表達未來的動詞 Verb forms used for the future

表達未來對很多人來說全部都是用 will 後面加動詞原型,恩,溝通上大概可以理解,不過在很多時候會有不同的用法,意思會有些許的不同。既然學了,就把一些用法稍微弄清楚一點,尤其是will與be going to的用法。其實對非母語使用者來說,潔西真的覺得是個令人大頭痛的問題啊,前幾天參加師訓也聊到,會上老師有不同意見,主講者也沒下個結論,因為老實說,就像我們中文使用著一樣,一箭雙雕,一石二鳥,一刀兩斷,你叫潔西說出來什麼時候用"雙",什麼時候用"二“,什麼時候用"兩",對不起,潔西也不知道,可是潔西就是知道什麼時候用哪一個聽起來才是正確的,哇哈哈。所以囉。

潔西看了不少文法書,有些說法也有點出入,不過覺得大致上be going to 與will 的差別重點是這樣。

1. 用來做預測的時候be going to跟will都可以,只是be going to常會用在可以看得到的事情導致的未來,比方說看到烏雲了,你就會說It’s going to rain.

2. 原先已經計劃的事情用be going to,被問到的時候當下做的決定的話就用will。What are you going to do this weekend?  I’m going to see Iron man 3. 這應該是計劃好了,可能跟朋友約好了。 I don’t know. Maybe I will see Iron man 3. 這句可能就是先前沒有計劃,臨時想說可能會去看電影。一般原先計劃好的就不會用will。

3. will比較常用在正式文章,be going to 比較常用在口語。這是師訓當天唯一的結論,因為有用語料資料庫得佐證。

另外現在進行式可以用來表達未來的計劃或安排。I’m having a party this weekend. I’m going to have a party this weekend. 語意上是差不多的,特別注意現在進行式表示未來一定要有未來的時候,這樣才不會被誤為說的是現在。另外假如是動詞為go的時候經常直接用現在進行式代替be going to: They are going on vacation this summer.

現在簡單式可以用來表達未來,最常見的是用在一些schedule,時刻表類的東西。My flight leaves at 3.00 tomorrow afternoon. 另外在時間副詞子句跟if帶領的子句會用現在簡單是代替未來式。If it rains tomorrow, the concert will be cancelled.

大致上這幾個是潔西覺得的重要,要好好記牢的。下面有很多更詳細的說明。文法不是死背的,是一些規則的歸納整理。潔西覺得學好時態的第一個要點是記清楚它的form格式,肯定句,否定句,疑問句時的動詞變化與助動詞,再來是一定要知道這個時態究竟在什麼時候用,什麼樣的狀況下,這可以靠多做練習題來幫忙。最後有練習題跟解答。接下來就是多看多聽多讀,觀察在真實的電影,歌曲,對話,文章中,這個時態出現在什麼樣的地方,加深自己的印象,並且確切地知道怎麼用。最後把它用出來,剛開始可能沒那麼容易,但是學過的東西一定要用出來才會記得起來。不確定再去看課本問老師,重複這樣的循環,一定可以把時態學好的,加油!

Verb forms used for the future 表達未來的動詞時態    潔西整理  P.1

參考Oxford Practice Grammar與American English File 2

時態在英語學習中對很多人來說都是怎麼也弄不清楚的東西。因為中文多半是用時間副詞來表達。而英文最大的差別是不同的時態,動詞的變化也不一樣,有時候連時間副詞都不需要就可以表達時態。

我每天早上九點起床。I get up at 9.00 every morning. (現在簡單)

我有兩個哥哥。I have two brothers. (現在簡單)

他住在板橋。He lives in Banqiao. (現在簡單)

她昨天請假。She took a day off yesterday. (過去簡單)

我看過雪。I have seen snow. (現在完成)

我下星期要去巴黎。I’m going to Paris next week. (未來)

其中表達未來因為有各種不同的用法,所以很容易造成混淆。究竟什麼時候用什麼樣的時態呢?要說未來的事究竟要怎麼說呢?有點複雜。因為未來的事還沒有發生,如何看待未來的事件也會影響到時態的運用。是個計劃,打算這麼做,還是不確定的事情等等。

同學最容易弄混淆的是will 跟 be going to。下面先介紹一下大致上常見的幾種表達未來的方式。

表達未來的用法

  1. be going to: I’m going to spend six weeks in the U.S. (an intention意圖)
  2. will: I’ll be free for most of the summer. (neutral future中立的未來)
  3. Present Continuous現在進行: I’m starting work in September. (an arrangement安排)
  4. Present Simple現在簡單: She finishes college at the same time. (a timetable時間表)
  5. be to: The museum is to open in summer. (official arranged event正式安排的活動)
  6. be about to: She is about to win the race. (very near future非常接近的未來)

Verb forms used for the future 表達未來的動詞時態    潔西整理  P.2

A. be going to

be going to用來表達我們對於未來所事先做的計畫,或意圖。

  1. 用來預測未來:I think it’s going to rain this afternoon.

2. 用來表示計劃:Tom and Mary are going to spend a year in Australia.

3. 當動詞是go時,常用現在進行式來代替:I’m going to the concert tomorrow.

4. 口語比較常用be going to。

be going to的句型:主詞+be going to+動詞原型(主詞是I的時候用am,主詞是you/we/they或可用這些字代替的時候用are,主詞是he/she/it或可用這些字代替時用is)

  1. 肯定句:主詞+be going to+動詞原型 I am going to visit his friend tomorrow.

2. 否定句:主詞+be going to+動詞原型 They are not going to have lunch today.

3. Yes/No問句:Be+主詞+going to+動詞原型? Is it going to rain?

4. WH問句:WH疑問詞+be+主詞+going to+動詞原型? When are you going to pay the bill?

B.will

will用來表達我們所知道,我們所認為的未來,它是一個中立的字。

  1. 用來預測未來:He will be late. They won’t win the game.

2. 用來表示說話當下立即的決定:I won’t have the fish. I’ll have the chicken.

3. 用來許下承諾:I’ll always love you. I won’t tell anyone.

4. 用來提供人家幫助:I’ll open the door for you. I’ll help you.

5. 用來邀請:Will you come to lunch?  Yes, thank you. I’d love to.

6. 不會用來表達先前已經做好的決定或計劃:I’m going to study in the U.S. next year.

7. 在正式寫作比較常用will。

Verb forms used for the future 表達未來的動詞時態    潔西整理  P.3

will的句型:主詞+will+動詞原型 (不管主詞是什麼,都用will。will後面接動詞原型)

  1. 肯定句:主詞+will+動詞原型  It will cose $10,000.

2. 否定句:主詞+will+not+動詞原型 It will not be long. I won’t have time for that.

3. Yes/No 問句:Will+主詞+動詞原型? Will you love me tomorrow?

4. WH問句:WH疑問詞+will+主詞+動詞原型?  What will the weather be like?

be going to will 的比較

A: It’s my birthday soon. I’ll be twenty next Friday.

B: Oh, really? Are you going to have a party?

A: I’m going to have dinner in a restaurant with some friends.

B: That’ll be nice.

1. will有中立的意義,用來談論未來的事實。I’ll be twenty next Friday.

be going to用來表達意圖,計劃好的事。I’m going to have dinner with some

friends.

2. will不用來表示未來的意圖。It’s her birthday. She’s going to have dinner with her friends. NOT She’ll have dinner with her friends.

3. be going to常被來表達意圖,但是用will來說詳細的內容,或評論。We’re going to have dinner. There’ll be about five of us. – Oh, that’ll be nice.

4. will用在當下的決定或同意做某件事

There’s a postbox over there. I’ll post these letters.

You haven’t put those shelves up, Steve. – OK, I’ll do it tomorrow.

be going to用在事先做好的決定

I’m going out. I’m going to post these letters.

You still haven’t put those shelves up, Steve. – I know. I’m going to do it tomorrow.

Verb forms used for the future 表達未來的動詞時態    潔西整理  P.4

5. will可用來預測未來

I think United will win the game. One day people will travel to Mars.

be going to 用來預測未來常會用在當已經有看到現在有些狀況會導致未來發

生的事情。

There isn’t a cloud in the sky. It’s going to be a lovely day.

This bag isn’t very strong. It’s going to break.

有時候兩者可以通用

I think United are going to win.= I think United will win.

be going to 比較口語,非正式。

C.Present Continuous 現在進行式

現在進行式可以用來表示未來的安排。

I’m meeting Henry at six o’clock. David is coming round later on.

We’re having a party tomorrow. Sarah is going to Paris next week.

現在進行式可以用來表示現在發生的事,所以表示未來的時候一定要有前後文或未來的時間

We’re having a party at the moment.

We’re having a party tomorrow.

通常現在進行式用來表示未來跟be going to的意思相似。

I’m meeting Jack at seven o’clock.

I’m going to meet Jack at seven o’clock.

D. Present Simple 現在簡單式

現在簡單式可以用在未來的時間表timetable,通常用在說公共的時間表如火車時刻表,電影播放時間,電視節目的時間,旅遊的行程等等。

The train leaves at seven thirty tomorrow morning.

The match starts at half past six.  Next Friday is the thirteenth.

I have the tour details. We spend three days in Rome.

Verb forms used for the future 表達未來的動詞時態    潔西整理  P.5

D. Present Simple 現在簡單式

時間連接詞跟if帶領的副詞子句中用現在簡單式來表達未來連接詞如after, as, as soon as, before, by the time, until, when, while跟if帶領的副詞子句表達未來時會用現在簡單式而不用will或be going to

I’m starting a job in sales after I finish college.

As soon as you hear any news, will you let me know?

I must get to the bank before it closes.

If you come in late tonight, please don’t make a noise.

E. be to

be to 可以用來表示未來正式安排好的活動,常用在新聞報導中。

The Queen is to visit Spain in November.

The Student Games are to take place in Melbourne next year.

這裡也可以跟現在進行式通用:The Queen is visiting Spain in November.

F. be about to

be about to會用在非常接近現在的未來

The plane is at the end of the runway. It’s about to take off.

Do you want to say goodbye to our visitors? They’re about to leave.

Verb forms used for the future 表達未來的動詞時態    潔西整理  P.6

Exercise

Part A: Use will or be going to

A: Do you have a ticket for the concert?

B: Yes, I _________________ (see) it on Friday.

2.

A: The alarm’s going. It’s making an awful noise.

B: OK, I _________________ (switch) it off.

3.

  1. Did you buy this book?
  2. No, Emma did. She _________________ (read) it on holiday.

4.

  1. Would you like tea or coffee?
  2. Oh, I _________________ (have) coffee, please.

5.

  1. I’m going to miss a good film on TV because I’ll be out tonight.
  2. I _________________ (video) it for you, if you like.

6.

  1. I’m just going out to get a paper.
  2. What newspaper _________________  (you/buy)?

7.

You want to express your intention to look round the museum.

Your friend: Do you have any plans for this afternoon?

You: Yes, I _____________________________.

8.

You hate dogs. Dogs always attack you if they get the chance.

Your friend: That dog doesn’t look very friendly.

You: It’s coming toward us. _____________________________.

9.

You predict the landing of aliens on the earth in the next ten years.

Your friend: All this talk about aliens is complete nonsense, isn’t it?

You: Is it? I think _____________________________.

Verb forms used for the future 表達未來的動詞時態    潔西整理  P.7

10.

You know that your friend’s sister has decided to get married.

Your friend: Have you heard about my sister?

You: Well, I heard that _____________________________.

11.

You suddenly decide you want to invite Ilona for a meal.

Your friend: Did you know Ilona will be in town next weekend?

You: No, I didn’t. _____________________________.

12.

We have learned this week that the local council has plans for Westside Park in Brickfield. The council (a) _________________ (sell) the land to a builder, Forbes and Son. The plans are all ready. ‘(b) _________________  (we/build) fifty houses,’ said Mr. Forbes. ‘In two years’ time everything (c) _________________ (be) finished. I’m sure people (d) _________________ (like) the houses. Most of them (e) _________________ (be) for your families. And we intend to take care of the environment. (f) _________________ (we/not/cut) down all the trees, only a few of them.’ But people living near the park are angry. ‘This is a terrible idea. We’re all against it,’ said Mrs. Mary Brent. ‘(g) _________________ (we/have) a protest march on Saturday. I expect everyone in Brickfield (h) _________________ (be) there. We’ve reached our decision. (i) _________________ (we/stop) this plan.

Par B: Use be going to, will, Present Simple, or Present Continuous

13. A: Have you cleaned your room?

B: Oh, no, I forgot. I ______________ (clean) it now.

14. Oh, no! It’s starting to rain! I think I _______________(take) a taxi.

15. Look out! The ladder _________________ . (fall)

16. We ___________________ (have) a baby.

17. Don’t touch the knife. You _________________ (cut) yourself.

18. Don’t smoke. You ___________________ (be) sick.

19. It’s raining. Don’t go out now. You __________________ (get) wet.

20. I ____________________ (make) some spaghetti tonight.

21.What time is your flight?  It ___________(leave) at 12.00 p.m.

Verb forms used for the future 表達未來的動詞時態    潔西整理  P.8

Answer Key

Part A

  1. am going to see

2. will switch

3. is going to read

4. will have

5. will video

6. are you going to buy

7. am going to look around the museum

8. It’s going to attack us.

9. aliens will land on earth in the next ten years.

10. she is going to get married.

11.I’ll invite her for a meal.

12.

a. is going to sell

b. We are going to build

c. will be/is going to be

d. will like/are going to like

e. will be/are going to be

f. We are not going to cut/We won’t cut

g .We are going to have

h. will be/is going to be

i. We will stop/We are going to stop

Part B

13. will clean

14. will take

15. is going to fall

16. are going to have

17. will cut

18. are going to be sick

19. are going to get

20. am making/am going to make

21. leaves

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3 thoughts on “表達未來的動詞 Verb forms used for the future

  1. simon 說道:

    I am about to write a letter.
    This means the next thing you want to do is writing a letter.

    You used past tense. “I was", so here, you intended to do the work.

    Jessie, 我在google 看到的。
    如果用past tense
    这个语法要怎样用。

    1. jessie 說道:

      過去式的話應該是在說我過去將要做某件事的時候。比方說我正想要打電話給你的時候,就接到你打來的電話,我就可以說,What a coincidence! I was about to call you. 真巧。我正打算打電話給你。

      I was about to leave. 我當時正打算離開。

      There were about to give up. 他們正打算放棄。

      類似這樣,但是通常會有前後文,表達未來表示未來將做某個動作,用在過去可以表示過去某個時間即將做某個動作。

      我的理解是這樣。不知道這樣你瞭解嗎:)

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