基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞

這幾天頭每天都在痛,今天又去看醫生耗了兩個多小時,所以呢雖然答應同學今天會放上來但是一直生不出來,因為潔西一邊整理有一邊添加跟改了一些東西,所以假如同學發現跟自己拿到的講義不太一樣,沒錯。最後的部分another, other, others, the other, the others潔西也覺得頭好大,有時候就覺得習慣就這樣用,不過有些大規則還是記一下。加油!真的都弄懂的話,對學習文法很有幫助喔:)

這是配合Azar文法中級課本的第六章的名詞跟代名詞。內容有點恐怖多,因為潔西複習上次上過的,順便做個總復習。內容有1. 八個詞性 2. 五個基本巨型

3. 文章的元素  4. 四種句子  5. 三種子句的簡介 6. 對等連接詞與轉折語用法。這次上課的有 7. 名詞拼字變化與發音規則  8. 人稱代名詞  9. 時間介系詞  10. 場所與方位介系詞  11. 形容詞基本用法  12. one, ones, another, other, others, the other, the others 東西多到一個不行啊,呵呵。

其實這些東西很多都需要用背的,但不是死背,多用習慣就記得了。比方說at home,就沒有人說in home,這些多說多看多聽,自然而然就記起來了。學文法真的是要先懂,先清楚大規則,規則記住了,多觀察,看到的時候多留意一下,然後去運用,多練習。做題目是個很不錯的方式,所以潔西盡量在每個重點後面加上練習,給沒有這本書的同學也可以練習。

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用,  潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血, 並且標明出處。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin    P.1

jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A. 八大詞類(the parts of speech)               

八個詞性分別是動詞,名詞,代名詞,形容詞,副詞,連接詞,介系詞跟感歎詞。

1. 動詞 Verb:

用來描述一個動作或狀態的字。在英文當中可說是最重要也最困難的。一般放在主詞的後面。英文用動詞來表達時態,主動被動。動詞主要分三種。

a. 行為動詞:用來表達主詞的行為或動作。又可分

(a.)不及物動詞 intransitive verb

不及物動詞表達主詞所作的動作,後面不需要受詞。

Time flies.

Time flies when you’re having fun.

My father shaves.

My father shaves every morning before he goes to work.

(b.)及物動詞 transitive verb

及物動詞把主詞的動作轉移到另外一個名詞,也就是受詞的身上,所

以及物動詞後面一定有一個接受動作的受詞。

He bought a diamond engagement ring.

He bought a diamond engagement ring for his girlfriend last night.

Tim ate three hamburgers.

Tim ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

2. 連綴動詞 linking verb

連綴動詞經常用來表達狀態,或一些小動作。連綴動詞把主詞動詞後面

的主詞補語連接在一起。主詞補語通常是名詞或形容詞。主詞補語為名

詞時,會等於主詞。主詞補語為形容詞是用來修飾主詞。

I feel sick.

My mother is a housewife.

You look tired.

3. 助動詞 auxiliary verb

助動詞與主要動詞合併起來成為一個動詞片語,用來表達時態或語態等。

The band is coming to Taiwan next month.

He didn’t go to school yesterday.

  

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin    P.2

1. 動詞: 動詞的四個面貌:動詞依時態不同會有不同的面貌

  1. Present (V1) 動詞原型: I work from nine to five.
  2. Past (V2) 動詞過去式: I worked late last night.
  3. Past Participle (V3) 動詞過去分詞: I have worked hard.
  4. Present Participle (V-ing) 動詞現在分詞: I am working now.

2. 名詞 (nouns):名詞用來表達人、事、物、地等。英文句子的構成要件就是主詞跟動詞。名詞用來當主詞、受詞與補語。名詞當主詞時放在句首,當受詞與補語時放在動詞後面。主詞一定要是名詞,所以當要表達的字是動詞時,必須把動詞加上ing成為動名詞或加上不定詞to。名詞可以接在其他詞類後形成片語。只有形容詞才可以用來修飾名詞。

如:Peter, Taipei, table, truth..等。

Albert is a nice guy.

Barack Obama is the current President of the United States.

Baking and swimming are my hobbies.

3. 代名詞 (pronouns):是用來取代名詞的字。前面已經提過的名詞或是說話的人彼此都知道的名詞都可用代名詞代替。主要是避免重複。用法與主詞雷同。

如:you, him, herself, everyone, this, which, what…等。

Will you give me your name and phone number?

My father is very tall. He’s one meter 85.

4. 形容詞 (adjectives):用來形容、描述、說明一個名詞或代名詞。形容詞多放在修飾的名詞前或放在連綴動詞後。形容詞有正面的形容詞,負面的形容詞,有比較級,有最高級。

如:hot, Taiwanese, her, that, some, whose…

The most popular Taiwanese drink is probably pearl milk tea.

The coffee tastes bitter.

5. 副詞 (adverbs):用來修飾動詞、形容詞,副詞,或整個句子,表達程度,次數,頻率等等。副詞不可以修飾名詞。副詞的移動性很高,常放在動詞後,形容詞前,也可放句首或句尾。不同的副詞按照強調的部分不同,可放不同地方,意義也會有所不同。頻率副詞多放一般動詞前,be動詞後。

如:always, usually, sometimes, quickly, late, very…等。

Fortunately, she won the lottery.

It’s appropriate not to take your shoes off at the door.

It’s not appropriate to take your shoes off at the door.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin    P.3

6. 連接詞 (conjunctions):用來連接單字 (words)、片語 (phrases)或子句 (clauses)。注意連接詞所連接的詞性必須一致。

  1. 對等連接詞 coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, yet, so
  2. 從屬連接詞 subordinating conjunctions: if, before, because, when
  3. 關係連接詞 correlative conjunctions: either…or, neither…nor, both…and, whether…or, not only…but also

He’s the kind of person you either love or hate.

Although John was sick, he still went to work.

It was raining but they still went to the park.

7. 介係詞 (prepositions):用來表達兩件事物的關係,如位置、方向、空間、時間或因果等。後面一定要加名詞或代名詞結合成介係詞片語。

如:about, around, in, on under, of, under, with, between, for… 等。

He arrived in London on Sunday morning.

I get up at 7 o’clock from Monday to Friday.

8. 感嘆詞 (interjections):用來表達強烈的情緒或驚訝。

如:oh, wow, yeah, ouch…等。

Oh! I didn’t know that was you.

Wow! It’s unbelievable.

閱讀下列短文,寫出每個詞性的前三個字,不要重複。

Tom thinks Mary is wonderful. He loves her madly, and he dreams of marrying her, but unfortunately he is too old for her. Today they are at a café with their friends Mandy and Jack, so Tom can’t get romantic with Mary.

  1. 動詞verb:
  2. 名詞noun:
  3. 代名詞pronoun:
  4. 形容詞adjective:
  5. 副詞adverb:
  6. 連接詞conjunction:
  7. 介系詞preposition:

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin    P.4

B. 五大基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns)        

英文的句型簡單來說有五個。有了這五個基本句型的概念後,在解讀句子跟選擇詞性方面都會比較容易。

英文是主動詞的語言。就是一個句子至少都要有要有一個主詞,一個動詞。

動詞分行為動詞(action verbs)與連綴動詞 (linking verbs)。而行為動詞又可以分及物動詞 (transitive verbs)與非及物動詞 (intransitive verbs)。

a. 行為動詞:用來描述主詞的動作或狀態

   (a)及物動詞:此類動詞的後面一定要接受詞,受詞可為人或物。概念與中

文不太一樣。你喜歡爵士樂嗎?我喜歡。中文可以說我喜歡,英文不可說

I like. 因為like是及物動詞,後面一定要加受詞。如:I like Jazz.

   (b)不及物動詞:此類動詞的後面不接受詞。   It sucks. 爛透了。

b. 連綴動詞:用來連接主詞與主詞補語,表狀態,後面接名詞或形容詞。

1. 主詞 + 不及物動詞

Subject + Intransitive Verb  (S + V)

因為不及物動詞後不須加受詞,所以只要有主詞與不及物動詞就可以表達一個

完整的句子。但是英文句子一般不會只有兩個字,而會加上修飾語來修飾。

Peter shaves every morning.

The children are dancing happily.

2. 主詞 + 及物動詞 + 直接受詞

Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object  ( S + V + O)

及物動詞後要有接受動作的對象,所以一定要加受詞。受詞可以是人也可以

是事物。

Andrew calls his girlfriend every day.

My mother cleans the house twice a week.

3. 主詞 + 連綴動詞 + 主詞補語   (S + V + SC)

Subject + Linking Verb + Subjective Complement

連綴動詞是連接主詞語主詞補語的橋樑。補語主要是用來補充說明。主詞補

語可為名詞或形容詞,用來說明或描述主詞。

Nancy is a housewife.

The boy became angry.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin    P.5 4.主詞 + 及物動詞 + 間接受詞 + 直接受詞

主詞 + 及物動詞 + 直接受詞 + 介係詞 + 間接受詞

Subject + Transitive Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object (S + V + IO + DO)

Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object + Preposition + Indirect Object

有些及物動詞比較特殊,這些動詞又叫授與動詞。授與動詞有兩個受詞,一

個為間接受詞,多為人,另一個為直接受詞,多為物。當動詞後先接直接受

詞時要加上介係詞才再加上間接受詞。

The secretary made the boss a cup of coffee.

= The secretary made a cup of coffee for the boss.

Kenny writes his girlfriend every day.

= Kenny writes to his girlfriend every day.

5.主詞 + 及物動詞 + 直接受詞 + 受詞補語 (S + V + O + OC)

Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object + Objective Complement

少數的特殊及物動詞後即使加了受詞,語意還是不完整所以還要再加上受詞

補語來讓語意完整。受詞補語可以是名詞或形容詞。這些特殊動詞不多,常

用的記注就可以了。

如:elect, vote, appoint, consider, label, designate, name, prove, declare,

think, call, believe, pronounce…等。

The voters elected Ma Ying-jeou president.

The students considered the class interesting.

Sentence Patterns Examples
  1. S + V
Time flies.
  1. S + V + O
I love you.
  1. S + V + SC
Jimmy is an engineer.
  1. S + V + IO + DO
Tim asked the teacher a question.
  1. S + V + O + OC
We elected Leo class leader.

補充說明:就像一個字可能有好幾個詞性,一個字可能當及物動詞也可能當不及物動詞。請勤查字典,並注意前後文。

She often eats in a restaurant.

She eats breakfast at Starbucks every morning.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin    P.6

B. 五大基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns) 

將下列句子的主詞、動詞、受詞、補語等標出,並決定該句子為五大句型中的哪一個句型。

1. He writes his girlfriend a love letter every day.

2. My mom enjoys cooking for our family.

3. She bought a necklace for her mother.

4. She felt her heart beating fast.

5. She sells seashells on the seashore.

6. The baby has been crying for an hour.

7. The coffee smells good.

8. The judge proved the woman innocent.

9. Time flies quickly.

10. Time is money.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin    P.7

C. 文章的元素

1. letter字母: a,b,c,d….z   英文有二十六個"字母"

2. word單字: a, book, cat…  一個或一個以上的字母組合就形成單字

3. phrase片語: English songs, in the morning, at home   兩個以上的單字

就形成片語,有動詞片語,名詞片語、形容詞片語與副詞片語

4. clause子句: 一個子句有一組主詞, 動詞與其他必要部分就叫做子句。

(1) dependent clause非獨立子句/依賴子句:

子句中雖然有主詞,動詞,其他必要部分,但是語義不完整不能單獨存在

需要加上獨立子句後才是完整的句子。如:because Tom was hungry

(2) independent clause 獨立子句:

子句本身有主詞,有動詞,其他必要部分,而且語意完整,加上句號,就

是一個完整的句子。Tom ate five hamburgers.

三種非獨立子句,無法單獨存在

  1. noun clause 名詞子句 that Tom ate five hamburgers
  2. adjective clause 形容詞子句 who ate five hamburgers
  3. adverb clause 副詞子句 because Tom ate five hamburgers

5. sentence句子:一個句子有主詞,有動詞,加上其他必要部分,語意完整,

加上句號就是一個完整的句子。也相當於獨立子句。Tom ate five hamburgers.

也可以跟非獨立子句結合,成為一個句子。

  1. She doesn’t believe that Tom ate five hamburgers.
  2. Tom, who ate five hamburgers, has a stomachache.
  3. Tom has a stomachache because he ate five hamburgers.

6. paragraph段落: 幾個句子就形成一個段落。每個段落都有一個主旨,短的

段落可能只有一句,長的可有十句或更多。常見段落模式

topic sentence       主題句,用來說明段落大意

supporting sentences 支持句,用來闡述說明主題

concluding sentence  結論句,用來結尾

7. essay 文章:幾個有組織的段落就形成一篇文章,文章會依照主題有不同的

結構。通常有introduction前言,body正文,conclusion結

論三個部分。

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin    P.8

D. 四個句子的種類

1. simple sentences 簡單句

I love beef.

2. compound sentences 並和句

I love beef, but I hate pork.

3. complex sentences 複合句

Although I love beef, I hate pork.

4.compound-complex sentences 混合句

My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a day.

1. 簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,

但整體視為一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

2. 並合句是由對等連接詞(and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet)將兩個獨立子句連接

而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.

3. 複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(如because, although, when,

before等)所帶領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。可能包

含了一個名詞子句,或形容詞子句,或副詞子句。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

I can’t believe she is only 17.

4. 混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句而形

成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did

nothing.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin    P.9

E. 子句的種類  types of clauses        

子句有三種,分名詞子句、形容詞子句跟副詞子句。

名詞子句noun clause整個子句當名詞用,不是當句子的主詞就是受詞。

形容詞子句adjective clause就是整個子句當形容詞用,一定是用來修飾名詞。

副詞子句adverb clause當然是當副詞用,像時間子句、條件子句等這些都是副詞子句,整個子句當副詞用,用來修飾動詞或整個句子。

不過子句跟句子究竟有什麼不同呢?

一個句子sentence一定有主詞跟動詞,而且語意完整。

而子句clause也有主詞跟動詞,語意完整子句叫獨立子句independent clause,也就是相當於一個句子。主要我們這裡說的子句都是非獨立子句dependent clause,雖然有了主詞跟動詞,但是語意不完整,需要其他成分來幫助它成為一個完整的句子。也就是它要犧牲小我,充當名詞、形容詞、或副詞,來幫助形成一個完整的句子。看下面的例子可能會更清楚。

1. 名詞子句 noun clause

I   think  that Jessie  is  a happy teacher.

(    S     V               )    —noun clause

S    V                 O

That the earth  is  round  is   true.

(         S     V       )                   —noun clause

S             V   SC

I don’t know where she lives.

(       S   V  )                 —noun clause

S    V          O

名詞子句放在最前面帶領子句的有that,whether,if,疑問詞what、when、where、who等。that除了在句首外一般可以省略,其他的疑問詞等則不可省。

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                      Jessie Lin    P.10

E. 子句的種類  types of clauses          

2. 形容詞子句 adjective clause

The book  which  I  read  last night  was  great.

(      S   V           )             —adjective clause

S                                 V   SC

I  like  movies   that  make  me laugh.

(  S    V            )         —adjective clause

S  V    O

I’ll never forget the day when I  got married.

(    S   V        )        —adjective clause

S        V       O

形容詞子句又叫關係子句。而放在最前面帶領形容詞子句的字就叫做關係代名詞,如that、what、who、when、where、whose等。通常做為受詞的關係代名詞如which、whom、that,可以省略,可是在限定子句時又不能省。名詞與副詞子句都有who、what、where這些疑問詞,所以容易混淆。其實只要注意子句本身的功能與修飾的對象,應該就可以分得很清楚了。

3. 副詞子句 adverb clause

He ate three hamburgers because he was very hungry.

(      S   V           )     –adverb clause

S  V        O

If you don’t have enough money, you can give it to me next time.

(  S       V              )                            –adverb clause

S     V

He was talking on the phone while he was driving.

(     S     V    )              –adverb clause

S     V

副詞子句一般是大家最熟悉的,種類也最多。副詞子句可以用來表達時間、因果、對比、條件、讓步等等。副詞子句最前面帶領子句的字叫做從屬連接詞subordinating conjunctions,是用來連接主要子句跟副詞子句的橋樑。當主要子句在前面時,因為很清楚的可以知道副詞子句是由從屬連接詞開始,所以不需要逗號,如第一與第三句。而當副詞子句在句首時,要有一個逗號清楚地把副詞子句跟主要子句隔開來,如第二個句子。當然這些從屬連接詞是都不能省略的囉。

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                       Jessie Lin    P.11

F. 轉折語Transitional signals                                     

1.  對等詞 coordinators

  1. 對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個,可用fanboys來記:  and, but, so, or, nor, for, yet
  2. b.  配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 有五個:

both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor, whether … or。

這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

Would you rather take a written or an oral exam?

The system is not only complicated but also inefficient.

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句, 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

S + V, CC S + V.

I was hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

2.  從屬詞subordinator

從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction 是帶領副詞子句的連接詞,如although, when, while, before, after, because, if, as, 等。

它會放在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

SC + S + V, S + V.     or    S + V + SC + S + V.

Because I was feeling hungry, I made myself a sandwich.

I made myself a sandwich because I was hungry.

3.  轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

S + V; CA, S + V.       or    S + V. CA, S + V.

I was feeling hungry; therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. Therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. I made myself a sandwich, therefore.

I was feeling hungry. I, therefore, made myself a sandwich.

4.  其他others

有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語等。

An additional reason for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.12

轉折語列表 Chart of Transition Signals

用法 1. 對等詞 2. 從屬詞 3. 轉折語 4. 其他
additional idea附加 andnor alsobesidesfurthermore

in addition

moreover

too

anotheran additional
compare things比較 andboth…andnot only …

but also

neither…

nor

asjust as alsolikewisesimilarly

too

as…aslike/alikejust like

similar to

be alike

be similar

opposite ideacontrast things相反

對比

butyet althougheven thoughthough

whereas

while

howeverneverthelessnonetheless

on the other

hand

on the contrary

in contrast

instead

in/by comparison

still

despitein spite ofcompared to

compared with

differ from

be different

be dissimilar

be unlike

alternative選擇 or ifunless otherwise
cause or reason理由或原因 for becausesinceas due tobecause ofresult from

as a result of

effect or result影響或結果 so thushencetherefore

accordingly

as a result

as a consequence

consequently

result incauseaffect

the cause of

the reason for

example舉例 for examplefor instance such aslikean example of
chronological order時間順序 first, second,first of allthen, next

now, then, soon

last, finally

meanwhile

gradually

after that

since then

the firstthe nextthe last

the final

before lunch

after the war

since 1999

explain and restate解釋或陳述 indeedthat is
emphasize強調 in fact
order of importance重要性 above allfirst and foremostmost importantly

primarily

the most importantthe primary
to conclude結論 all in allin briefin conclusion

in short

in summary

indeed

It is clearthat…We can see

that..

The evidence   suggests that…

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.14

F. 轉折語Transitional signals

對等連接詞,從屬連接詞,與轉折語的用法:

1.  對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句,連接詞一 定放在兩個句子中間。

It is an old car, but it is very reliable.

2. 從屬連接詞帶領非獨立子句來連接另一個 獨立子句,從屬連接詞在句首句子

需要逗號分開,在句中則不需要。

Although I can’t help admiring the man’s courage, I do not approve of

his methods.

This is my responsibility, although I appreciate your offer.

3. 轉折字或連接副詞用來連接兩個獨立子句時,需用分號把子句分開。或可連

接兩個句子。

This is a cheap and simple process. However, there are dangers.

 

 

1. _______ the new computers are arriving next week, no plans have been made to dispose of the old ones.

  1. Despite  b. When  c. Although  d. Whereby

2. The afternoon flight from Tokyo has been canceled ________ a mechanical problem.

  1. as much as  b. due to  c. because  d. in case  e. because of

3. Following Ms. Aglo’s appointment to the board of directors, the firm’s investment strategy was _______ reevaluated.

a. thoroughly   b. thorough  c. thoroughness  d. more thorough

(這題示不相關的,不小心放進來了@_@)

4. __________ I’m not sure my answers are right, you can copy them down.

a. Although   b. But  c. However   d. Despite

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.15

G. 名詞 Nouns  複數變化拼字規則                    

1. 大部分的名詞在字尾加s。(初學者可先記A,B,C,D,G就可)

stamp-stamps, letter-letters, camera-cameras, ticket-tickets

2. 當名詞字尾是s, ss, sh, ch, x, z時,則加es。

bus-buses, class-classes, dish-dishes, watch-watches, box-boxes,

quiz-quizzes

3. 當名詞字尾為子音加y時,需將y去掉,加ies。

baby-babies, country-countries, city-cities, party-parties

4. 當名詞字尾為母音加y時,則只要加s,即可。

day-days, boy-boys, key-keys, tray-trays

5. 當名詞字尾為ffe時,需將f或fe去掉,加ves。

wife-wives, life-lives, wolf-wolves, leaf-leaves

有些名詞字尾為f,但是只要加s。

belief-beliefs, chief-chiefs, cliff-cliffs, roof-roofs

6. 當名詞字尾為子音加o時,需加es。母音加o時,則只要加s即可。

這個規則有例外,不確定時最好查字典。有些字如zeros, zeroes兩者都可。

tomato-tomatoes, potato-potatoes, zoo-zoos, radio-radios

7. 有些名詞複數的變化是不規則的,需特別記住。

child-children, person-people, man-men, woman-women, mouse-mice

8. 有些字的單複數同型

one deer-two deer, one fist-two fish, one means-two means,

one series-two series, one species-two species

9. 有些自是外來字,複數字尾變化比較特別。

criterion-criteria, phenomenon-phenomena, fungus-fungi,

stimulus-stimuli, analysis-analyses, basis-bases, crisis-crises,

hypothesis-hypotheses, thesis-theses, bacterium-bacteria,

datum-data, medium-media, memorandum-memoranda

Write the plurals of these nouns.

1. address ________ 2. fox ______ 3. brush ________ 4. desk _______

5. computer _________  6. face _______ 7. guy _______ 8. list _____

9. loss ______ 10. patch _______ 11. poppy ______ 12. play ________

13. reply ______  14. video _____  15. belief ______  16. wife ______

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.16

H. 名詞 Nouns  複數發音變化規則

1. 當名詞字尾是無聲子音如/k/, /p/, /t/,/θ/時,加s後,應讀做/s/。

book-books, lake-lakes, map-maps, student-students, month-months

2. 當名詞字尾是有聲子音如/r/, /n/, /l/,/d/等或母音時,加s後,應讀做/z/。

car-cars, pen-pens, hole-holes, hand-hands, law, laws, day-days

3. 當名詞字尾為/s/, /z/, / ʃ /, / tʃ /, / dʒ /時,加s後,應讀做/ ɪz/。要注意的是,看的是最後一個音,而非最後一個字母,如place就是這一類。

bus-buses, house-houses, quiz-quizzes, dish-dishes, watch-watches,  page-pages

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /,

/ ɔɪ/,/ aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

I. 動詞接續與主動詞一致

可數名詞單數與不可數名詞單數當主詞時,後面必須接單數動詞。

可數名詞複數當主詞時候面要加複數動詞。

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.  Coffee is good for your health.

The books on the table are mine.

特別注意有些字尾為s的名詞,可能接單數動詞也可能接複數動詞。

clothes, pants, jeans, scissors這些字複數名詞,沒有單數,後面接複數動詞。

Those pants are mine.

news, politics, mathematics, measles這些字為不可數名詞,後面接單數動詞。

Mathematics is my favorite subject.

means, species, series, 這些字單複數同型,可以當單數,也可以當複數。

The only means of communication was sign language.

Over a hundred species of insect are found in this area.

(Cambridge 與 Longman 字典範例)

Choose the correct form. 選擇正確的答案

  1. Every policeman is/are given special training for the job.
  2. No two days are the same. Each day is/are different.
  3. But the job isn’t/aren’t as exciting as some people think/thinks.
  4. Not all policemen is/are allowed to carry guns.
  5. A number of police officers here works/work with dogs.
  6. An officer and his dog has/have to work closely together.
  7. One of our jobs is/are to prevent crime happening in the first place.
  8. A lot of crime is/are caused by people being careless.
  9. Sorry, I have to go now. Someone has/have just reported a robbery.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.17

J. Personal Pronouns人稱代名詞                  

主格代名詞 受格代名詞 所有格形容詞 所有格代名詞 反身代名詞
1

I

me

my

mine

myself

1s

we

us

our

ours

ourselves

2

you

you

your

yours

yourself

2s

you

you

your

yours

yourselves

3

he

him

his

his

himself

she

her

her

hers

herself

it

it

its

its

itself

3s

they

them

their

theirs

themselves

代名詞顧名思義是用來代替前面說過的名詞。英文的代名詞有許多種。人稱代名詞可用來代表前面說過的人、事、物。

主格代名詞subject pronouns用來代替前面說過的主詞。

主詞一般放在句首,在動詞的前面。主詞後面不可以加名詞。

受格代名詞object pronouns用來代替已經說過的受詞。

受詞一般放在動詞的後面。中文的I跟me都一樣是 ”我”,所以容易弄混淆。一個英文句子一定有主詞跟動詞,只要記住動詞前用主格代名詞,動詞後(有時是介係詞後)用受格代名詞就不會錯了。S+V+O

所有格形容詞possessive adjectives放在名詞前面,用來表達該名詞是屬於誰的。所以所有格形容詞後面一定會加名詞。

所有格代名詞possessive pronouns用來代替前面所說過的名詞,並表達這個名詞是屬於某人的。中文的my跟mine都一樣是”我的”,所以容易弄混淆。所有格代名詞本身已是名詞,所以後面一定不可以再接名詞。

  1. Hello. My name is Jessie Lin. What’s ________?
  2. This is Mary and ____ husband on _______ wedding day.
  3. I took these photos. Do you like _______?
  4. Look! The pandas are eating _____ food.
  5. Are these Linda’s keys? No, they’re not _______.
  6. Have you met Mr. and Mrs. Wang?  _________ are our new neighbors.
  7. Chris is a very good teacher. All the students love ______.
  8. France is famous for _____ wine.
  9. We’re having a party in _____ house.
  10. Tom is an old friend of ________.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.18

K. 時間介係詞 Prepositions of Time

at a time of the day時間點(幾點幾分) I usually get up at 8 o’clock.She starts work at 8.30.
at night/noon/midday/midnight Linda doesn’t like to work at night.
on a day  星期一至星期日前 I do yoga on Tuesdays.
weekend 週末 Tom goes hiking on weekends
a date or holiday 特定日期 My birthday is on July 25th.
in a part of the day一天中的一部分 We often go for a walk in the afternoon.Jessie usually works in the evenings.
a month 月份 Her birthday is in July.
a season 季節 They often take a trip to Paris in fall.
a year  年份 I was born in 1971.
a century 世紀 Instant coffee was invented in the twentieth century.
X 在this, that, last, every, tomorrow 等與一些特定時間表達語前面不加任何介係詞 I am busy this weekend.She goes dancing every Friday night.Tom is going to see a dentist later.
  1. Do you sometimes watch TV ____ the morning?
  2. Are you usually at home _____ 7 o’clock _____ the evening?
  3. Do you sometimes work ______ night?
  4. What do you usually do _____ weekends?
  5. Do you usually go shopping _____ Saturdays?
  6. Do you go hiking ____ summer?
  7. Do you have a holiday _____ December?
  8. What do you usually do ______ your birthday?
  9. Do you eat breakfast _____ Sunday morning?
  10. What did you do ______ last weekend?
  11. What do you usually do ____ the evening?
  12. What do you only do _____ Sundays?
  13. What time do you have breakfast ____ every day?
  14. How do you feel ____ Sunday evenings?
  15. How do you feel ______ every Monday morning?

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.19

16. What do you do ___Saturday nights?

17. What time do you get up ____ weekdays? How about weekend?

18. Where do you usually go ____ New Year’s Eve?

19. Do you have a coffee break ____ the afternoon?

20. Do you stay up until midnight ____ weekdays?

表達時間的介系詞,連接詞,副詞

1. for後面加一段時間

for + a period of time (an hour, three days, five months, a long time)

I lived there for six years.

I studied for 2 hours.

2. in後面加一個特定的時間點,如月份,年,季節

in + a specific point in time (January, 2010, spring)

We moved in February.

He graduated in 2009.

3. on後面加一個特定的時間點,如星期,節慶,特定日期

on + a specific point in time ( Saturday, weekend, Mother’s Day)

They went dancing on Monday.

I had a big party on my birthday.

4. from … to …表示從一個時間點到另一個時間點

from … to … + specific points in time (hour, month, year)

They traveled in France from March to May.

I worked from 9 a.m. to 8 p.m. yesterday.

5. 時間表達與+ ago 表示多久前

time expression + ago (a week ago, seven years ago)

My family moved to Canada five years ago.

I ate lunch ten minutes ago.

6. until + 子句(主詞加動詞)+ 特定的時間點 表示直到….

until + clause with a specific point in time

I lived in Tainan until I was seven.

He waited until she had finished speaking.

until + 一個特定的時間

until + a specific point in time(hour, month, year)

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.20

We lived there until 1999.

not until 強調一直到某個時間點前某件事都沒有發生或結束

She didn’t get up until noon.

He didn’t show up for work until 10 a.m.

7. then + 子句或句子(主詞加動詞)

then + a sentence/clause

I lived in Tainan. Then I moved to Taipei.

I lived in Tainan, and then I moved to Taipei.

8. when +子句(主詞加動詞)+ 特定的時間點 表示當…

when + clause with a specific point in time

I started school when I was seven.

1. Ling’s family left Hong Kong _______ 1996.

2. Ling lived in Sao Paulo _______ six years.

3. Her family stayed there _________ she was six.

4. They moved to Seattle. ___________ they came to San Francisco.

5. They moved to San Francisco there years _________.

A. Complete the sentences with time expressions so they are true for you.

1. I learned to ride a bicycle in ________, when ___________________.

2. My best friend was born _______ ago, in _____________.

3. I played a musical instrument for _________, until ____________.

4. I went to elementary school until __________ , until ___________.

5. My family last went on vacation together in ______, when ______________________.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.21

L. 介係詞 場所與方位介係詞     

英文的介係詞不會單獨存在,一般後面會加名詞或代名詞組合成介係詞片語。介係詞片語可以當形容詞或副詞用,可表達時間、方位、空間、因果等等。

英文的介係詞用法跟中文差很多,有些大規則如時間、方位等常用的可以先記住,其他的慣用法可能要一一記,學一個單字的時候很重要的是留意搭配的介係詞的用法,有時候用錯介係詞,意思就會完全不同喔。所以介係詞也是相當重要的喔。

常見表達位置的場所介系詞

1. in 在(裡面)  2. at 在某個地方  3. inside 在裡面 4.  in front of  在前面       5. behind 在後面 6. between 在中間  7. next to 在旁邊  8. near 在附近    9. by 在附近  10. beside 在旁  11. on  在上面,東西的表面 12. above 在上面 (高於…)  13. over 在上面(高於…), 穿越,從一邊到另一邊  14. under  在下面  15. below  在下面(有一段距離)  16. across  橫過,對面      17. across from  對面   18. opposite  在對面 19. in the corner 在角落     20. on the corner of A and B 在A與B的轉  21. in the center of 在…的中間 22. in the front of   在… 的前面  23. in the back of   在…的後面                  24. on the right side of  在…的右邊  25. to the left of 在…的左邊          26. in the middle of  在中間      27. beyond  在… 再過去的遠處

28. around  環繞  29. along  沿著   30. against  緊靠著,倚

動詞  1. cross 越過, 穿越  2. pass  通過,渡過

副詞:1. ahead  在前方  2. behind  在後方

場所介係詞最容易混淆的是on, in, at這三個字,因為中文都翻做“在”。

其實三個用法很不同。

1. on 常見的是表達一個東西在另一個東西的表面上

Jessie likes to sit on the floor.

Your glasses are on the chair.

on the wall/ceiling/floor/ground/grass/table

也可表達在一條線上

Fulong is on the north-east coast of Taiwan.

也表達在搭乘的交通工具上,通常是可以站起來的。

I’ll be home soon. I’m still on the bus.

on the plane/train/bus/MRT/boat/ferry/ship/MRT/bike/motorcycle

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.22

介係詞 場所與方位介係詞        

      一些常見的on慣用法列舉如下

on the left/right

on television/the radio

on the sidewalk

on First Street/Road/Avenue

on a diet, on fire, on duty, on purpose, on sale, on business, on vacation,           on my own, on loan, on a trip, on campus, on the second floor

2. in常見的表達是一個東西在另一個東西的裡面(通常指三度空間)

The keys are in my pocket.

Linda is in the bathroom.

也用來表達場所時比較複雜一點,在某個建築物時可以用in或at

We stayed in the Spring Hotel.

We stayed at the Spring Hotel.

強調建築物本身,或在建築物內用in

There are 400 rooms in the Spring Hotel.

I’ll see you in the coffee shop.

常見的慣用法列舉如下

in Taiwan(國家)/Taipei(城市)

in the road, in the mirror, in bed, in hospital, in prison, in your tea, in

the air, in a car, in a hurry, in trouble, in danger, in a good mood,

3. at常見的表達是在一個點或一個地方

There’s a convenience store at the end of the street.

Let’s meet at the airport.

I live at 38 Yuanshan road, Chungho.

常見的慣用法列舉如下

at work, at school, at university, at home, at the station, at the airport, at a party, at a concert, at first, at the moment

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.23

地點方位介系詞  in    on    at

in 在裡面,在某些特定的地方,在建築物裡面

in the box

in the classroom

in class

in bed

地點方位介系詞

同學常常弄不清楚英文說在什麼地方的在究竟要用in還是at。老實說,英文的介系詞算是個有點討厭的東西,規則多,例外多,特殊用法多,總之就是要記的很多,而且常常會弄錯。有些人覺得,厚,反正這些字都是虛字,又不是用來表示意思的,錯了有什麼關係,可以溝通就好。這也沒錯啊,但是呢,在講地點方位的時候還好,可是呢假如是跟動詞放在一起變成片語的時候可不要亂用喔,用錯了意思可能會差之毫釐,失之千里呢!

雖然是要說方位,但是舉一下動詞片語好了look up可以當找尋資訊的意思。Look the word up in your dictionary. 但是look up to someone卻變成了尊敬某人。差很大吧!look down 可以是往下,可是look down on someone又變成了看不起某人。look out 可以當往外看,也可以當小心。look after 又是照顧,所以介系詞有時候真的很重要,一點也錯不得呢!

這裡是一定不會變的大原則

in 後面接國家,城市,房號

I live in Taiwan.      She lives in Taipei.       He lives in Room 4B.

on 後面接路,街,樓層

I live on Main Road.  She lives on Oak Street.  He lives on the first floor.

at 後面接地址

I live at 523 Main Road, Taipei, Taiwan.

另外

in 可用在房子或公寓裡面的某個地方或做某件事

in the kitchen, in the yard, in the shower

at 可用在在一些城市裡面的某個地點,比方說超市,海邊,百貨公司

at the mall, at the library, at the beach

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.24

在某個建築物的時候,用in或at都可以,用in有時可以強調在建築物的裡面。

Let’s meet at the coffee shop.

Let’s meet in the coffee shop.

at也會用在幾個特別的場所

at home, at school, at work, at church, at Lisa’s house, at a meeting

on 常會用在休息,渡假,旅行

on my break, on vacation, on a trip

  1. Katie’s house
  2. the bathtub
  3. Chile
  4. bed
  5. the beach
  6. the shower
  7. a friend’s house
  8. a conference
  9. the hospital
  10. her office
  11. Mike’s office
  12. the drugstore
  13. vacation
  14. Mexico
  15. work
  16. South Africa
  17. school
  18. a party
  19. the bathroom
  20. Joe’s house
  21. class
  22. the yard
  23. the U.S.
  24. the mall
  25. Asia
  26. her break
  27. the dentist’s office
  28. her parents’ house
  29. the park
  30. a trip
  31. a meeting
  32. the library

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.25

M. 形容詞 Adjectives  

1. 形容詞可以用來描述一個人,動物,地方,事情,來給予一些額外的資訊。

形容詞只可以用來修飾(描述)名詞。

I’m an happy English teacher.

It’s fun to study English.

2. 形容詞的位置:

a. 多放在修飾的名詞的前面

I saw a handsome guy last night.

b. 有少數特定名詞如something, anything,形容詞會放在這些名詞的後面

In North America, brides wear “something old, something new,

something borrowed, and something blue” for good luck.

c. 也可以放在連綴動詞的後面。(連綴動詞在後面P.1有說明)

His face turned red.

I’m so busy.

3.  形容詞本身不會隨著單複數或人稱而有所改變。

I have a beautiful daughter.

She has two beautiful daughters.

4. 當我們用超過一個形容詞來修飾名詞時,修飾的順序會是越詳細,越客觀的

越接近修飾名詞,大規則如下:

size + age + color + nationality + material

尺寸 + 新舊 + 顏色 + 國籍 + 材質

a new, green bag/a big French house/a small wooden table

假如順序正確打圈,不對改正

  1. I’m looking for my cotton green shirt and my brown leather shoes.
  2. George has a Spanish modern villa near the sea.
  3. I live in an old white house near the river. I’ve got a black large dog.
  4. I had an interesting talk with a British young student last week.
  5. We are having lunch in a big Japanese new restaurant in the center of town.
  6. I left all my books in a red plastic bag on the bus. I was so stupid!

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.26

N. one, another, other, others

1. One

a.  one of +the/所有格形容詞 +複數名詞,用來表達很多東西當中的一個

One of the students in my class was off sick today.

He is staying with one of his relatives.

b.  one後面可以加單數名詞

One flight leaves at five p.m. and the other is at nine.

c.  one可以當形容詞,也可以當代名詞,代替前面說過的單數名詞,相當於第

三人稱單數,後面是現在簡單式時,動詞必須加s。

There are two flights. One flight leaves at five p.m. and the other leaves at nine.

There are two flights. One leaves at five p.m. and the other leaves at nine.

d. ones 當代表前面說過的複數名詞時可以用ones。

A: Look at these earrings. They’re nice.

B: Which ones?

A: The red ones.

B: But I like the yellow ones better.

2. Another

a. 我們用another+單數可數名詞來表示再一個,或一個不同的人事物。假如是

不可數名詞或複數名詞時,我們用more,而不是用other來表達再多一些。

Would you like another drink?

Let’s go to another restaurant for a change.

Have another potato.

Have some more meat.

We need more cups.

b. another可以是形容詞,也可以是代名詞,再一杯飲料,可以說another one,

another drink, another都可以,但是不能說another one drink

c. another一定是單數,後面不可以加複數名詞。I met another people.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.27

3. other, others

other可以當形容詞跟代名詞,others只能當代名詞

a. 表單數特定

  the other+單數名詞/the other one/the other 可以表示一定數目的同類

當中,剩下的最後一個,此時表單數,因為是特定的,所以前面要加the。

Peter ate one apple. Sara ate the other apple.

Sara ate the other one.

Sara ate the other.

b. 表複數不特定

  other+複數名詞/other ones/others 可以表示同類物品中,除了以提過的

那些外,再取出一些,其他的一些部分。因為不是特定的,所以不用加the。

There are many apples in Peter’s kitchen. Peter is holding one apple.

There are other apples on the table.

There are other ones in a bowl.

There are others on a chair.

c. 表複數特定

  the other+複數名詞/the other ones/the others 可以表示同類的物品

中,剩下的那幾個。因為是剩下的那幾個,是特定的,所以前面要加the。

There are many apples on the table. Peter is going to take one of them.

Sara is going to take the other apples.

Sara is going to take the other ones.

Sara is going to take the others.

d. 所有格/theother+單數名詞 可以表示還沒提到的那一個。

One of his sisters lives in France and his other sister lives in Australia.

e. 所有格/數量詞/theother+複數名詞 可以表示不同的,或那些還沒有被

提到的。

The other hotels were more expensive.

Ray agreed with me but my other friends said I was wrong.

For all other enquiries, phone this number.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.28

3. other, others

f.  the other+單數名詞/the other one/the other 可以用來表示先前還

沒有提過的一個人或一件事。

He’s got two homes – one is in London and the other (one) is in Florida.

g.  others 可以用來表示其他人或其他事物。others是代名詞,後面不可以

再加名詞。

Some people like sport and others aren’t interested in it at all.

h.  the others 可以用來表示在同一套或同一個團體中的其他東西或人。

We arrived first and the others came later.

Complete these questions, dialogues, using one, another, other, or others.

  1. Could I ask you __________ question?
  2. What time is the __________ flight?
  3. What will the _________ say when I tell them about this?
  4. Do you know any ________ clubs that are as good as this one?
  5. Will you have _________ chance to take the exam?
  6. Could we change our meeting to _________ date?
  7. A: All their flights are fully booked.  B: Well, we’ll have to phone ________ airline. Lots of airlines fly there.
  8. A: Do you like this writer? B: I’m not sure. I really enjoyed one of her books but I haven’t enjoyed any of _________ books she’s written.
  9. A: Have you been to any __________ cities in Taiwan apart from Taipei?  B: Yes, on my ________ visit to this country last year, I went to Taichung.
  10. A: Are you on your own?  B: Yes, but ___________ are on their way. They’ll be here soon.
  11. A: Is the company you work for big?   B: It has two main offices. _______ office is in London and _______ one is in Paris.
  12. A: Can we make a decision now?  B: No, I think we should have _________ discussion about this subject later.

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.29

Answer Key  解答

A.  八大詞類( the parts of speech)   P.3

    1. 動詞verb: thinks, is, loves
    2. 名詞noun: Tom, Mary, café
    3. 代名詞pronoun: He, her, they
    4. 形容詞adjective: wonderful, old, romantic
    5. 副詞adverb: madly, unfortunately, too
    6. 連接詞conjunction: and, but, so
    7. 介系詞preposition: of, for, at

B. 五大基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns)  P.6

1. He writes his girlfriend a love letter every day.    4

S + V +      IO        +   DO

2. My mom enjoys cooking for our family.            2

S    +  V    + O

3. She bought a necklace for her mother.            4

S  +  V    +   DO       +  IO

4. She felt her heart beating fast.                  5

S  + V +  O      +  OC

5. She sells seashells on the seashore.               2

S  + V  +  O

6. The baby has been crying for an hour.            1

S        +  V

7. The coffee smells good.                         3

S     +  V   +  SC

8. The judge proved the woman innocent.           5

S     +  V    +  O     + OC

9. Time flies quickly.                               1

S + V

10. Time is money.                                  3

S + V + SC

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.30

F. 轉折語Transitional signals  P.14

1. c   2. b, e   3. a   4. a

G. 名詞 Nouns  複數變化拼字規則 P.15

1. addresses  2. foxes  3. brushes  4. desks  5. computers  6. faces

7. guys  8. lists  9. losses  10. patches  11. poppies  12. plays

13. replies  14. videos  15. beliefs  16. wives

I.動詞接續與主動詞一致  P.16

1. is   2. is  3. isn’t, think  4. are  5. work  6. have  7. is  8. is  9. has

J. Personal Pronouns人稱代名詞 P.17

1. yours 2. her, their  3. them  4. their  5. hers  6. They  7. him  8. its

9. our  10. mine

K. 時間介係詞 Prepositions of Time  P.18

1. in  2. at, in  3. at  4. on  5. on  6. in  7. in  8. on  9. on  10. X

11. in  12. on  13. X  14. on  15. X  16. on  17. on  18. on  19. in

20. on

1. in  2. for  3. when  4. Then  5. ago

A. Answers vary.  每個人答案都不同,參考答案:

1. 1999, I was 20 years old

2. 23 years, 1990

3. 10 years,

4. 1989, I was thirteen years old

5. 2007, I finished college

基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞                        Jessie Lin   P.31

L. 介係詞 場所與方位介係詞  P.24

  1. at  2. in  3. in  4. in  5. at  6. in  7. at  8. at  9. in  10. in  11. in
  2. at  13. on  14. in  15. at  16. in  17. at  18. at  19. in  20. at  21. in

22. in  23. in  24. at  25. in  26. on  27. at  28. at  29. at 30. on  31. at 32. in

M. 形容詞 Adjectives P.25

  1. I’m looking for my green cotton shirt and my brown leather shoes.
  2. George has a modern Spanish villa near the sea.
  3. I live in an old white house near the river. I’ve got a large black dog.
  4. I had an interesting talk with a young British student last week.
  5. We are having lunch in a big new Japanese restaurant in the center of town.
  6. I left all my books in a red plastic bag on the bus. I was so stupid! (O)

N. one, another, other, others  P.28

1. another  2. other  3. others  4. other  5. another  6. another

7. another  8. the other  9. other  10. others  11. One, the other

12. another

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3 thoughts on “基礎文法L5 名詞與代名詞

  1. Brian 說道:

    潔西老師你好,因為這篇老師沒有下載連結,
    所以學生我嘗試自己負制到WORD裡面,可是無奈我不太會用…
    表格的部分都跑掉了QQ
    老師有沒有WORD檔可以提供呢?

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