基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式

時態真的是不容易,潔西真的覺得文法是很難說得清楚的東西。不是先有文法才有語言,文法是把我們所說的話,所寫的東西的大規則整理出來,死背是學不好的。對於時態真的是一定要先理解,知道什麼時候用,記他的句型,多閱讀多觀察多看多聽母語使用者怎麼樣用,多做練習題,然後用出來,才算真正學到。

潔西把時態盡量說明清楚,被質疑為什麼要講義跟課本跳著上,但是老實說,潔西真的覺得自己整理得比課本還清楚。或許是自己自以為是,但是呢就盡力了,希望對同學有點幫助。多做練習,才比較可以理解。這是配合Azar中級課本的第二第三章,有買這本書的也可以配合著做練習。加油囉:)

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:) 又摘要使用的書或版權屬原公司所有。摘自Azar的Fundamentals of English Grammar,Longman的Grammar Express,Oxford的Oxford Practice Grammar,另外還有Cambridge的English Grammar in Use等書。

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.1

 jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com / 潔西家

A. 過去簡單式Simple Past                       

英文有十二個時態。在學每一個時態時要記住四點:使用時機、句型、動詞變化以及搭配的副詞。最重要是理解跟多做練習,才能靈活運用、得心應手。

一、過去簡單式的使用時機

1. 英文用過去簡單式用來表達發生在過去的事件。

I went home late last night.

He had a great time at his birthday party.

2. 過去簡單式也用來表達在過去重複進行的活動、習慣。

We lived in America for five years when I was a child.

My grandmother went to church every Sunday morning.

二、過去簡單式的句型

(一)過去簡單式一般動詞的句型為S + V2(V2指的是動詞的過去式)

1. 肯定句     S    +    V2

I           ate a big dinner last night.

Tina          got married when she was 18.

2. 否定與問句需要用did這個助動詞來幫忙。

否定句在助動詞後面加not, 記得助動詞後動詞要改回原型動詞。

否定句     S   +    did not    +   V1

They        didn’t         do their homework.

He          didn’t         sing at the KTV last weekend.

3. Yes/No問句把助動詞did放在主詞前面造問句,助動詞後的動詞用原型動詞。

Did   +   S    +  V1

Did       you       sleep well last night?

Did       Tom       have a good time?

4. WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞、主詞、原型動詞。

因為what 跟who 可以當主詞,當主詞時則不須助動詞,動詞用過去式。

WH             did   +   S    +   V1

What time    did        you         get up this morning?

Where         did        Linda       go last weekend?

Who         did     you       go shopping with?

Who/What   +  V2

Who            took my umbrella?

What           happened last night?

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.2

二、過去簡單式的句型

(二)、過去簡單式Be動詞的句型

主詞+過去式Be動詞   +名詞/形容詞/介係詞片語

S  + was/were       +noun/ adjective /preposition phrase

肯定句     S +    was/were +noun/ adjective /preposition phrase

I          was          a housewife.

You         were        happy earlier.

My father   was          at home this morning.

否定與問句用本身的be動詞來改否定與造問句。

否定句只要在Be動詞後面加not

否定句    S + was/were + not +  noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

I              was     not     a teacher last year.

You           were    not     sad this morning.

My father     was     not     at work yesterday.

Yes/No 問句 把Be動詞放在主詞前面造問句

Was/Were +    S  +      noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

Was            I                   loud earlier?

Were         you                 in the office this morning?

Was       your mother         away last week?

WH問句則將WH疑問詞放在最前面再依序放Be動詞、主詞與其他部分

WH  word+ was/were +   S  +   noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

When             were         you            born?

Where           were         you           last night?

How               was        your day?

切記在過去簡單式中,一般動詞與Be動詞絕對不會同時出現。

三、過去簡單式的副詞如:this morning, this afternoon, this evening, tonight, yesterday morning, yesterday afternoon, yesterday evening, last night, this Monday, last weekend, this January, last April, yesterday, the day before yesterday, three days ago, five years ago, in 2005…等。

 

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.3

四、過去簡單式規則動詞過去式的拼字與發音變化的規則

規則動詞的過去式拼字變化如下:

1. 大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ed。

work-worked, help-helped, call-called, wash-washed

2. 動詞字尾已經有e時,只要加d即可。

live-lived, die-died, dance-danced, smile-smiled

3. 動詞字尾為子音加y時,必須去y加ied。

study-studied, cry-cried, worry-worried, copy-copied.

4. 只有一個音節的動詞字尾發音為短母音加子音時,重複字尾再加ed。

shop-shopped, plan-planned, tap-tapped, hop-hopped

5. 兩個音節以上且重音在最後一個音節的動詞,字尾發音為短母音加子音時,也需重複字尾加ed。

admit-admitted, prefer-preferred, omit-omitted, occur-occurred

規則動詞的過去式發音的變化如下:

1. 動詞字尾是無聲子音時,加ed後讀/ t /。無聲子音指的是除了/ t /之外的

/ k /, / f /, / s /, / ʃ/, / tʃ/, /θ / 等。

cook-cooked, laugh-laughed, kiss-kissed, wash-washed, watch-watched

2. 動詞字尾是有聲子音或母音時,加ed後讀/d/。有聲子音指的是除了/ d /之外的/ b /, / g /, / r /, / l /, / m /, / n /, / v / 等。

call-called, rain-rained, love-loved, play-played, try-tried

3. 動詞字尾的發音是/ t /, / d /的發音時,加ed後讀/ɪd /。

want-wanted, need-needed, visit-visited, wait-waited

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/,

/ aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

把下列動詞改成過去式,並放入正確的字尾ed發音的欄位。

1. clean 打掃  2. cook 做菜  3. want想要 4. invite 邀請 5. listen 聽

6. need 需要  7. relax 放鬆  8. shop 購物   9. study 用功  10. talk 說話

11. visit 拜訪  12. wait  等待 13. play玩  14. watch 看  15. cry 哭泣

/t/
/d/
/ɪd/

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.4

五、動詞的變化: 所有的動詞都有四種主要的變化four principal parts

1. 動詞原形V1,如work, eat。(the present)

a. 原形是動詞的第一個形態,在字典中查到的基本形,不加ed或ing或s。

b. 原形主要用在現在簡式,但是現在簡單式第三人稱單數的現在簡單式要加

s,如works, eats。

c. 另外在不定詞to,助動詞如can, may, will後面也加原形。

I work from 9 to 5. / She works from 9 to 5.

I eat a sandwich for breakfast. / She eats a sandwich for breakfast.

I want to work at Google. / She wants to work at Google.

I can swim. / She can swim.

2. 過去式動詞V2,如worked, ate。(the past)

a. 過去式是動詞的第二個形態。動詞可分規則動詞與不規則動詞,規則動詞

加ed,如worker, cooked,不規則則需牢記,如ate, drank。

b. 過去式動詞只用在過去簡單式。

I worked late last night. / She worked late last night.

I ate a sandwich this morning. / She ate a sandwich this morning.

3. 過去分詞V3,如worked, eaten。(the past participle)

  1. 過去分詞是動詞的第三個形態。跟過去式一樣分規則變化與不規則變化兩種。規則變化則加ed,如worked, cooked。不規則則須牢記,如eaten, drunk。
  2. 過去分詞用在完成式與被動語態。
  3. 過去分詞動詞也可以當形容詞用。

I have worked for IBM for 5 years. / She has worked for IBM for 5 years.

I have eaten Greek food. / She has never eaten Thai food.

Romeo and Juliet was written by William Shakespeare.

She is excited about the wedding.

4. 現在分詞V-ing,如working, eating。(the present participle)

1. 現在分詞是在動詞的原形後面加ing,如working, eating。

2. 現在分詞用在進行式。

3. 現在分詞可以當做名詞跟形容詞用。

I am working now. / She is working now.

I was working while she was watching TV.

My hobbies are cooking and swimming.

I’m so happy to hear this exciting news.

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.5

原型V1 過去式V2 過去分詞V3 現在分詞V-ing
1. be 是2. buy 買

3. come 來

4. do 做

5. drink 喝

6. drive 開車

7. eat 吃

8. find 找

9. fly 飛

10. forget忘記

11. get 拿

12. give 給

13. go 去

14. have 有

15. know 知道

16. leave 離開

17. lose 輸,遺失

18. make  做

19. meet 碰面

20. quit戒,辭職

21. read 閱讀

22. ride 騎

23. run 跑

24. see 看

25. sell 賣

26. sing 唱歌

27. sit 坐

28. sleep 睡

29. speak 說

30. spend 花費

31. swim 游泳

32. take 拿

33. think 想

34. wear 穿

35. win 贏

36. write 寫

was/werebought

came

did

drank

drove

ate

found

flew

forgot

got

gave

went

had

knew

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

rode

ran

saw

sold

sang

sat

slept

spoke

spent

swam

took

thought

wore

won

wrote

beenbought

come

done

drunk

driven

eaten

found

flown

forgotten

gotten

given

gone

had

known

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

ridden

run

seen

sold

sung

sat

slept

spoken

spent

swum

taken

thought

worn

won

written

beingbuying

coming

doing

drinking

driving

eating

finding

flying

forgetting

getting

giving

going

having

knowing

leaving

losing

making

meeting

quitting

reading

riding

running

seeing

selling

singing

sitting

sleeping

speaking

spending

swimming

taking

thinking

wearing

winning

writing

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.6

B. Yesterday

1. Did you get up early yesterday?

Yes, I did. I got up early. / No, I didn’t. I didn’t get up early.

2. What time did you get up yesterday?     I got up at 7.30.

3. What did you eat for breakfast?         I ate a sandwich.

4. How did you go to work/school?               I rode a motorcycle.

5. What time did you start work?         I started work at 9.00.

6. Where did you have lunch?             I had lunch in a noodle shop.

7. Did you drink coffee yesterday?

Yes, I did. I drank two cups of coffee. / No, I didn’t. I didn’t drink coffee.

8. How much money did you spend?        I spent NT$1,000.

9. What time did you finish work?          I finished work at 6 P.M.

10. What did you do after work?

I went home, took a shower, watched TV, and then I surfed the Net.

11. What time did you go to bed?           I went to bed at 1 A.M.

12. Did you have a good day yesterday?

Yes, I did. I had a great day. / No, I didn’t. I had a bad day.

C. Vacation

  1. Where did you go?        I went to Japan.
  2. When did you go there?   I went there last May.
  3. Who did you go with?     I went there by myself.
  4. How did you travel?     I took a plane there.  In Tokyo, I took the subway.
  5. Where did you stay?      I stayed in a hostel.
  6. How was the hostel?      It was not big, but it’s very clean.
  7. How long were you stay there for?   I was in Tokyo for five days.
  8. How was the weather?   It was cold and rainy most of the time.
  9. What did you buy?      I bought some chocolate and souvenirs. 紀念品.
  10. Where did you visit?   I visited some museums, temples and shopping malls.
  11. What did you eat?      I ate some sushi and noodles.
  12. How was the food?      It was delicious.
  13. What did you do in the evening?   I went to the pubs and clubs in the evening.
  14. How were the people?   They were very friendly and hospitable. 好客的
  15. What did you enjoy the most? The streets were very clean and the air was fresh.
  16. What didn’t you like?    Everything was so expensive! I was broke!

 

 

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.7

D. 過去時間說法:下面這些用法前面都不要家介系詞at, on, in

yesterday昨天 today今天 tomorrow明天
yesterday morning昨天早上 this morning今天早上 tomorrow morning明天早上
yesterday afternoon昨天下午 this afternoon今天下午 tomorrow afternoon明天下午
yesterday evening昨天傍晚 this evening今天傍晚 tomorrow evening明天傍晚
last night昨天晚上 tonight今天晚上 tomorrow night明天晚上
last Friday上週五 this Friday這星期五 next Friday下星期五
last week上星期 this week這星期 next week下星期
last January去年一月 this January今年一月 next January明年一月
last month上個月 this month這個月 next month下個月
last year去年 this year今年 next year明年

a few minutes ago幾分鐘前, three hours ago三個小時前, two days ago兩天前, four months ago四個月前, five years ago五年前, at 8.30在八點半, on Monday在星期一, in February在二月, in 1989在一九八九年

E. 翻譯練習

1. 我昨天八點起床。

2. 他昨天早上沒有喝咖啡。

3. 她上週末有看電影嗎?

4. 你昨天晚上做了什麼?

5. 誰拿了我的手機?

6. 昨天很熱又悶濕(humid)。

7. 我昨天晚上不在家。

8. 你今天上課有遲到嗎?

9. 你的週末過得如何?

10. 上星期有幾個學生在班上?

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.8

F.  Travel Experiences (P.112 Four Corners)

1. Now I ____ here in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Yesterday, I ____ (go) on a short elephant trip. There _____ (be) a man on the elephant in front of me. His name ______ (be) Alan Johnson. My name ____ (be) Alan Johnson, too! I can’t believe we _____ (have) the same name!

2. My sister and I are in Paris, France. It’s our first trip overseas. We _____ (go) to an outdoor café the other day, and Johnny Depp _________ (be) at the next table. How exciting! He _______ (be) nice to us, and I have a cool photo now.

3. I’m here with my parents at a hotel in Miami, Florida. We _______(come) to visit our relatives. We all ______ (go) to bed last night at about midnight. At 3:00 in the morning, we __________ (hear)  a fire alarm. We _______ (run) down to the street and ________ (be) fine.

G. 過去簡單式的一般動詞與be動詞

英文的句子一定要有主詞跟動詞。

過去式的句型如下

1. 肯定句:有一般動詞時用動詞的過去式V2             I came to class late.

沒有一般動詞的句子,要有Be2 (was, were)   I was late for class.

2. 疑問句:有一般動詞用did造問句,動詞改為原型。Did you come to class late?

沒有一般動詞時,則用Be2(was, were)造問句。 Were you late for class?

填入下列問句中的助動詞,已經有一般動詞的用did造問句,沒有一般動詞的話用was/were造問句。

  1. _______ you take the MRT to school today?
  2. _______ you tired when you got up this morning?
  3. _______ you in class last time?
  4. _______ you work over time last week?
  5. _______ you chat online last night.
  6. _______ you good at math when you were a child?
  7. _______ you eat out last night?
  8. _______ you born in Taipei?
  9. _______ you worried last night?
  10. _______ you go to a wedding last month?
  11. _______ post pictures on Facebook last week?
  12. _______ bring more than NT$1,000 with you?
  13. _______ you drink bubble tea yesterday?
  14. _______ you at home this morning?

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                      Jessie Lin    P.9

H. 過去進行式 Past Progressive

一、過去進行式使用時機

1. 過去進行式用來描述過去某時正在進行中的事情。所描述的活動或情況已經開始,而在當時仍未結束。也可以用來表達兩件事情同時在進行。

I saw you last night. You were waiting for a bus.

He was talking on his cell phone while he was driving his car.

2. 我們經常在同一句子中一起使用過去進行式與過去簡單式。過去進行式描述

過去某時正在進行的持續活動或情況;過去簡單式則描述較短暫的活動,這

短暫的活動在上述持續性的活動中出現,甚至把持續性活動打斷。

We were walking in the park when it started to rain.

但是,要描述某事件在另一事件之後發生,便需使用過去簡單式。

We stood under a tree when it started to rain.

3. 說故事時,過去進行式通常用來描述故事的背景情況,過去簡單式則用來描

述所發生的事。

I was standing outside the bus station. It was getting late and I was feeling

tired. I was waiting for a man called Johnny Mars. Suddenly, a woman came

round the corner and walked right up to me. ‘Are you Mr. Black?’ she asked.

二、過去進行式的副詞

過去進行式用來表達一個行為正在進行或在過去的一段時間內,所以很多過去的時間都可以用來表達,也常常會跟其他子句並用。

at that time, at five o’clock yesterday, at seven o’clock last night, in 2001

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.10

三、過去進行式句型:主詞+過去式be動詞+現在分詞(動詞-ing)

1. 肯定句     S  +  was/were  +  V-ing

I      was         eating lunch at 3:00.

You     were        smiling all the time yesterday.

He      was         studying when I called him.

I           ate a big dinner last night.

Tina          got married when she was 18.

2. 否定句:was/were本身可以當助動詞,所以只要在後面加not,可以縮寫成

wasn’t/weren’t

S   +  wasn’t/weren’t  +   V-ing

I       wasn’t           looking.

They    weren’t          listening.

She      wasn’t          studying.

3.Yes/No問句:was/were是助動詞,只要把was/were放到主詞前面即可

Was/Were  +   S      +    V-ing

Were        you          sleeping when I called?

Was          he          cooking?

4. WH問句:把WH疑問詞放在最前面,接著放was/were,再來放主詞,動名詞即可

WH word +  was/were   +  S   +  V-ing

What        was           he      doing at this time yesterday?

Where       were          you     going when I saw you last night?

what跟who可以當疑問主詞,當what 跟 who當主詞的時候,都當作第三

人稱單數,所以後面的動詞接was

What        was           making that noise?

Who         was           driving at that time?

翻譯練習

  1. 昨天晚上他一邊寫作業,一邊聽音樂。
  2. 史丹利洗澡的時候門鈴響了。
  3. 你在睡覺的時候你的朋友打電話來。
  4. 意外發生的時候,他開車開得很快。
  5. 我今天一回到家就打開電腦。

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.11

I. 過去簡單式與過去進行式的比較

過去簡單式 過去進行式
It all happened very quickly. The car came straight out of the side road, and the van went into the back of it. The Van driver didn’t have a chance. It was the car driver’s fault. I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting in a park. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. Children were playing and laughing. It was very peaceful. I didn’t want to wake up.
句型:主詞+動詞的過去式(S + V2)They got married last year.

I didn’t have time to do homework.

What time did you get up yesterday?

句型:主詞+was/were+動詞-ingA: What were you doing at six o’clock

last night?

B: I was watching TV.

  1. 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事

件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

2. 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when

they crashed.

3. 過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的

動作。

We arrived at the beach.

  1. 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間

持續進行的動作。強調動作的過程。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was

reading.

2. 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

I was crossing the street when

the driver honked his horn.

3. 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景。

The sun was shining.

 

 

 

  

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.12

J. 過去簡單式與過去進行式的練習,根據上下文,用( )中提示的動詞,用過去簡單式或過去進行式來完成句子

Beethoven wrote (write) nine symphonies; he was writing (write) another symphony when he died.

1. Last Saturday Tom wanted to make two salads. He _______ (make) the first one in five minutes. He _________ (make) the second one when his guests ________ (arrive), and they _______ (help) him to finish it.

2. The artist Gaudi _________ (design) several houses in Barcelona, Spain. Later he ________ (start) work on a church. He _________ (work) on the church when he _________ (die).

3. Last month a bank robber __________ (escape) while the police __________ (take) him to prison. Later they ___________ (catch) him again, and this time they __________ (lock) him up without any problem.

4. Philip’s football team were lucky last Saturday. After twenty minutes they _________ (lose), but in the end they __________ (win) the game by four goals to two.

5. John Lennon __________ (sing) and ___________ (play) on many records with the Beatles. After that he _________(record) several songs without the Beatles. He ____________ (prepare) a new record when Mark Chapman __________ (shoot) him.

6. The evening was getting darker; the street lights __________ (come) on. People ___________ (hurry) home after work. I ___________ (stand) in a queue at the bus stop. Suddenly somebody ___________ (grab) my bag.

from Oxford Practice Grammar (Basic) P.27

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.13

K. used to 過去的習慣,跟 be used to 現在習慣於的用法與不同

a. 現在簡單式用來表達現在的狀況或習慣

My sister works as a translator.

Andrew lives in London.

Peter usually wears jeans.

mike doesn’t smoke anymore.

b. 過去簡單式用來表達過去的狀況或習慣

Henry lived in France for many years.

When I was young, I ran three miles every day.

c. used to可以用來表達過去持續一段期間的狀況或習慣,用來強調現在已經沒有這個狀況,跟現在是不同的。

Jill used to live in Ireland. (Jill doesn’t live in Ireland now.)

Many people used to make their own bread. (Nowadays people usually buy bread from a shop)

My husband used to work at home. (My husband doesn’t work at home now.)

d. 過去簡單式與used to的比較

When he was young, he ran three miles every day.

他年輕的時候,每天跑3英里。(現在可能每天跑3英里,也可能沒有跑)

When I was young, I used to run three miles every day. I don’t do that now.我年輕的時候,每天跑3英里。我現在沒有這麼做了。

e. 表達過去習慣的used to 句型

1. 肯定句 S + used to + V1(動詞原型):過去曾經…

表示過去經常性動作或習慣或狀態,現在已經沒有這樣的習慣或狀態。

He used to play basketball five days a week before he hurt his leg.

他腳受傷前,他曾經一個星期打五天籃球。

I used to smoke a lot, but I quit a few years ago.

我從前抽煙很兇,但是我幾年前戒了。

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.14

K. used to 過去的習慣,跟 be used to 現在習慣於的用法與不同

2. 否定句 S + didn’t use to + V1 / S + didn’t used to + V1

I didn’t use to drink coffee at breakfast, but now I always have coffee in the morning.  ( I didn’t used to drink coffee.)

I never used to drink coffee at breakfast, but now I always have coffee in the morning.

我從前不在早餐的時候喝咖啡,但是我現在總是在早上喝咖啡。

(Azar文法書指出didn’t use to 跟 didn’t used to 都可以,但比較常見的是never used to)

3.  疑問句 Did + S + use to + V1? / Did + S + used to + V1?

Did you use to live in Paris?  / Did you used to live in Paris?

你從前住在巴黎嗎?

Did you use to fight with your brother?

你從前常跟你的弟弟打架嗎?

f. 表達現在已經習慣於be + used to 句型

由於經驗的關係,對某件事不再感到驚訝,奇怪或困難,所以已經習慣於某件事。

1. 肯定句:S+ be used to + V-ing

I do the dishes every day, so I’m used to it.

我每天都洗盤子,所以我已經習慣了。

His new job is very busy and he is used to working late until 10 or 11 p.m.

他的新工作非常忙,他已經習慣於工作到十點,十一點。

2. 否定句:S + be + not + used to + V-ing

He isn’t used to driving on the left.

他不習慣開車開左邊。(現在還是不習慣)

He wasn’t used to driving on the left, but now he’s used to it.

他先前不習慣開左邊,但是他現在習慣了。

3. 疑問句: Be + S + used to + V-ing

Are you used to your new school?

你習慣於你的新學校了嗎?

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.15

K. used to 過去的習慣,跟 be used to 現在習慣於的用法與不同

g. used to 跟 be used to 的不同

這兩個片語的用法很多人常常會弄混淆,先看一下下面這段文字:

I used to stay up late until 2 or 3 a.m.  However, I started a new job two months ago, and now I have to get to work at 7 a.m. At first, I had a difficult time getting up early, but now I’m used to getting up early.

我以前都熬夜到凌晨兩三點。然而,在兩個月前我有了個新工作,現在我必須要七點上班。剛開始,我很難早起,但是現在我已經習慣於早起。

S + be used to + V-ing/N:表達現在習慣,某件事不是新事物,也不陌生

S + used to + V1:表達過去的習慣,從前固定做某件事,現在不做了

I’m used to the weather in Australia. 我習慣澳洲的天氣了。

I’m used to driving on the left because I have lived in Australia for a long time. 我很習慣開車開左邊,因為我住澳洲很久了

I used to drive to work every day, but these days I usually go by bike. 我曾經每天開車上班,但是最近我通常都騎腳踏車。

We used to live in a small village, but now we live in Sydney. 我們從前住在一個小村莊,但是我們現在住雪梨。

  1. Jane is used to _____________ (drive) on the left.
  2. He used to ________ (live) in New York, but now he lives in a small town.
  3. Tom used to __________ (drink) a lot of coffee. Now he prefers tea.
  4. I feel very full after that meal. I’m not used to _________ (eat) so much.
  5. I wouldn’t like to share an office. I’m used to _________ (have) my own office.
  6. I used to ________ (have) a car, but I sold it a few months ago.
  7. When we were children, we used to ___________ (go) swimming every day.
  8. There used to __________ (be) a cinema here but it was knocked down a few years ago.
  9. I’m the boss here. I’ not used to ________ (be) told what to do.

from English Grammar in Use  Unit 60 P.121

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.16

L. 表達未來

時態在英語學習中對很多人來說都是怎麼也弄不清楚的東西。因為中文多半是用時間副詞來表達。而英文最大的差別是不同的時態,動詞的變化也不一樣,有時候連時間副詞都不需要就可以表達時態。

我每天早上九點起床。I get up at 9.00 every morning. (現在簡單)

我有兩個哥哥。I have two brothers. (現在簡單)

他住在板橋。He lives in Banqiao. (現在簡單)

她昨天請假。She took a day off yesterday. (過去簡單)

我看過雪。I have seen snow. (現在完成)

我下星期要去巴黎。I’m going to Paris next week. (未來)

其中表達未來因為有各種不同的用法,所以很容易造成混淆。究竟什麼時候用什麼樣的時態呢?要說未來的事究竟要怎麼說呢?有點複雜。因為未來的事還沒有發生,如何看待未來的事件也會影響到時態的運用。是個計劃,打算這麼做,還是不確定的事情等等。

最容易弄混淆的是will 跟 be going to。下面先介紹一下大致上常見的幾種表達未來的方式。

表達未來的用法

a. 表達意圖的be going to: I’m going to spend six weeks in the U.S.

b. 表達中立未來的will: I’ll be free for most of the summer.

c. 表達計劃安排的現在進行式Present Progressive (S+ am/is/are + V-ing): I’m starting work in September.

d. 表達時間表的現在簡單式Present Simple ( S + V1): She finishes college at the same time. (a timetable時間表)

e. 表達正式安排的活動的be to: The museum is to open in summer.

f. 表達非常接近現在的未來的be about to: She is about to win the race. (ve

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.17

L. 表達未來

a.  be going to  用來表達我們對於未來所事先做的計畫,或意圖。

1. 用來預測未來:I think it’s going to rain this afternoon.

2. 用來表示計劃:Tom and Mary are going to spend a year in Australia.

3. 當動詞是go時,常用現在進行式來代替:I’m going home. See you tomorrow.

4. 口語比較常用be going to。

be going to的句型:主詞+am/is/are going to+動詞原型

1. 肯定句:主詞+am/is/are going to+動詞原型

I am going to visit his friend tomorrow.

2. 否定句:主詞+am/is/are+not+going to+動詞原型

They are not going to have lunch today.

3. Yes/No問句:Am/Is/Are+主詞+going to+動詞原型?

Is it going to rain?

4. WH問句:WH疑問詞+am/is/are+主詞+going to+動詞原型?

When are you going to pay the bill?

b. will

will用來表達我們所知道,我們所認為的未來,它是一個中立的字。

1. 用來預測未來:He will be late. They won’t win the game.

2. 用來表示說話當下立即的決定:I won’t have the fish. I’ll have the chicken.

3. 用來許下承諾:I’ll always love you. I won’t tell anyone.

4. 用來提供人家幫助:I’ll open the door for you. I’ll help you.

5. 用來邀請:Will you come to lunch?  Yes, thank you. I’d love to.

6. 不會用來表達先前已經做好的決定或計劃:I’m going to study in the U.S. next year.

7. 在正式寫作比較常用will。

will的句型:主詞+will+動詞原型 (任何主詞都用will。will後面接動詞原型)

1. 肯定句:主詞+will+動詞原型

It will cose $10,000.

2. 否定句:主詞+will+not+動詞原型

It will not be long. I won’t have time for that.

3. Yes/No 問句:Will+主詞+動詞原型?

Will you love me tomorrow?

4. WH問句:WH疑問詞+will+主詞+動詞原型?

What will the weather be like?

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.18

L. 表達未來

be going to will 的比較

A: It’s my birthday soon. I’ll be twenty next Friday.

B: Oh, really? Are you going to have a party?

A: I’m going to have dinner in a restaurant with some friends.

B: That’ll be nice.

1.

will有中立的意義,用來談論未來的事實。I’ll be twenty next Friday.

be going to用來表達意圖,計劃好的事。I’m going to cook tonight.

2.

will不用來表示未來的意圖。

It’s her birthday. She’s going to have dinner with her friends.

She’ll have dinner with her friends.

3.

然而我們經常用be going to來表達意圖,用will來說詳細的內容,或評論。

We’re going to have dinner. There’ll be about five of us. – Oh, that’ll be nice.

4.

will用在當下的決定或同意做某件事

There’s a postbox over there. I’ll post these letters.

You haven’t put those shelves up, Steve. – OK, I’ll do it tomorrow.

be going to用在事先做好的決定

I’m going out. I’m going to post these letters.

You still haven’t put those shelves up, Steve. – I know. I’m going to do it tomorrow.

5.

will可用來預測未來

I think United will win the game. One day people will travel to Mars.

be going to用來預測未來常會用在當已經有看到現在有些狀況會導致未來發生的事情。

There isn’t a cloud in the sky. It’s going to be a lovely day.

This bag isn’t very strong. It’s going to break.

有時候兩者可以通用,下面兩者表達相同意思

I think United are going to win the game.

I think United will win the game.

be going to 比較口語,非正式。

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.19

L. 表達未來

c.  現在進行式 Present Progressive

現在進行式可以用來表示未來的安排。

I’m meeting Henry at six o’clock. David is coming round later on.

We’re having a party tomorrow. Sarah is going to Paris next week.

現在進行式可以用來表示現在發生的事,所以表示未來的時候一定要有前後文或未來的時間

We’re having a party at the moment.

We’re having a party tomorrow.

通常現在進行式用來表示未來跟be going to的意思相似。

I’m meeting Jack at seven o’clock.

I’m going to meet Jack at seven o’clock.

d. 現在簡單式 Present Simple

現在簡單式可以用在未來的時間表timetable,通常用在說公共的時間表如火車時刻表,電影播放時間,電視節目的時間,旅遊的行程等等。只有少數的動詞可以用現在簡單是表達未來。如: arrive, leave, start, begin, end, finish, open, close, be等。

The train leaves at seven thirty tomorrow morning.

The match starts at half past six.

Next Friday is the thirteenth.

I have the tour details. We spend three days in Rome.

時間連接詞跟if帶領的副詞子句中用現在簡單式來表達未來

連接詞如after, as, as soon as, before, by the time, until, when, while跟if帶領的副詞子句表達未來時會用現在簡單式而不用will或be going to

I’m starting a job in sales after I finish college.

As soon as you hear any news, will you let me know?

I must get to the bank before it closes.

If you come in late tonight, please don’t make a noise.

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.20

L. 表達未來

e. be to + V1

be to 可以用來表示未來正式安排好的活動,常用在新聞報導中。

The Queen is to visit Spain in November.

The Student Games are to take place in Melbourne next year.

這裡也可以跟現在進行式通用:The Queen is visiting Spain in November.

f. be about to + V1

be about to用在非常接近現在的未來,可能是接下來的數分鐘或數秒鐘內

The plane is at the end of the runway. It’s about to take off.

Do you want to say goodbye to our visitors? They’re about to leave.

M. Exercise: Use be going to, will, Present Simple, or Present Continuous

1.

A: Have you cleaned your room?

B: Oh, no, I forgot. I ______________ (clean) it now.

2.

Oh, no! It’s starting to rain! I think I _______________(take) a taxi.

3. Look out! The ladder _________________ . (fall)

4. We ___________________ (have) a baby.

5. Don’t touch the knife. You _________________ (cut) yourself.

6. Don’t smoke. You ___________________ (be) sick.

7. It’s raining. Don’t go out now. You __________________ (get) wet.

8. I ____________________ (make) some spaghetti tonight.

9.What time is your flight?  It ___________(leave) at 12.00 p.m.

10.

A: Do you have a ticket for the concert?

B: Yes, I _________________ (see) it on Friday.

11.

A: The alarm’s going. It’s making an awful noise.

B: OK, I _________________ (switch) it off.

12.

  1. Did you buy this book?
  2. No, Emma did. She _________________ (read) it on holiday.

13.

  1. Would you like tea or coffee?
  2. Oh, I _________________ (have) coffee, please.

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.21

Answer Key

 

A. 過去簡單式Simple Past 

/t/ cooked, relaxed, shopped, talked, watched
/d/ cleaned, listened, studied, played, cried
/ɪd/ wanted, invited, needed, visited, waited

E. 翻譯練習

1. I got up at 8 yesterday.

2. He didn’t drink coffee yesterday morning.

3. Did she watch a movie last weekend?

4. What did you do last night?

5. Who took my cell phone?

6. It was hot and humid.

7. I wasn’t at home last night.

8. Were you late for class today?

9. How was your weekend?

10. How many students were there in class last week?

 

F.Travel Experiences (P.112 Four Corners)

  1. am, went, was, was, is, have
  2. went, was, was
  3. came, went, heard, ran, were

G.  過去簡單式的一般動詞與be動詞

1. Did  2. Were  3. Were  4. Did  5. Did  6. Were  7. Did  8. Were

9. Were  10. Did  11. Did  12. Did  13. Did  14. Were

H.  翻譯練習

1. He was doing homework while he was listening to music last night.

2. Stanley was taking a shower when the doorbell rang.

3 .Your friend called when you were sleeping.

4. When the accident happened, he was speeding.

5. I turned on the computer as soon as I came home today.

基礎文法L2 過去式與未來式                    Jessie Lin    P.22

Answer Key

J.  過去簡單式與過去進行式的練習

  1. made, was, making, arrived, helped
  2. designed, started, was working, died
  3. escaped, were taking, caught, locked
  4. were losing, won
  5. sang, played, recorded, was preparing, shot
  6. were coming, were hurrying, was standing, grabbed

K. used to 過去的習慣,跟 be used to 現在習慣於的用法與不同

1. driving  2. live  3. drink  4. eating  5. having  6. have  7. go  8. be

9. being

M. Exercise: Use be going to, will, Present Simple, or Present Continuous

  1. will clean
  2. will take
  3. is going to fall
  4. are going to have
  5. will cut
  6. are going to be sick
  7. are going to get
  8. am making/am going to make
  9. leaves
  10. am going to see
  11. will switch
  12. is going to red
  13. will have

 

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