現在完成式與過去完成式

現在完成式 連結是把這一篇的現在完成式解說,內容跟這篇差不多,排列順序不同,自己覺得比較清楚。順便附上影片連結。

 

 

 

這是配合Azar文法中級課本的第四章,內容有現在完成式,現在完成進行式,現在完成式與過去簡單式的區別,過去完成式。完成式一直是很多人永遠弄不清楚或永遠不會用或永遠都用錯的時態。要弄清楚一定要先懂,然後多做題目,了解什麼時候用,多觀察,然後再用出來。加油囉。潔西重新整理,不過有點倉促,有發現不對的地方或錯誤再麻煩跟潔西說,大大感激:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.1

jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect                      

英文有十二個時態。在學每一個時態時要記住四點:使用時機、句型、動詞變化以及搭配的副詞。最重要是理解跟多做練習,才能靈活運用、得心應手。

一、現在完成式的使用時機

1. 現在完成式可以用來表達在過去發生的事情,這個事情或狀態從過去開始一直延續到現在,在未來也可能繼續持續下去。表達這種情形時,多跟sincefor連用。

He has been a pro-gamer for three years.

She has worked at HTC since 2010.

I have lived in Taipei since I was born.

They have become successful since they have been in Taiwan.

  for + 一段時間 (for twenty minutes, for three hours, for two weeks, for three months, for years, for a long time) 表示這個事件持續了多久

 since + 一個過去時間點 (since 7:00, since Monday, since 1998, since two days ago, since this morning) 表示這個事件開始的時間

since + S + V2 (since I was a child) 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中的活動已經在過去結束。

since + S + have + V3 (since I have worked at IBM) 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中在過去開始持續到現在。

a. Fill in the blanks with for or since 空格中填入for或since

  1. She has been married _______ ten years.
  2. They have worked at the factory ________ they were 18 years old.
  3. We have lived in Japan _______ 2010.
  4. He hasn’t played basketball _______ over two years.
  5. I have known Tom _________ high school.
  6. They have won every game _______ they have played.

b. Answer the questions 回答下列問題

1. How long have you studied at this school?

2. How long have you known your best friend?

3. How long have your parents been married?

4. How long have you had your current hairstyle? (現在的髮型維持多久了?)

5. How long have you had your cell phone?

6. How long have you been up today? (今天醒來多久了?)

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.2

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

2. 現在完成式常用來表達在過去某個不特定時間發生的事情,發生的時間不確

定或不重要,重要的是結果,而且結果是跟現在有關的。

I have seen this movie before. I don’t want to see it again now.

He has left the company. He doesn’t work here now.

現在完成是用來當表示剛剛最近不久前發生的事情時,常與just, recently,

   lately連用。

We’ve just gotten back from Tokyo.

I’ve recently signed a contract to write a book.

He hasn’t had time lately.

(美式英語常用過去簡單式來表示: We just got back from Tokyo.)

(在這個用法中不會有過去時間: We’ve just got back from Tokyo yesterday.)

現在完成式用來表達過去的經驗時常與ever(in your life time)曾經(從你這

輩子出生到現在),never(=at no time) 從不(從來沒有)連用。注意ever在

這個句型多放在疑問句,不用在肯定句。never用在否定句就不能再有not。

Have you ever met a famous person?

Yes, I have met a famous person. /Yes, I have ever met a famous person.

No, I have not met a famous person. / No, I have never met a famous person.

No, I have not never met a famous person.

現在完成式強調已發生的事或發生的比預期早的時,常與already連用。

already的位置多放在have/has與V3間,也可放句尾。

Do you want something to eat? No, thanks. I’ve already eaten.

Are you going to see that movie? No. I’ve already seen it.

現在完成式常用not yet來表達還沒有發生的事,但我們認為未來會發生。

yet的位置多放在句尾,也可以放在haven’t跟V3間。

I haven’t finished this work yet. (but I will finish it.)

They haven’t replied to my letter yet. (but they will reply.)

現在完成式用yet在問句中表達我們預期會發生的事情是否已經發生。

有時後我們用already在問句中,這通常表示訝異某事比預期還早的發生。

Have you paid the bill yet?

Have you found a job yet?

Has he already gotten his flu shot? The flu season hasn’t begun yet.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.3

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

2.

a. Make sentences using the Present Perfect with already or yet.

根據提示,用already或yet造句

(I/not/read/today’s newspaper) yet.

I haven’t read today’s newspaper yet.

1. (you/decide/which one to buy) yet?

_________________________________________________

2. (I/explain/this to you three times) already.

_________________________________________________

3. (Their baby son/start/talking) already.

_________________________________________________

4. (you/phone/Jane) yet?

_________________________________________________

5. (The game/not/finish) yet.

_________________________________________________

6. (I/have/lunch) already.

_________________________________________________

7. (He/spend/all his money) already.

_________________________________________________

b. Complete the sentences using the Preset Perfect form of the verbs words in brackets ( ). 根據括號裡的動詞提示,用現在完成式完成句子

Don’t take my plate away. I haven’t finished (not/finish) my meal.

  1. A: What’s that book about? B: I don’t know. I _________ (not/read) it.
  2. I __________ (lose) my pen. Can I borrow yours, please?
  3. A: I __________ (book) a room here for tonight. B: Yes, madam, what’s your name, please?
  4. I’m not sure what the problem with the car is. It _______(not/happen) before.
  5. A: ____________ (you/reply) to that letter from the bank? B: No, I haven’t, but I’ll do it soon.
  6. A: What’s happening in this program? B: I don’t know. _____________. (It/just/start)
  7. A: How’s Lucy?  B: She’s very happy. ________________ (She/just/finish) her exams.
  8. Could I have a copy of Next Magazine, please?  B: Sorry. __________________ (I/just/sell) the last copy.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.4

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   一、現在完成式的使用時機

Gone and been

S + has/have been to + place. 現在完成式用這個句型表達去過某個地方,

但是現在回來了,不在哪個地方了。

S + has/have gone to + place. 現在完成式用這個句型表人去了某個地方,

人還在那裡,還沒有回來。所以表達自己去過某個地方絕對不要用這個句型。

He’s been to Paris. (He is now at home again.) 他去過巴黎(現在回來了)

He’s gone to Paris. (He is in Paris now.) 他去了巴黎(人現在在巴黎)

I’ve been to Paris. (I am now at home again.) 我去過巴黎(現在回來了)

 I’ve gone to Paris. 我人去了巴黎(錯誤的句子,因為說話時人在說話處)

3. 現在完成式也用來表達過去到現在一段時間內重複的活動,實際發生的時間

並不重要,強調的是次數。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。後面可以加時間,但是時間一定要是到目前為止today, this morning, this month, this year,不能是過去時間。

We have had three tests so far this semester.

We have done quite a lot of work today.

He hasn’t had a holiday this year.

I have had five cups of coffee today.

I have had five cups of coffee yesterday.

Answer the questions

How many times have you shopped this week?

I’ve shopped twice this week.  / I haven’t shopped at all this week.

  1. How many times have you been to a KTV this year?
  2. How many cups of coffee have you had today?
  3. How many phone calls have you made today?
  4. How many times have you eaten Japanese food this month?
  5. How many times have you done laundry this week?
  6. How many times have you cleaned the house this month?

4. 現在完成式常跟第一次,第二次,最高級等連用。

This is the first time I’ve been so Canada, so it’s all new to me.

He loves this movie. This is the fifth time he’s seen it.

Paris is the most beautiful place I’ve ever been.

This is the best book I’ve ever read.

(ever在這樣的句型可以放在肯定句,表這輩子到目前為止)

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.5

A. 現在完成式  Present Perfect   

二、現在完成式的句型為主詞+have/has+過去分詞(V3)

1. 肯定句句型為S + have/has + V3 (V3指的是動詞的第三態,過去分詞)

S   +    have/has + V3

I        have been to Australia.

They     have  eaten dinner.

She      has earned millions of dollars since 1995.

2. 否定句在助動詞have/has後面加not

S  +   haven’t/hasn’t + V3

We     haven’t seen the movie.

You     haven’t traveled in Taiwan.

He      hasn’t made much money in his life.

3. Yes/No 問句把助動詞have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has + S + V3

Have       you cooked Thai food?

Have       they arrived?

Has        she finished the report?

4.WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH       have/has    +   S    +   V3

Where      have          you       been?

What       have          they      done?

How long    has           May       studied English?

三、現在完成式的副詞如:never, ever, already, yet, lately, recently, just, this week, today, 也常跟介系詞for與since連用…等。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.6

四、現在完成式規則動詞過去分詞的拼字與發音變化的規則

規則動詞的過去分詞拼字變化與過去簡單式的動詞過去式變化相同如下:

1. 大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ed。

work-worked, help-helped, call-called, wash-washed

2. 動詞字尾已經有e時,只要加d即可。

live-lived, die-died, dance-danced, smile-smiled

3. 動詞字尾為子音加y時,必須去y加ied。

study-studied, cry-cried, worry-worried, copy-copied.

4. 只有一個音節的動詞字尾發音為短母音加子音時,重複字尾再加ed。

shop-shopped, plan-planned, tap-tapped, hop-hopped

5. 兩個音節以上且重音在最後一個音節的動詞,字尾發音為短母音加子音時,也需重複字尾加ed。

admit-admitted, prefer-preferred, omit-omitted, occur-occurred

規則動詞的過去分詞發音的變化也與過去簡單式的過去變化相同如下:

1. 動詞字尾是無聲子音時,加ed後讀/ t /。無聲子音指的是除了/ t /之外的

/ k /, / f /, / s /, / ʃ/, / tʃ/, /θ / 等。

cook-cooked, laugh-laughed, kiss-kissed, wash-washed, watch-watched

2. 動詞字尾是有聲子音或母音時,加ed後讀/d/。有聲子音指的是除了/ d /之外的/ b /, / g /, / r /, / l /, / m /, / n /, / v / 等。

call-called, rain-rained, love-loved, play-played, try-tried

3. 動詞字尾的發音是/ t /, / d /的發音時,加ed後讀/ɪd /。

want-wanted, need-needed, visit-visited, wait-waited

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/, / aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

把下列動詞改成過去式,並放入正確的字尾ed發音的欄位。

1. clean 打掃  2. cook 做菜  3. want想要 4. invite 邀請 5. listen 聽

6. need 需要  7. relax 放鬆  8. shop 購物   9. study 用功  10. talk 說話

11. visit 拜訪  12. wait  等待 13. play玩  14. watch 看  15. cry 哭泣

/t/
/d/
/ɪd/

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.7

原型V1 過去式V2 過去分詞V3 現在分詞V-ing
1. be 是2. buy 買

3. come 來

4. do 做

5. drink 喝

6. drive 開車

7. eat 吃

8. find 找

9. fly 飛

10. forget忘記

11. get 拿

12. give 給

13. go 去

14. have 有

15. know 知道

16. leave 離開

17. lose 輸,遺失

18. make  做

19. meet 碰面

20. quit戒,辭職

21. read 閱讀

22. ride 騎

23. run 跑

24. see 看

25. sell 賣

26. sing 唱歌

27. sit 坐

28. sleep 睡

29. speak 說

30. spend 花費

31. swim 游泳

32. take 拿

33. think 想

34. wear 穿

35. win 贏

36. write 寫

was/werebought

came

did

drank

drove

ate

found

flew

forgot

got

gave

went

had

knew

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

rode

ran

saw

sold

sang

sat

slept

spoke

spent

swam

took

thought

wore

won

wrote

beenbought

come

done

drunk

driven

eaten

found

flown

forgotten

gotten

given

gone

had

known

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

ridden

run

seen

sold

sung

sat

slept

spoken

spent

swum

taken

thought

worn

won

written

beingbuying

coming

doing

drinking

driving

eating

finding

flying

forgetting

getting

giving

going

having

knowing

leaving

losing

making

meeting

quitting

reading

riding

running

seeing

selling

singing

sitting

sleeping

speaking

spending

swimming

taking

thinking

wearing

winning

writing

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.8

B.  現在完成式與過去簡單式的不同

a. 比較

現在完成式Present Perfect 過去簡單式Simple Pas
  1. 用來表達過去某個時間開始的事情,持續到現在,可能持續到未來。

I have lived in Taipei for 20 years.

2. 用來表達發生在過去不特定時間發生的事情。強調與現在之間的關係。

They have decided to get married.

He has been to Japan twice.

3. 用來表達事情發生在一段期間內,而這期間還沒有結束。

I have read two books today.

  1. 用來表達過去發生的某件事情,在過去已經結束了。

I lived in Sydney for 2 years.

2. 用來表達過去特定時間發生的事情。強調過去的時間。

They decided to get married last night.

He was in Japan last year.

3. 用來表達事情發生在一段期間內,而這期間已經結束。

I read two books last night.

b . 使用

我們常用現在完成式來表達生活中的經驗。

I have been to Japan three times.

用過去簡單式來說明某件事發生確切時間。

I went to Japan last year.

所以我們問經驗的時候會先用現在完成式來問,回答也用現在完成式。但是接下來的問題會用過去式來得到其他更詳盡的資料,而回答時也用過去式。

A: Have you been to Japan?

B: Yes, I’ve been to Japan twice.

A: Really. When was the last time you went to Japan?

B: I went there last May. I went to Hokkaido.

A: How did you like it?

B: I loved it. It was beautiful and people are very friendly.

 

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式              Jessie Lin    P.9

C.  現在完成式與過去簡單式的不同

b. 根據括號內提示的動詞,用現在完成式或過去簡單式完成句子

1

A: _______ you ever _________ anyone famous? (meet)

B: Yes, I ______, actually.  When I ______ in Mexico on vacation. (be)

A: Really? Who _____ you ______ ? (meet)

B: Michael Jackson. He _____ in the same restaurant as me. (be)

2.

A: ________ you ever ________ a diary? (write)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ one when I was a teenager. (write)

A: ________ you ________ it every day? (write)

B: No, I _________. Only when I ______ on holiday. (be)

3.

A: ________ you ever _______ to France? (go)

B: Yes, I _______. I _______ there six years ago. (go)

A: Where ______ you _______ ? (stay)

B: I _______ an apartment near Bordeaux. (rent)

4.

A: ______ your mother ever _____ to a rock concert? (go)

B: Yes, she _____. She _______to one or two when she was young. (go)

A: Who _____ she _______? (see)

B: Well, I know she _____ David Bowie before he ______famous. (see,

become)

5.

A: ______ you ever _____ to play an instrument? (learn)

B: No, I ________. What about you?

A: Well, I _____ to learn the piano at school. (try)

B: ______ you any good? (be)

A: No, I ______ no idea what I was doing! (have)

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.10

D.  現在完成進行式

一、現在完成進行式的使用時機

1. 我們用現在完成進行式來表達某件事情或某個動作在過去開始,持續了一段

時間到現在,這個狀況還沒結束,很可能會持續到未來。

I have been waiting here for thirty minutes.

They have been sitting in class since 8 o’clock.

2. 我們用現在完成進行事來表達某件事情或動作剛剛結束,現在沒有發生,但

是可以看到一些動作的結果。

The kids have been playing here. Their toys are all over the room.

It’s been raining. The streets are still wet.

 

二、現在完成進行式的句型為:主詞+have/has+been+現在分詞(V-ing)

1. 肯定句S + have/has + been + V-ing

S   +  have/has  +  been  + V-ing

I      have been living here since I was born.

They   have been swimming.

She    has been working all day.

2. 否定句在助動詞have/has後面加not

S  +  haven’t/hasn’t + been + V-ing

I      haven’t been studying.

You     haven’t been making any progress.

He      hasn’t been waiting.

3. Yes/No 問句把助動詞have/has放在主詞前面造問句

Have/Has + S + been + V-ing

Have      you  been running?

Have      they been touring the U.S.?

Has        he  been writing his essay?

4.WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞have/has、主詞、動詞

WH            have/has    +   S    +   been + V-ing

How long         have          you       been waiting?

Who             has           she       been talking to?

How many people  have                     been standing in line?

三、現在完成進行式的副詞如:all day, all morning, today 等。也常跟介系詞for與since連用…等。

 

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.11

E.  現在完成式與現在完成進行式的不同

現在完成式Present Perfect 現在完成進行式Present Perfect Progressive
  1. 用來表達過去不特定期間發生的事情,動作已經結束,但是結果跟現在有關。強調結果。

I’ve read a book.

(I finished the book.)

She’s written an article.

(She finished the article.)

2. 用來表達完成了多少how much,做過多少次how many times,做了多少事情how many things。

I’ve read a lot about it.

I’ve been to Africa twice.

She’s written three articles.

3. 某些動詞用現在完成式與現在完成進行式表達的意義基本上是相同的。這些動詞是用來表達常態性,習慣性的活動,如:live, work, teach, study, smoke, play, wear glasses, read等等。

She’s studied pandas for two years.

I have lived here for ten years.

  1. 用來表達過去發生的事情,這動作還沒有結束,可能持續到未來。強調的是動作的持續。

I’ve been reading a book.

(I’m still reading it.)

She’s been writing an article. (She’s still writing it.)

2. 用來表達某件事情發生了多久

I’ve been reading books on pandas for two months.

3. 某些動詞用現在完成式與現在完成進行式表達的意義基本上是相同的。這些動詞是用來表達常態性,習慣性的活動,如:live, work, teach, study, smoke, play, wear glasses, read等等。

She’s been studying pandas for two years.

I’ve been living here for ten years.

Complete the conversations. 用現在完成式或現在完成進行式來完成句子

A: What are you doing, Trevor? (1) ___________ (you/be) in here for ages.

You’re making an awful mess.

B: (2) _________________ (I/clean) out this cupboard most of the afternoon.

There’s a lot of old stuff in here. (3) ______________ (I/find) these, look.

A: (4) ________________ (you/sit) there staring at those old boots for the

last five minutes. (5) _____________ (I/watch) you. (6) _____________

(you/be) in a dream.

A: They’re football boots. (7) _____________ (I/have) them since I was about

sixteen. (8) ________________ (they/be) in here for years.

A: Well, throw them away. And what about that tennis racket? Is that yours?

B: No, it must be yours. (9) ________________ (I/never/have) a tennis racket.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.12

F.  過去完成式

一、過去完成式的使用時機

1. 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生

在過去某個時間點前。

By 1960 most of Britain’s old colonies had become independent.

2. 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

I went to the box office at lunch-time, but they had already sold al the

tickets.

3. 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連

句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The bus had left before he got there.

The bus left before he got there.

二、過去完成式的句型為:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

1. 肯定句句型:S + had + V3

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished.

2. 否定句句型:S + had + not + V3

They hadn’t gone home until late.

3. Yes/No 問句句型:Had + S + V3?

Had he enjoyed the party?

4. WH 問句句型: WH + had + S + V3?

Where had he put his wallet?

G. 時態比較

句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1. When John arrived, they had diner. 當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.) 約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2. When John arrived, they were having dinner.當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3. When John arrived, they had had dinner. 當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.) 在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4. When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。

5. When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I miss the beginning.

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開始。

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.13

G.  Add a sentence with the Past Perfect using the notes.

Claire looked very suntanned when I saw her last week.

She had just been on holiday. (just/be on holiday)

1. We rushed to the station, but we were too late.

______________________________ (the train/just/go)

2. I didn’t have an umbrella, but that didn’t matter.

______________________________ (the rain/stop)

3. When I got to the concert hall, they wouldn’t let me in.

______________________________ (forget/my ticket)

4. Someone got the number of the car the raiders used.

______________________________ (steal/it/a week before)

5. I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday.

______________________________ (not see/her/for ages)

6. Luckily the flat didn’t look too bad when my parents called in.

______________________________ (just/clean/it)

7. The boss invited me to lunch yesterday, but I had to refuse the invitation.

______________________________ (already/eat/my sandwiches)

H. 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的時態完成句子。

  1. I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).
  2. Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.
  3. We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.
  4. I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.
  5. It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.
  6. They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.
  7. I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ a lot in 20 years.
  8. The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.14

Answer Key

A. 一、

1.

a.

1. for  2. since  3. since  4. for  5. since  6. since

b.

1. I have studied at this school for three months.

2. I have know my best friend since college.

3. They have been married for over 30 years.

4. I have had my current hairstyle since this spring.

5. I have had my cell phone since last September.

6. I have been up for 12 hours.

2.

a.

1. Have you decided which one to buy yet?

2. I have already explained this to you three times.

3. Their baby son has already started talking.

4. Have you phoned Jane yet?

5. The game has not finished yet.

6. I have already had lunch.

7. He has already spent all his money.

b.

1. haven’t read

2. have lost

3. have booked

4. has not happened

5. Have you replied

6. It has just started

7. She has just finished

8. I have just sold

四、

/t/ cooked, relaxed, shopped, talked, watched
/d/ cleaned, listened, studied, played, cried
/ɪd/ wanted, invited, needed, visited, waited

基礎文法L3 現在完成式與過去完成式             Jessie Lin    P.15

C.

b.

1. Have, met, have, was, did, meet, was

2. Have, written, have, wrote, Did, write, didn’t, was

3. Have, been, have, went, did, stay, rented

4. Has, been, has, went, did, see, saw, became

5. Have, learned, haven’t, tried, Were, had

E.

(1) You have been

(2) I have been cleaning

(3) I have found

(4) You have been sitting

(5) I have been watching

(6) You have been

(7) I have had

(8) They have been

(9) I have never had

G.

  1. The train had just gone.
  2. The rain had stopped.
  3. I had forgotten my ticket.
  4. They had stolen it a week before.
  5. I hadn’t seen her in ages.
  6. I had just cleaned it.
  7. I had already eaten my sandwiches.

 

H.

1. called, had broken down

2. beat, was winning, scored

3. arrived, had finished, were sitting

4. ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5. started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6. were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7. didn’t recognize, had changed

8. had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing

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38 thoughts on “現在完成式與過去完成式

    1. jessie says:

      有些東西應該就是用記得比較快吧,我是這麼認為。

      我每個月去日本。I go to Japan every month. 她每個月去日本。She goes to Japan every month.
      我上個月去日本。I went to Japan last month. 她上個月去日本。She went to Japan last month.
      我去過日本。(表經驗) I have been to Japan. 她去過日本。(表經驗) She has been to Japan.
      她人去了日本。(現在在日本還沒回來) She has gone to Japan.
      比較讓台灣學生感到奇怪的是去了哪去過哪不是用 go to + place ,為什麼表經驗要用現在完成式 have/has been to + place,恩,英文不是潔西發明的,所以呢這樣的用法就是需要記一下。

      當用 have/has gone to + place 這樣的用法表示說主詞去了那個地方,人還在哪裡,還沒回來。所以通常不會用在第一人稱。因為你在你說話的地方,不會跟人家我說我已經去了別的地方。要表達經驗去過那個地方就會用 have/has been to 。第二人稱也不是不可能,打電話來,原來跑到日本去了, You have gone to Japan without telling me! 你人跑去日本居然沒跟我說!呵呵,通常用的會是說用在第三人稱,A: Where’s Tom? I haven’t seen him for a few days. B: He has gone to Japan. He’ll be back next week.

      大致也只能這樣解釋了,其實剛開始弄不清楚的東西可以先用記得,然後多看多聽多閱讀,熟了就自然而然說出口,跟中文一樣,說錯的時候會覺得怪怪的,希望這樣你有清楚一點:)

    1. jessie says:

      看上下文會有不同的意思。been in a place 可能是在某個地方待了一段時間。He’s been in the bathroom for twenty minutes. 他在廁所待了二十分鐘。She’s been in her room since she came home.她從回家後就一直待在房間。

      住的話通常就用live,I have lived in Taipei for twenty years.我在台北住了二十年。 但是假如是過去住的話就用過去式 I lived in Sydney for two years. 我在雪梨住了兩年。

      覺得應該是這樣:)

  1. 匿名 says:

    您好~
    請問這句是不是打錯了呢?
    4. How long have your current hairstyle? (現在的髮型維持多久了?)
    是不是要改成–> How long have you had your current hairstyle?
    如果我理解錯誤的話抱歉噢><

    1. jessie says:

      謝謝你,雖然儘量檢查了,不過我的校對能力比較差,我還蠻常漏字或有typo的。應該跟下一句是同樣的動詞的用法 4. How long have you had your current hairstyle? 大大感激,假如還有看到有問題的地方,不麻煩的話,在留言跟我說一下,謝謝:)

  2. KK says:

    老師 想請問現在完成式跟現在完成進行式的差別

    如果現在完成式中使用for since 是表示某件事或動作延續到現在或者是可能延續到未來的話,那不就跟現在完成進行式一樣了嗎?

    現在我只要遇到題目句子後面有for或since 我就不太知道到底要用完成還是完成進行呢

    希望老師能幫我解答一下

    1. jessie says:

      用那一個要看前後文跟要表達的語意,這一篇裡面有個部分就是比較現在完成跟現在進行,一個強調次數,一個強調時間,有時候可以通用。可以參考一下。

      再來就是靠多方面閱讀多做題目多在實際生活的會話比方說TED Talks, YouTube 影片,電影觀察用在哪裡。

      現在完成式用的會比現在完成進行式用的比例來的多得多。目前可以想到的大概是這樣,希望有點幫助:)

  3. Sweeter says:

    你好))請問:1-Sam “cut" his finger when he was cooking.
    2-He “hurt" his shoulder when he played basketball.
    以上兩句動詞時態是否使用正確?分別又是哪兩種時態的句型呢?
    我對照你的文章過後,猜想第一句應該是過去進行式⋯⋯但第二句我就不確定了⋯⋯而且要是我改成:when he was playing basketball.是否成立?求解q~q(那個我要順便告白,我看你的網站好久惹,獲益良多,thank you so much<3(幾年來第一次留言,別笑我XD

    1. jessie says:

      真的有人默默看,原來不都只是搭 google 大師的順風車不小心近來的點閱啊,哈哈。謝謝你。

      第一個句子 Sam cut his finger when he was cooking. 的用法是對的
      第二個句子應該要用 He hurt his shoulder when he was playing basketball.

      這兩個句子是過去進行式跟過去簡單是的用法,可以參考另外一篇的過去式裡面的說明,多練習一些句子後會比較容易理解喔。

      2. 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

      I was crossing the street when the driver honked his horn.

      https://jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com/2013/06/24/基礎文法l2-過去式與未來式/

  4. 匿名 says:

    哈囉老師 請問一下
    現在完成式

    since + S + V2 (since I was a child) 表示在since帶領的時間副詞子句中的活動已經在過去結束
    從我小時侯就認識他們了
    I’ve known them since i was a child
    可是你上面解釋說這樣已經在過去結束了
    意思就變成我還過去某一段時間已經不認識他們了
    是這樣嗎?
    我如果想要表達我從以前到現在都一直認識他們?
    感謝!!

    1. jessie says:

      我不太懂你的意思。我從小就認識他們,從以前到現在就是用 I’ve known them since I was a child.

      單存表達過去式有兩種可能,一種是在說過去發生的事,結束了,或者是即便現在還有但是描述的是當下的行為舉止。

      I was a child. 單純這個句子就是我過去是個小孩,表示我現在並不是小孩。假如我還是小孩就不會用這樣的句子。

      Since I was a child 這裡的 since 帶領的是一個子句,表示從過去的某個時間點開始

      比方說

      I’ve known her since 2005.
      I’ve know her since high school.

      類似這樣的意思

  5. Dan says:

    Jessie您好,冒昧請教您,如果我要說"在大學就學期間,我曾經擔任過兩任班級代表",要用現在完成式還是過去完成式,我的想法是我在描述過去就學期間的事情,所以直覺用had,但還是很不確定。
    句子: During my university days, I had (or have?) been voted for the class leader for two years.

    有勞您幫我解惑,感謝!

  6. 奔霄 says:

    對不起,想請問一下潔西這個句子:
    So far Jill have heard nothing from her boyfriend.
    這應該是現在完成式,但為什麼不用 has 而是 have 呢?

    1. jessie says:

      在哪邊看到這個句子的呢?很口語的時候或歌詞的時候會常常不管第三人稱單數,但是如果是正式正常的話會是用 has ,不會是我寫的句子吧…那就是寫錯了 = =

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