliet was written by Shakespeare.

be going to 是個片語,用來表達未來的計畫或預測。be在這兒也是當助動詞。

未來: We are going to attend her wedding.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.18

N. do

a. do 當動詞

do 當動詞時有做的意思,也常常跟其他字結合成片語。do exercise 做運動, do laundry 洗衣服, do yoga做瑜伽, do the dishes洗碗盤

V1:do/does, V2: did, V3:done,V-ing: doing

現在簡單式 I hardly ever do my homework.

She does laundry twice a week.

過去簡單式 Tom did a good job.

Lisa did me a favor last week.

未來式 A hot bath will do you good.

現在完成式 You have not done anything wrong.

過去進行式 She was doing the dishes when the phone rang.

b. do 當助動詞

do 當助動詞時,用在現在簡單式跟過去簡單式中的否定句跟疑問句,後面一定接原型動詞V1,現在簡單式的第三人稱用does。

1. 現在簡單式: I don’t understand.  / Do you live with your family?

2. 過去簡單式: Vicky didn’t answer the phone. / How did that happen?

3. 表示強調:do/did + V1 可以用來表示強調該動作。

I do like you. / They did believe that story.

4. 代替前面說過的動詞:do/did也可以單獨使用,用來代替前面說過的動詞。

A: I want to speak English well.   B: So do I.

I did not like the food and neither did her.

 

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.19

O. have

a. have當動詞有擁有,吃,得到某個疾病等意思,也常跟其他字結合成片語。如:have fun玩得開心, have a baby生小孩等。have是一個及物動詞,後面一定要接名詞。第三人稱單數用has。

V1: have/has, V2: had, V3: had, V-ing: having

現在簡單式 I have two brothers. / She has a house in Taipei.

過去簡單式 They had dinner together last weekend.

未來式 If you eat too much candy, you will have a toothache.

現在完成式 Have you ever had your own business?

現在進行式 I am having a good time.

have to 形成一個片語,是必須的意思,其後一定加動詞原型。

I have to go now.  /  Do you have to wear a uniform?

We will have to leave early tomorrow. / They had to walk home.

b. have當助動詞

have當助動詞時,後面接過去分詞V3,表完成式。接been V-ing表完成進行式。表否定時在have後加上not;造問句時把have移到主詞前即可。

現在完成式 I have lived in Taipei for 30 years.

過去完成式 The ticket had already sold out when we arrived.

現在完成進行式 She has been teaching English since 1999.

過去完成進行式 He had  been thinking about it for a long time.

另外had better 是一個助動詞,後面加原型動詞,表示應該的意思。

You had better watch out. You had better not cry.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.20

P. Will

  1. 1.  用在未來式,其後接動詞原型,但是假如接其他助動詞跟主要動詞時,第一個助動詞為原型,其餘按照各時態變化有所不同。

She will arrive at midnight.

You will be sleeping when she arrives.

I will have finished the assignment by Friday.

  1. 2.  表達百分之百的確定性。以下所有用法其後皆接原型動詞。

She will be here at 8:00. (只用在未來式)

  1. 3.  表達意願。

The phone’s ringing. I’ll get it. (我來聽)

  1. 4.  表達客氣的請求。

Will you pass the salt, please?

  1. 5.  還有一些其他的用法其後也都接原型。

Accidents will happen. / You will do as I say.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.21

練習題答案 Answer Key

C. 表達能力 Ability: can, could, be able to P.2

1. couldn’t, can, will be able to  2. hasn’t been able to, can

3. can’t, will be able to  4. haven’t been able to, can’t, will be able to

D. 表達可能性Possibilitymay, might, could, maybe (adv)

Every few years, the ocean near Peru becomes warmer. Called El Nino, this variation in temperature may cause weather changes all over the world. The west coasts of North and South American might have heavy rains. On the other side of the Pacific, New Guinea might become very dry. Northern areas could have warmer, wetter winters, and southern areas could become much colder. These weather changes affect plants and animals. Some fish may not survive in warmer waters. Droughts could cause crops to die, and food may get very expensive. El Nino may happen every two years, or it might/may not come for seven years. Will El Nino get worse in the future? They could. Pollution holds heat in the air, and it may/might/could increase the effects of El Nino, but no one is sure yet.

E. 表達允許Permission: may, can, could

  1. Can he come on the train with me or does he need a ticket?
  2. I’m sorry, he can’t. Only passengers can board the train.
  3. Could I change seats with you? I’d like to sit next to my son.
  4. Yes, you can. Go right ahead. I’m getting off soon.
  5. Mom, may I have some candy? I’m hungry.
  6. No, you may not/can’t. I’m sorry, but you’ve already had enough candy.
  7. Do you mind if he plays his computer game?
  8. No, I don’t. / Not at all. He can play if he wants. It won’t bother me.
  9. I’m still hungry. Can we’ll get a sandwich soon?
  10. Yes, we can. / Sure. / Certainly. We can go find the club car.

基礎文法L6 情態助動詞                         Jessie Lin    P.22

F. 要求別人做某事:禮貌請求Polite Requests: will, would, can, could

1. b  2. a  3. a  4. b  5. a   6. b

G. 要求別人做某事:祈使句Imperative

1. Don’t wait   2. Take  3. Have  4. Turn  5. Help me!  6. Don’t forget  7. Stop the car!  8. Come  9. Open  10. Pass  11. Don’t listen

12. Don’t be late!  13. Come in  14. Catch

H. 表示忠告建議:Advice: should, ought to, had better

  1. How should I dress?
  2. You should (You ought to ) look neat
  3. What time should I arrive?
  4. you shouldn’t (you’d better not) arrive after 7:15
  5. Should I bring a gift?
  6. You shouldn’t (You’d better not) but an expensive gift.

 

J. 表達必須性Necessityhave to, have got to, must

1. must  2. has to  3. have to   4. must  5. have to  6. must  7. must

8. have to  9. don’t have to, mustn’t  10. must, mustn’t, don’t have to

11. mustn’t, must  12. mustn’t, don’t have to

13. mustn’t, must, don’t have to

L. 表達偏好Preferenceprefer, like…better, would rather

For my study, I interviewed fifty men and women. There was no difference in men’s and women’s preferences for TV. I found that everyone prefers watching TV to going to movies. Men and women both enjoy news programs and entertainment specials. However, men would rather watch adventure programs and science fiction, while women prefer soap operas. Men also like to watch all kinds of sports, but women would rather see game shows than sports. Reading preferences differ too. Men prefer to read/ reading newspapers, while women would rather read magazines and books. When men read books, they prefer to read/ reading nonfiction and adventure stories. Women prefer novels.

20 thoughts on “基礎文法L6 情態助動詞

      1. jessie says:

        其實有解答喔,只是因為貼上部落格後格式數字會跑掉。所以看起來變成兩個大題,已經把題號改過來了。
        建議可以點進去dropbox裡面的pdf檔,格式就會是正確的:)

  1. 鄭卉翎 says:

    謝謝老師的解惑阿~
    作天上課聽到have是助動詞 腦容量不大的我 頓時臉上掛了3條線+無限問號(哈哈
    原來"助動詞"是幫助動詞的詞 而不是助動詞+永遠的V1 
    謝謝老師清楚的解說 :)

    ps:希望老師的sunburn 快快好呀~ XDD

    1. jessie says:

      不客氣,有時候因為真的很難一下子用說的解釋的很清楚,因為有點小複雜,助動詞這個部分,很開心你有弄清楚了。

      曬傷復原中,不過還是好痛啊,呵呵。謝謝囉:)

  2. Leo Chen says:

    想問潔西一個問題
    例句:For a moment,she wasn’t sure if she must outrun this handsome young man.
    這句裡的主要子句是過去式,那must需不需要改成過去式(had to),還是直接寫must也可以呢?
    謝謝

  3. Hughes says:

    Jessie 謝謝妳,看得出來妳很用心在經營這裡
    對於一個出社會的上班族,沒有太多的空閒時間在外進修,只能利用剩餘時間在家自修,妳的文章真的讓我受益良多!
    這裡真的很棒!!! 加油!!

  4. 訪客 says:

    請問老師
    (4. 表示能力時,除了現在跟過去的的時態外,其他全部都用be able to)
    這部分,前三點不是也都是表示能力嗎?那這點的意思是…?不懂@@
    求詳解謝謝~~

    1. jessie says:

      這裡的意思是說除了用在現在跟過去的時態,也就是前面幾個之外,其他的場合用 be able to

      比方說

      Jen wants to be able to write programs.

      放在 want 後面就不可以加 can,要用 be able to

      而現在完成式也不會用 can ,一定要用 be able to

      I haven’t been able to sleep well for two weeks.

      比方說未來,不是現在不是過去,就不能用 can,所以只能用 be able to

      I will be able to get my driver’s license next month.

      大致上是這樣的意思

  5. Mike says:

    謝謝妳給了這麼好的文法解釋
    在看美劇的時候,有時後一些句子常常會用do或would來替換
    例如:Would you stop? Do you stop?
    請問什麼時候該用would或do呢? 我自己覺得翻譯起來好像差不多,不知道對英語系國家的人這兩句話差別在哪裡?

    1. jessie says:

      我自己是覺得應該不會用 Do you stop?

      Do you …是現在簡單式,用來表示事實或習慣。
      Do you get up early? 你早起嗎?
      Do you sing in the shower? 你洗澡的時候會唱歌嗎?

      Would you … 在口語會用在客氣地請別人做某事。used to ask someone politely to do something:

      Would you shut the window, please? 你可以關上窗戶嗎?
      Would you mind waiting outside? 你介意在外面等嗎?
      Would someone please tell me what is going on? 有沒有人能告訴我發生什麼事了?

      朗文字典的例句

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