過去時態:過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式 用法與區別

2016/04/16

下面有新寫的過去完成式跟現在完成式與過去簡單式的文,更多的例子跟練習:)

 

Past Perfect 過去完成式詳解,與過去簡單式用法的區別

 

現在完成式與過去簡單式用法的區別 Present Perfect and Past Simple

 

2016/11/17 YouTube 影片版

用法與區別

 

 

練習題解答

潔西家進階文法教室              Jessie

 

過去時態:過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式 用法與區別

American English File 3, Oxford Practice Grammar, Grammar Express

 

這裡因為做比較跟區別,所以最前面放例句,然後是句型,接下來是使用的時機。再來是混合的練習題。題目做多了真的會比較有概念。

 

另外潔西自己在動詞的不同形態方面比較偷懶

V1:原形動詞 base form 也就是動詞的第一態,現在簡單式,不定詞後面

I go to bed at 2 a.m. /  My brother takes the MRT to work.

V2:過去動詞 paste tense 也就是動詞的第二態,過去簡單式

I went to bed at 2 a.m.   / My brother took the MRT to work today..

V3:過去分詞 past participle 也就是動詞的第三態,現在完成,過去完成,未

來完成,被動:

I have eaten breakfast. / I hit him. — He was hit by me.

V-ing:現在分詞 present participle 也就現在分詞,進行式

 

work, worked, worked, working

eat, ate, eaten, eating

A 過去簡單式Past Simple:

主要就是在描述過去發生的某件事情。記得用主詞跟動詞的過去式。說過去的事情最常用的就是過去簡單式。

 

It all happened very quickly. The car came straight out of the side road, and the van went into the back of it. The van driver didn’t have a chance. It was the car driver’s fault.

一切發生的非常快。那台汽車直接從旁邊衝出來,而那台貨車撞到汽車的後面。貨車司機完全沒有機會(閃避)。是汽車司機的錯。

 

這上面有幾個過去式的動詞呢?數數看。詞性要記住才分辨得出來喔。

 

It was all my fault.  / My bad.

 

一共有五個,算對了嗎?

 

記句型的時候要把肯定句,否定句跟疑問句的用法都一起記喔

get married, get engaged, get divorced.

 

1 句型 Forms:主詞+動詞的過去式(S + V2):

肯定:They got married last year.    My dog ate my homework.

否定:I didn’t have time to do homework.

疑問:What time did you get up this morning?

past——————x———————now——————–future 2

2 使用時機Use:

在什麼時候用非常重要,通常用在一個在過去完成的動作,常跟過去時間連用

a 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

I ate a bread and coffee for breakfast. (x)

I ate bread and drank coffee for breakfast.

I had bread and coffee for breakfast.

 

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when they crashed.

While I was taking a shower, someone called.

c 過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的動作。

We arrived at the beach.

 

 

 

B 過去進行式Past Continuous

用來說明過去某個時間正在進行的動作,持續的動作。句型用主詞加上was/were再加上動詞加ing。S + was/were + V-ing

 

I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting in a park. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. Children were playing and laughing. It was very peaceful. I didn’t want to wake up.

我做天晚上做了個美夢。我在公園坐著。太陽閃耀地照著,鳥兒在唱歌。小孩們說說笑笑。非常的寧靜。我一點都不想醒來。

 

這裡是把過去簡單式跟過去進行式合併使用。描述活動故事背景的時候常用過去進行式,用過去進行式來表示過去某個時間點發生的事,或持續的動作。時態常會像這樣混合使用喔,先前有學生問說問什麼不全部用過去簡單式,恩,說故事的時候強調的東西不一樣,這裡比較有背景跟主題,強調當時的狀況,所以後面不想起來。有時候真的也很難解釋的清楚,多做題目,多看多聽多運用就會比較有概念。

 

1 句型Forms:主詞+Be動詞的過去式(was/were)+動詞-ing (S + Be2 + V-ing)

A: What were you doing at six o’clock last night?

B: I was watching TV. I wasn’t studying. My parents were watching

TV with me.

 

 

 

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間持續進行的動作。強調動作的過程。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

multi-tasking

 

b 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持

續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

I was crossing the street when the driver honked his horn.

 

c 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景

The sun was shining.

所以說故事的時候,故事的背景會用過去進行式,描述內容的時候會用過去

簡單式。

 

 

C 過去完成式Past Perfect

描述過去的兩件事情中先發生的第一件事,或是用來說過去某個時間點前發生的事。完成式都是用來表示一件事情發生在另外一件事情之前,所以假如只有單純的描述過去發生的某件事就只要用過去簡單式就可以,這時候不需要用過去完成式。也就是說當描述過去發生了兩件事時,先發生的事會用過去完成式,後發生的會用過去簡單式來表達。

 

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. We hadn’t gone to bed until after one. I hadn’t been on the train long when I had a bit of shock. I suddenly realized that I had left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn’t remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful.

我昨天搭火車上班的時候覺得很累因為莎拉跟我前一個晚上去了一個派對。我們到一點鐘才上床睡覺。我上火車沒多久就嚇到。我突然發現我把錢包忘在家裡。然後我開始懷疑。我是前一天忘在辦公室了嗎?我就是記不起來。我很想回床上睡覺。我覺得糟透了。

hangover  醉後大丈夫

1 句型Forms:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished.

(比賽在打開電視前就開始了)

They hadn’t gone home until late.

Where had he put his wallet?   Where did I put my wallet?

 

2 使用時機Use:

a 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生在

過去某個時間點前。

By 1933 Oprah Winfrey had become famous.

By November 9th Donald Trump had won the election.

 

b 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

 

c 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連接

句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The man had arrived at the store before it opened.

The man arrived at the store before it opened.

 

特別注意句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1 When John arrived, they had diner.

1                                      2

當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.)

約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2 When John arrived, they were having dinner.

當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3 When John arrived, they had had/had eaten dinner.

2                                      1

當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.)

在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4 When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

1                              2

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。(我先開電視,節目才開始)

5 When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I missed the

beginning.  2                                1

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開頭。(節目先開始,我才開電視)

When I turned on the TV, the singer was singing.

 

 

D 翻譯練習:用過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式來翻譯下面的句子。

(翻譯其實會有很多不同的答案,但是主要時態跟句型要對)

 

這邊先放問題,可以練習的,下面接著是在影片中講解的,最後是可以直接對答案的

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

 

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

 

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

 

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

 

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

 

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

 

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

 

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

 

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

 

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

 

 

E Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous

or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

 

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

 

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

mid term, final exam,

 

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

 

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

 

 

 

 

F Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the

parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I

was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的

時態完成句子。

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

 

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

 

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

 

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

 

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

 

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

 

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

 

 

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

 

 

影片的解說答案

1 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長的很奇怪

(strange-looking)的男人。

I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

While I was waiting at the checkout, I noticed a strange-looking man.

2 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

I was really pleased to see Rachel again. I had seen her for a long time.

3 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

I was sleeping when you called last night.

4 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter

everywhere.

5 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

The bill wasn’t right. They had made a mistake.

6 比賽結束。United贏了。

The match was over. United had won.

7 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

When I was waiting for the bus, you drove past me.

8 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

9 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

When Laura was sitting in the park, it suddenly began to rain.

10 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

 

E Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous

or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1 They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

When I arrived, they were watching TV.

 

2 He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

When she called him, he had left the office.

 

3 I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

mid term, final exam,

The test didn’t go well although I had studied for the test the night

before.

4 He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an

accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

When he was driving to work this morning, he had an accident.

5 He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

When he passed his driving test, he only had had five lessons.

 

 

 

F Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the

parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I

was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的

時態完成句子。

1       I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).

I was waiting to play tennis yesterday when my partner called me to say that he couldn’t come because his car had broken down.

 

2      Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

Chicago beat Boston yesterday. Boston was winning 44-39 in the first half, but Chicago scored 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.

 

3      We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ (finish) their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.

We were late. When we arrived, everyone had finished their lunch and they were sitting in the living room having coffee.

 

4      I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ (be) empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.

I ran to the station, but the six o’clock train had already left. The train station was empty except for three people who were waiting for the next train.

 

5      It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.

It started raining when he was walking to work. He stopped a taxi because he wasn’t wearing a coat and he didn’t have an umbrella.

6      They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.

They were driving to the airport when they suddenly remembered that hadn’t turned off the lights.

 

7      I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ (change) a lot in 20 years.

I didn’t recognize many people at my old school reunion because everyone had changed a lot in 20 years.

 

8      The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

The game had already started when we turned on the TV. Costa Rica

was losing 1:0 and they were playing very badly.

 

 

 

答案在下面,不要偷看啊。可以一個大題一個大題的做。做完一大題對答案,確定懂後再往下做。

 

 

 

 

D 翻譯

1       I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.

2      I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday. I hadn’t seen her for ages.

3      I was sleeping when you called last night.

4      After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter everywhere.

5      This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.

6      The match was over. United had won.

7      You drove right past me when I was waiting for the bus.

8      The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.

9      When Laura was sitting in the garden, it suddenly began to rain.

10    I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

 

 

E

1 were watching

2 had left

3 had studied

4 was driving

5 had only had

 

F

1 was waiting, called, had broken down

2 beat, was winning, scored

3 arrived, had finished, were sitting

4 ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5 started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6 were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7 didn’t recognize, had changed

8 had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing

2015/10/30 一早五點二十起床,發現昨天改到一半的文章居然不見了,唉呀。再重新寫囉。不知為何這篇的點閱率目前最高,不過呢,學生在國外還有上過會話班的同學都有提到 Google 到這一篇。時態實在有點難,不過花點時間還是可以大致上弄得清楚的。有再修了一下,希望可以表達得更清楚:)

過去完成式大概是同學使用錯誤頻率最高的之一,另外再加上過去簡單式,過去進行式,大概可以把人弄瘋。通通用在說過去,為什麼要這麼麻煩,對不起,英文不是潔西發明的,約定俗成,中文更難學,這樣想應該心情會好一點。

不過說真的這幾個過去的時態挺容易讓人弄不清楚的,而且假如用錯時態的話,意思可能會完全不同。所以是值得花點時間好好弄懂。不過因為中文實在沒有類似的時態用法,所以要弄懂真的需要花一點時間跟心血。這是明天要上課剛好講到的部分,所以花了一點時間整理,上次講到時態同學整個就說聽不懂,所以呢希望做個講義能夠比較有點概念。這個部分真的不容易,初學者的話可以先跳過,因為實在有點複雜。

想弄懂也不是很難真的就是先理解,多看例子,比較清楚在什麼樣的狀態下要用什麼時態,不要死背,理解後多做例子,所以潔西後面放了很多練習題,也有答案。最重要是把句型跟什麼時候用分清楚,然後多觀察看到的句子聽到的句子是使用什麼樣的時態,最後自己再多練習把他們用出來,那就真的學會了。假如看一遍做了一遍還是不懂不要擔心,潔西也是做了很多遍,看了很多書才懂得,所以慢慢來,一遍不懂再看第二遍,還是不懂在看第三遍,總有一天一定會懂得,加油!上課要來不及了,衝啊!

歡迎同學自行私下下載練習使用,但請勿任意轉載或公開使用, 潔西寫講義花了很多時間精力跟心血。雖然校對技巧很差,雖然裡面也可能有錯誤,呵呵,還是要尊重一下原作者喔,謝謝:)

參考書籍:American English File 3, Oxford Practice Grammar, Grammar Express

這裡因為做比較跟區別,所以最前面放例句,然後是句型,接下來是使用的時機。再來是混合的練習題。題目做多了真的會比較有概念。另外潔西自己在動詞的不同形態方面比較偷懶,原形動詞用 V1 表示,過去式動詞 past tense,也就是動詞的第二態用 V2 表示,動詞的第三態也就是過去分詞 past participle 則用 V3 來表示,而現在分詞 present participle 則用 V-ing 來表示。應該只有潔西自己這樣用,覺得比較好記,看得時候知道就好了。

 

這下面是原本的,跟上面一樣,只是上面有說明,所以就多放一次

 

A. 過去簡單式Past Simple: 主要就是在描述過去發生的某件事情。記得用主詞跟動詞的過去式。說過去的事情最常用的就是過去簡單式。

It all happened very quickly. The car came straight out of the side road, and the van went into the back of it. The Van driver didn’t have a chance. It was the car driver’s fault. 一切發生的非常快。那台汽車直接從旁邊衝出來,而那台貨車撞到汽車的後面。貨車司機完全沒有機會(閃避)。是汽車司機的錯。

這上面有幾個過去式的動詞呢?數數看。詞性要記住才分辨得出來喔。一共有五個,算對了嗎?

1. 句型Forms:主詞+動詞的過去式(S + V2):記句型的時候要把肯定句,否定句跟疑問句的用法都一起記喔

They got married last year.

I didn’t have time to do homework.

What time did you get up this morning.

2. 使用時機Use:在什麼時候用非常重要,通常用在一個在過去完成的動作,常跟過去時間連用

a. 過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

I ate a hamburger for lunch.

b. 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

They were driving too fast when they crashed.

c. 過去簡單式常用來講一個故事中的動作。

We arrived at the beach.

B. 過去進行式Past Continuous:用來說明過去某個時間正在進行的動作,持續的動作。句型用主詞加上was/were再加上動詞加ing。S + was/were + V-ing

I had a wonderful dream last night. I was sitting in a park. The sun was shining, and the birds were singing. Children were playing and laughing. It was very peaceful. I didn’t want to wake up. 我做天晚上做了個美夢。我在公園坐著。太陽閃耀地照著,鳥兒在唱歌。小孩們說說笑笑。非常的寧靜。我一點都不想醒來。

這裡是把過去簡單式跟過去進行式合併使用。描述活動故事背景的時候常用過去進行式,用過去進行式來表示過去某個時間點發生的事,或持續的動作。時態常會像這樣混合使用喔,先前有學生問說問什麼不全部用過去簡單式,恩,說故事的時候強調的東西不一樣,這裡比較有背景跟主題,強調當時的狀況,所以後面不想起來。有時候真的也很難解釋的清楚,多做題目,多看多聽多運用就會比較有概念。

1. 句型Forms:主詞+Be動詞的過去式(was/were)+動詞-ing (S + Be2 + V-ing)

A: What were you doing at six o’clock last night?

B: I was watching TV. I wasn’t studying. My parents were watching TV with me.

2. 使用時機Use:

a. 過去進行式用在表達過去某個時間持續進行的動作。強調動作的過程。

I was eating lunch at 12.30.

I was eating lunch while he was reading.

b. 描述過去發生的事情,當一個持續進行的動作被另一個短暫的動作打斷,持續進行的動作用過去進行式,短暫打斷動作的用過去簡單式。

I was crossing the street when the driver honked his horn.

c. 過去進行式常用來講一個故事中的背景

The sun was shining.

所以說故事的時候,故事的背景會用過去進行式,描述內容的時候會用過去簡單式。

C. 過去完成式Past Perfect:描述過去的兩件事情中先發生的第一件事,或是用來說過去某個時間點前發生的事。完成式都是用來表示一件事情發生在另外一件事情之前,所以假如只有單純的描述過去發生的某件事就只要用過去簡單式就可以,這時候不需要用過去完成式。也就是說當描述過去發生了兩件事時,先發生的事會用過去完成式,後發生的會用過去簡單式來表達。

I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before. We hadn’t gone to bed until after one. I hadn’t been on the train long when I had a bit of shock. I suddenly realized that I had left my wallet at home. Then I began to wonder. Had I left it in the office the day before? I just couldn’t remember. I wanted to go back to bed. I felt awful. 我昨天搭火車上班的時候覺得很累因為莎拉跟我前一個晚上去了一個派對。我們到一點鐘才上床睡覺。我上火車沒多久就嚇到。我突然發現我把錢包忘在家裡。然後我開始懷疑。我是前一天忘在辦公室了嗎?我就是記不起來。我很想回床上睡覺。我覺得糟透了。

1. 句型Forms:主詞+had+過去分詞 (S + had + V3)

When they turned on the TV, the game had finished. (比賽在打開電視前就開始了)

They hadn’t gone home until late.

Where had he put his wallet?

2. 使用時機Use:

a. 過去完成式用來表達跟過去另外一個事件間的關係。用來表達某件事情發生在過去某個時間點前。

By 1933 Oprah Winfrey had become famous.

b. 描述過去的兩件事情,先發生的用過去完成式,後發生的用過去簡單式。

By the time I got there, the flight had left.

c. 當兩件事情間的關係很清楚的時候,比方說用before, after, as soon as連接句子時,可以兩件事情都用過去簡單式。

The man had arrived at the store before it opened.

The man arrived at the store before it opened.

特別注意句子的時態往往會影響到句子的意思。留意下面幾個句子的不同

1. When John arrived, they had diner. 當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

(First John arrived. Then they had dinner.) 約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

2. When John arrived, they were having dinner.當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

(When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

3. When John arrived, they had had dinner. 當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

(They had dinner before John arrived.) 在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

4. When I switched the TV on, the program started. I was just in time.

當我打開電視,節目開始演出。我剛好來得及。(我先開電視,節目才開始)

5. When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I missed the beginning.

當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開頭。(節目先開始,我才開電視)

D. 翻譯練習:用過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式來翻譯下面的句子。

(翻譯其實會有很多不同的答案,但是主要時態跟句型要對)

1. 我在收銀機櫃台(checkout)等待時,我注意到一個長得很奇怪(strange-looking)的男人。

2. 我很高興昨天再次見到Rachel。我很久沒見到她了。

3. 當你昨天打電話來的時候我正在睡覺。

4. 當演唱會結束後,公園看起來糟透了。大家到處亂丟垃圾(leave litter)。

5. 這帳單不對。他們犯了個錯誤。

6. 比賽結束。United贏了。

7. 當我在等公車的時候,你開車從我前過經過(drive past me)。

8. 那個人看起來很面熟。我在哪裡看過他。

9. 當Laura坐在公園的時候,突然開始下雨。

10. 我突然發現我忘了帶護照。

E. Combine the two sentences. Use the verb in bold in the past continuous or past perfect.

把粗體字的動詞改為過去進行式或過去完成式,把兩個句子結合成一個句子。

Sarah took a nap from 3:00 to 5:00. Peter picked up the tickets at 4:00.

Peter picked up the tickets when Sarah was taking a nap.

1. They watched TV from 7:00 to 9:00. I arrived at 7:30.

When I arrived, they ____________ TV.

2. He left the office at 7:00. She called him at 8:00.

When she called him, he ____________ the office.

3. I studied for the test the night before. The test didn’t go well.

The test didn’t go well although I ____________ the night before.

4. He drove to work this morning. In the middle of his trip, he had an accident.

When he _____________ to work this morning, he had an accident.

5. He only had five lessons. He passed his driving test.

When he passed his driving test, he ____________ (only) five lessons.

6. I ______________ (wait) to paly tennis yesterday when

F. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in the parentheses. Use the simple past (e.g., I went), past continuous (e.g., I was going), or past perfect (e.g., I had gone). 把括號裡面的動詞用正確的時態完成句子。

  1. I _________ (wait) to play tennis yesterday when my partner ________ (call) me to say that he couldn’t come because his car ___________ (break down).
  2. Chicago _________ (beat) Boston yesterday. Boston _________ (win) 44-39 in the first half but Chicago _________ (score) 46 points in the second half to Boston’s 39.
  3. We were late. When we ___________ (arrive) everyone ______________ their lunch and they _______________ (sit) in the living room having coffee.
  4. I _________ (run) to the station but the six o’clock train _____________ (already/leave). The train station ________ empty except for three people who _____________ (wait) for the next train.
  5. It __________ (start) raining when he _____________ (walk) to work. He _________ (stop) a taxi because he ____________ (not wear) a coat and he ______________ (not have) an umbrella.
  6. They _____________ (drive) to the airport when they suddenly ___________ (remember) that they _____________ (not turn off) the lights.
  7. I _____________ (not recognize) many people at my old school reunion because everyone ________________ a lot in 20 years.
  8. The game _______________ (already/start) when we __________ (turn on) the TV. Costa Rica ____________ (lose) 1:0 and they ___________ (play) very badly.

答案在下面,不要偷看啊。可以一個大題一個大題的做。做完一大題對答案,確定懂後再往下做。

D. 翻譯

  1. I was waiting at the checkout when I noticed a strange-looking man.
  2. I was really pleased to see Rachel again yesterday. I hadn’t seen her for ages.
  3. I was sleeping when you called last night.
  4. After the concert finished, the park looked awful. People had left litter everywhere.
  5. This bill isn’t right. They made a mistake.
  6. The match was over. United had won.
  7. You drove right past me when I was waiting for the bus.
  8. The man looked familiar. I had seen him somewhere before.
  9. When Laura was sitting in the garden, it suddenly began to rain.
  10. I suddenly realized that I had forgotten my passport.

E.

1. were watching

2. had left

3. had studied

4. was driving

5. had only had

F.

1. was waiting, called, had broken down

2. beat, was winning, scored

3. arrived, had finished, were sitting

4. ran, had already left, was, were waiting

5. started, was walking, stopped, wasn’t wearing, didn’t have

6. were driving, remembered, hadn’t turned off

7. didn’t recognize, had changed

8. had already started, turned on, was losing, were playing

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27 thoughts on “過去時態:過去簡單式,過去進行式,過去完成式 用法與區別

  1. Alan 說道:

    我在做過去時態的部分有些疑問
    首先上面有提到遇到before, after, as soon as時可以都用過去簡單式裡面的一個例句
    The man arrived at the store before it had opened.
    The man arrived at the store before it opened.
    我有疑問的是第一句~
    這個人在店還沒有開之前就到達了~那應該是他人先抵達然後店才開是嗎?
    那為什麼不是
    The man had arrived at the store before it opened.
    還是我應該怎麼思考這個句子呢??

    然後是下面的題目
    F題組的
    第二題
    為何後面的win是用was winning 而不是won?
    第四題
    那火車離開時我正跑去,不能用was running嗎?
    第五題
    為何是用wasn’t wearing??
    不能用過去式嗎?穿這個動作可以持續??
    第八題
    為何是用was losing 跟 were playing??
    不能用過去式嗎?同上一樣的疑問..

    可以請老師指導一下我該怎麼思考這些內容嗎?
    有些字看起來就不像是可以持續的動作為何確是用進行式..

    1. jessie 說道:

      謝謝你的問題。然後我發現,哈哈,應該是打字的時候打錯了。的確是先到達在開店的話是The mad had arrived the store before it opened. 或者可以是The man arrived at the store after it had opened.

      第二題講的是結果,而不是正進行的事。假如在播報比賽就會用進行式或者是在特明說明那個時間點發生的狀況。

      第四題也是後面有告知火車站是空的。所以也是個結果。當我跑到哪裡火車已經開走了。表達火車開走在我到前發生。I was running to the train station when the six o’clcok train left. 這個句子則是在描述當我在跑往火車站的時候,六點鐘的火車開走了。語意不同。

      第五題是解釋原因,因為他沒穿雨衣沒帶傘。一般I usually wear a uniform but I’m wearing a T-shirt and jeans today because it’s casual Friday. 正穿著用來強調短期間,感覺一般描述穿著就用簡單式,另外沒帶雨傘也只能用過去簡單,不能用過去進行,所以and連接兩個時態通常會一致。

      第八題則是在正看比賽,可以跟第二題比對。第二題時說結果,但是這一題比賽還在進行中,所以用進行式。

      時態,文法大概都是很難能夠解釋清楚的。因為先有用法,後來大家去整理之後,勉強把大規則整理出來。另外英文的時態用法跟中文的思考模式是截然不同的,有時候很能用中文去理解。建議多做不同的題目,多閱讀不同的文章,多觀察電影電視小說閱讀裡面的時態的用法,或許會比較能夠理解。至少我的文法是這樣的理解的,雖然還是有不少不清處的地方。

      說真的,有時候我看到有些時態也弄不清為什麼要這樣用,大致上用大規則去解釋,然後自己多看多觀察,大概可以捉出大概,然後用出來。其實假如你問非外國老師的外國人為什麼這個時候用這個文法,不用那個文法,他大概也說不出來,只能說,這個感覺是對的,那個怪怪的。

      就像中文,你問我為什麼說一石二鳥,一刀兩斷,一箭雙雕,那為什麼不說一石雙鳥,ㄧ刀雙斷,一箭二雕,我也不知道,因為前面聽起來就是順,後面就是不順。啊!!!!!!

      希望解釋你還滿意。最近狂忙,只能做這程度的解釋….

  2. Kelly 說道:

    請問一下,如果是表示過去一段時間發生的事,但現在已停止,
    例如:我在台北住了五年 (但現在已經搬走了),
    請問用 I had stayed in Taipei for five years. 還是說 I stayed in Taipei for five years 即可?

    1. jessie 說道:

      過去簡單式用在表達過去發生的事件或動作,已經結束。強調動作的完成

      I ate a hamburger for lunch. / I lived in Taipei for five years.

      過去完成式Past Perfect:描述過去的兩件事情中先發生的第一件事,或是用來說過去某個時間點前發生的事。假如只有單純的說過去發生的某件事就用過去簡單市就可以,不需要用過去完成式。

      Before I moved to Canada, I had lived in Taipei for five years.

      看句子前後文要表達的意思決定:)

  3. 匿名 說道:

    您好,好高興在查一些英文文法時發現了您的網站,我也很用心在您的網站去學習我不懂的地方,真是太謝謝您了!可是讀到C大點時的文章段落,有些疑惑,記得以前上英文課時,老師告訴我們一個口訣就是遇到像really…等這類字時就想到"動前be後",可是我不了解此時您的I felt really tired when I took the train to work yesterday because Sarah and I had been to a party the evening before.為何不是felt不是置於really後?可否為我解惑.謝謝您了.

    1. jessie 說道:

      副詞一般會放在動詞前,be動詞後沒錯,但是不要死記要活用啊!

      I often drink coffee.
      She is often late for class.

      上面的副詞都是修飾整個句子。

      副詞的位置其實要看修飾的對象,可以放在很多不同位置。

      really 這邊是副詞修飾形容詞 tired,所以放在tired前面,跟felt沒有關係喔

      1. 匿名 說道:

        請問
        I felt really tired 意思是 “我感覺真的很累"
        那如果硬是要說 I really felt tired 意思會變成"我真的感覺很累" ? 還是這樣文法就不正確了?
        謝謝

        1. jessie 說道:

          我自己覺得不要用中文,用英文的意思去想會比較容易

          really 是副詞,英文的副詞的位置很有彈性,隨著放的位置不同修飾不同的字做不同的強調,有時也有點不同的意味

          I felt really tired. really修飾的是tired 這邊是非常的意思,就是感受非常的累

          I really felt tired. 這裏的 really 是用來修飾整個句子,我真的感到非常累的意思。

          我自己是這樣理解

          可以多查字典看例句的用法還有自己在閱讀的時候多注意一下用法或許會比較能理解用法的差別:)

  4. 匿名 說道:

    When I switched the TV on, the program had started. I miss the beginning.
    I miss the beginning. 點解唔係用過去式?
    當我打開電視,節目已經開始。我錯過開始。 已經錯過開始?

        1. jessie 說道:

          還是謝謝你,我的文章有時候打太快沒有較對好,三不無時會有小錯誤。這篇大家好像比較有一些疑問,有空再來寫清楚一點:)

          這句因為過去完成式的動作先發生,所以節目先演了,我打開節目這個動作後發生。所以我錯過了開頭。因為已經錯過了,所以用過去簡單式才對:)

  5. Witty 說道:

    Hello Jessie,
    在前面的例句中(約翰, 大家吃晚餐 時間例句)
    1. When John arrived, they had diner. 當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。
    (First John arrived. Then they had dinner.) 約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

    為什麼這句話要表達約翰先抵達不用使用過去完成式呢?
    >> John had arrived. they had a dinner.
    >> when John had arrived, they had a dinner.

    謝謝回答 🙂

  6. 匿名 說道:

    Jessie您好,
    您的文章真的讓我受益良多:-)
    有個問題想請教您:
    想問一下When John arrived, they had dinner.這句
    過去簡單式不是表達一個事實,所以意思不應該是
    當John抵達時,他們已經在吃晚餐了 嗎~?

    謝謝您:-)

    1. jessie 說道:

      這幾個時態比較複雜一點,可以再看一遍文章,或者把幾個時態在熟悉一下,每個時態的用法都可能用在不同的地方,而時態不同表達出來的意思也會不同。

      正在吃的話會是 When John arrived, they are having dinner.

      1. When John arrived, they had diner. 當約翰抵達後,他們吃晚餐。

      (First John arrived. Then they had dinner.) 約翰先抵達,然後他們再吃晚餐。

      2. When John arrived, they were having dinner.當約翰抵達時,他們正在吃晚餐。

      (When John arrived, they were in the middle of dinner.)

      3. When John arrived, they had had dinner. 當約翰抵達時,他們已經吃完晚餐。

      (They had dinner before John arrived.) 在約翰抵達前,他們已經吃完晚餐。

  7. zuppachu 說道:

    Hello Jessie, 謝謝你的分享,雖然還是要多看幾遍才會記得,但真的很感謝你的無私。是說F的第一題少了一個答案喔~ 請你持續更新!喜歡看整理清楚的文法! :)

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