分詞片語 分詞構句

分詞片語就是用現在分詞(V1),過去分詞(V3),可以用作後衛修飾,也就是放在後面形容前面的名詞。但是不是所有的句子,所有的名詞都可以這樣用。分詞片語有一點令人混淆。主要是注意主動,被動,另外分詞片語通常是由子句省略而來的,省略的副詞子句或形容詞子句都必須是跟主要子句同一個主詞才可以省略。

Participial Phrases  分詞片語                          Jessie     P.1

摘要自Writing Academic English

. 分詞的定義與種類

分詞(participle是由動詞詞轉變而來的形容詞。

現在分詞(present participle)是由主動動詞(active verb)而來,有ing的結尾。

The custom fascinates me.

The fascinating custom has been the subject of many books.

過去分詞(past participle)是由被動動詞(passive verb)而來,常有ed結尾,也就是動詞的第三態。

My leg was broken in three places.

My broken leg is healing slowly.

. 分詞片語的形成

分詞片語是由一個分詞加上一些字所組成,可以用來修飾名詞跟代名詞。分詞片語經常是由形容詞子句縮減而來,所以有時也叫做縮減子句(reduced clauses)。

縮減方式如下:

  1. 把形容詞子句中的關係代名詞去掉(只有關係代名詞為主詞時),
  2. 把動詞的助動詞去掉,主要動詞改為分詞,
  3. 保留原有的標點,
  4. 否定句則將not放到分詞前即可。

A pedestrian who had been hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.

A pedestrian hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.

An ambulance that was summoned by a bystander came quickly.

An ambulance summoned by a bystander came quickly.

The taxi driver, who did not realize what happened, continued on.

The taxi driver, not realizing what happened, continued on.

 

 

 

 

 

Participial Phrases  分詞片語                          Jessie     P.2

 

. 分詞片語的位置與標點符號

分詞片語可用在限定子句或分限定子句。

 

限定子句中的分詞片語只可接在修飾名詞的後面,不加逗號。

A woman hurrying to catch a bus tripped and fell.

非限定子句中的分詞片語,可以放在修飾名詞的後面,或放到修飾名詞的前面,一定要以逗號將分詞片語與整個句子隔開。

Teresa, hurrying to catch a bus, stumbled and fell.

Hurrying to catch a bus, Teresa stumbled and fell.

注意事項:切記分詞片語在前面時,這個片語一定要是修飾後面句子的主詞。

Hoping for an A, my exam grade disappointed me. (X)

Hoping for an A, I was disappointed in my exam grade.

修飾整個句子的分詞片語應該用逗號將整個句子與分詞片語隔開。

The team won the championship, shocking their opponents.

 

. 現在分詞片語

現在分詞片語可能是由現在式,過去式,或未來式所形成。

現在簡單式

Many students who study at this university are from foreign countries.

Many students studying at this university are from foreign countries.

現在進行式

Students who are taking calculus must buy a graphing calculator.

Students taking calculus must buy a graphing calculator.

過去簡單式

The team members, who looked happy after their victory, were cheered by the fans.

The team members, looking happy after their victory, were cheered by the fans.

過去進行式

The crowd, which was cheering wildly as the game ended, would not leave the stadium.

Cheering wildly as the game ended, the crowd would not leave the stadium.

Participial Phrases  分詞片語                          Jessie     P.3

. 現在分詞片語

未來式

Everyone who will take the TOEFL next month must preregister.

Everyone taking the TOEFL next month must preregister.

. 過去分詞片語

過去分詞片語可能由現在式或過去式的被動動詞形成。

現在簡單式

Lab reports that are not handed in by Friday will not be accepted.

Lab reports not handed in by Friday will not be accepted.

過去簡單式

The proposed law, which was opposed by the majority of the people, did not pass.

The proposed law, opposed by the majority of the people, did not pass.

 

. 副詞子句的縮減

有些副詞子句也可以用相同的方式縮減成分詞片語。分詞片語在前面時,用逗號將之與獨立子句分開,分詞片語在後面時,則不須逗號。

When you enter a theater, you should turn off your cell phone.

When entering a theater, you should turn off your cell phone.

You should turn off your cell phone when entering a theater.

縮減方式如下:

  1. 確定主要子句跟副詞子句的主詞是相同的,
  2. 省略副詞子句的主詞,假如必要的話,把分詞片語移到最前面(因為有時候改成分詞片語語義會引起誤會,所以要放到最前面),
  3. 將副詞子句改為適當的分詞片語,
  4. 根據下列規則,保留或刪去某些副詞子句的從屬代名詞。
    1. 保留before跟時間子句的since
    2. 保留after, while, when,假如這些從屬代名詞放在主要子句後面。當這些從屬代名詞放在主要子句前時,可保留也可省略。
    3. 省略表示理由的because, since, as與表示時間的as。

Participial Phrases  分詞片語                          Jessie     P.4

. 副詞子句的縮減

Before student chooses a college, he or she should consider several factors.

Before choosing a college, a student should consider several factors.

A student should consider several factors before choosing a college.

After he had passed the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman in college.

After passing the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman in college.

Because Carlos came from a very conservative family, he was shocked at the U.S. system of coed dormitories.

Coming from a very conservative family, Carlos was shocked at the U.S. system of coed dormitories.

As he gradually got used to the way of life in the United States, he became less homesick.

Gradually getting used to the way of life in the United States, he became less homesick.

 

 

七. 翻譯練習:請用分詞構句寫出下列句子

1. 我在超市買東西的時候,遇到一個老朋友。

2. 在出門上班前,我吃了早餐。

3. 自從來這家公司上班後,她學了很多。

4. 缺乏必需的資格(qualification),他沒有拿到那份工作。

5. 負擔不起車子,我買了一臺摩托車。

 

 

 

Participial Phrases  分詞片語                          Jessie     P.5

七. 翻譯練習:請用分詞構句寫出下列句子

1. While shopping in the supermarket, I ran into an old friend.

2. Before leaving for work, I ate breakfast.

3. Since working for this company, she has learned a lot.

4. Lacking the necessary qualification, he didn’t get the job.

5. Being unable to afford a car, I bought a scooter.

24 thoughts on “分詞片語 分詞構句

  1. John says:

    Hi! Jessie!!
    剛剛看完你的分詞構句這篇,想請教您是不是有一句筆誤?以下
    原句:After he had passed the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman in college.
    您改為:After passing the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman in college.
    是不是改為以下才是對的,因為我記得完成式也是有分詞構句的
    我改為:(After) having passed the TOEFL exam, he became a freshman in college.
    還有一個問題,being在分詞構句中的分詞前時是不是可省以及having been是否也是可省?因為在例句中有看到您直接省略了卻沒有註解所以有些疑惑、

    1. jessie says:

      分詞構句的縮減假如遇到before或after這種時態很明顯的話,兩種都可以

      可以參考Azar Understanding and Using English Grammar Chapter 18 Reduction of Adverb Clauses to Modifying Adverbial Phrases 裡面的例句

      18-2
      After he (had) finished his homework, Peter went to bed.
      After finishing his homework, Peter went to bed.
      After having finished his homework, Peter went to bed.

      這三個句子都是一樣的

      另外

      being在分詞構句中的分詞前時是不是可省以及having been是否也是可省

      這是要看他們在句子中的意思

      「把動詞的助動詞去掉,主要動詞改為分詞」

      假如他們是當助動詞用就可以省

  2. John says:

    1. If John had set out by taxi rather than by bus, he could have reached the bank in time for the money transfer.
    這句改成分構上下列哪一個正確?
    ans 1.Having set out by taxi……(略)
    ans 2.Had set out by taxi……….(略)
    2.A pedestrian who had been hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.
    改成
    ans: A pedestrian (having been) hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.刮號中省略是否正確?
    3.A pedestrian who was hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.
    改成
    ans: A pedestrian (being) hit by a speeding taxi was lying in the street.刮號中省略是否正確?
    先感謝老師的回覆了!!

    1. jessie says:

      恩,我個人是覺得分詞構句就我的認知,似乎不是像你上面寫的那些那樣用的,它有本身的結構,從副詞子句,形容詞子句去改寫,大致上的規則我都寫在這篇裡面了,也可以去參考 Azar裡面的解釋。

      我自己在寫英文的句子的話我會用我已經知道確定用法的句型去改寫,因為不是我自己的母語,我就不會去創造改寫一些我不熟悉不確定的句型。

      我也不能跟你說你上面的那些句子究竟正不正確,我覺得我不會這樣去改那些句子,但是我也不一定是對的,因為我不是母語使用者

  3. Jimmy says:

    請問一下老師

    A woman,hurrying to catch a bus ,tripped and fell

    這句子的原貌是

    A woman ,who hurried up to catch the bus ,tripped and fell

    因為使用分詞片語的關係 才會最後變成老師妳上面所打的句子嗎?

  4. jess says:

    我想問一下 有些人會把英文這樣寫,如下:
    1.Taking advantage of this no rain day.
    2.Being a tourist
    他們就只是PO了一張圖片然後打這些不完整的句子 而後面也沒有加上真正的動詞了
    我想問的是 他們這樣打是省略了甚麼嗎 這是口語嗎
    為什麼不打成 be a tourist 或者是 take advantage ….

  5. 清順 says:

    請問一下在上方提到"A woman hurrying to catch a bus tripped and fell."關代的非限定用法時
    有些網路上說關代不能簡化成分詞片語,例如"http://city.udn.com/57628/4678218″
    裡面談到只有Be+N的形式可簡化成先行詞的同位語

    請問到底非限定用法時關代到底能否簡化

    謝謝

    1. jessie says:

      這裡的例子是從朗文的 Writing Academic English 裡面出來的。至於其他網站上有非限定不能簡化成分詞我自己好像沒有看過這樣的說法。然而我也不是母語使用者,也無法很確定的說書上寫的一定正確。至於其他網站上的規定是從哪裡出來的可能你要去問該網站的版主比較清楚喔。

  6. 黃小姐 says:

    您好,
    想請問您,
    我曾看過的句子為:The whole city lay sleeping.
    像這個句子(或說是分詞片語)是怎麼簡化而來的呢?

    非常感謝

    1. 訪客 says:

      主要是看到多數的分詞片語是用來修飾前面的名詞,但是這個句子 sleeping 前面是動詞 lay ,所以才有這樣的疑問。兩個動詞放在一起,但是依然是形容動詞前方的主詞,我以好奇這句子是怎麼簡化的?非常感謝你

      1. 訪客 says:

        謝謝您!
        我後來也找了一下,有一說法是說這屬於「兩個動作同時發生」的情形,所以後者動詞要改成現在分詞的形式。加上如果說成副詞修飾感覺也很有道理!

        謝謝您

    2. Jiiann Sim says:

      Hello, 路過雞婆一下。

      這邊的lay是lie的過去式,來come去go站stand坐sit躺lie…. 這五個都是不及物動詞(連綴動詞),後面不接受詞,接的是補語。

      例子:
      He is a student.
      He becomes a student.
      He is sick.
      He falls sick.
      My hair is gray.
      My hair turns gray.
      Don’t stand there watching. He stood crying.
      She came looking for me.

      這些動詞在文法上的結構都是一樣的 S+ Vi + SC.
      都屬於不完全不及物動詞。

      補語要不就是形容詞(包含分詞),不然就是名詞。

      所以The whole city lay sleeping 的lie/lay指的是處於一個什麼樣的狀態,所以其實就是The whole city was sleeping.
      就跟The town lay spread out before me. 整個城鎮展開在我的面前。
      The problem lies open to re-examination.

      1. jessie says:

        這是網友好心提供,可以參考一下。

        不過不及物動詞跟連綴動詞是不一樣的,句型也不相同。上面的用法我個人並不認同,當然我的看法不一定是對的。

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