現在簡單式簡易版

現在簡單式Present Simple                                   P.1

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學習時態要記住下列幾點。一,使用時機,什麼時候該用這個時態,二,句型,每個時態的句型的肯定句,否定句,Yes/No問句,WH問句,時態句型的變化主要在動詞,也要記住該句型所使用的是哪個助動詞。三,常見副詞,有些副詞常常會跟著這個句型一起出現,記住了有助於正確使用時態。四,動詞變化,不同時態的動詞變化。

一.   使用時機:現在簡單式多用在表達日常生活的習慣,事實,真理等。

現在簡單式的句型可細分為一般動詞與be兩種句型。幾乎每個英文句子都要有主詞跟動詞,所以當描述現在的事實狀態時,假如句子沒有一般動詞,有名詞,形容詞,介系詞片語,副詞等時,則需要有現在簡單式的be,也就是am, is, are。

1. 英文用現在簡單式用來表達重複進行的活動、習慣、嗜好。

I work from 9 to 5.

She rides a scooter when it’s not rainy. When it rains, she takes the MRT.

I play mahjong and go to a pub in my free time.

2. 現在簡單式也用來表達事實、真理。

Honesty is the best policy. 誠實為上策。

The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. 日出於東落於西。

.現在簡單式 be的句型

1. 肯定句

   主詞+現在式be +  名詞

S  +    be1  +  noun

I        am        a teacher.

You       are       a student.

He        is        a singer.

She       is        a homemaker.

It         is        a table.

We       are        friends.

You       are        dancers.

They      are        coworkers.

現在簡單式Present Simple                                   P.2

主詞+現在式be + 形容詞

S   +    be1  +  adjective

I         am        tall.

You       are       pretty.

He        is        hungry.

She       is        thirsty.

It         is        dirty.

We       are        bored.

You       are        happy.

They      are        sleepy.

主詞+ 現在式be + 介系詞片語

S   +    be1   +  preposition phrase

I         am        at home.

You       are       at work.

He        is        in the classroom.

She       is        in the bank.

It         is        on the floor.

We       are        on the bus..

You       are        in a good mood.

They      are        in Hong Kong.

2. 否定句 : 英文句子改否定跟疑問時都需要助動詞,be本身就是助動詞。

所以否定句只要在be後面加not

S +   be1  +  not +  noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

I       am        not    a Japanese teacher.

You     are       not    busy.

He      is        not    in the living room.

She     is        not     a model.

It       is        not     new.

We      are       not     from Japan.

You      are       not     helpful.

They     are       not     over 18 years old.

現在簡單式Present Simple                                   P.3

3. Yes/No 問句 : 英文句子疑問時要把助動詞放到主詞前面,be本身就是個助動詞。所以yes/no問句只要把be放在主詞前面就可以造問句

be1  +   S       +   noun/ adjective / preposition phrase

Am       I            late?

Are      you           the only child?

Is        he           sick?

Is       she           friendly?

Is        it            broken?

Are      we            loud?

Are      you           American?

Are      they          engineers?

4. WH問句: 英文的疑問詞大致有what, where, when, why, who, how。把WH疑問詞放最前面再放be、主詞與其他部分就可造WH問句。

WH   be1 +  S  +   ( noun/ adjective / preposition phrase)

What 問什麼

What is your favorite color?   My favorite color is blue.

What is that on the table?    It is my new cell phone.

What day is it?   It’s Tuesday.

Where 問地點

Where am I?    You are in the hospital.

Where is your father?   He is in the bathroom.

Where are my books?    They are under the table.

When 問時間

When is your birthday?  It is January 1st.

When is the party?   It is on Saturday.

When is the library open?  It is open at 9 a.m.

Why 問理由

Why are you so happy?  It is my birthday today.

Why is he late?  He overslept.

Why are they sleepy?  They got up early.

現在簡單式Present Simple                                   P.4

Who問誰

Who is he?   He is my brother.

Who is Lisa?  She is the new assistant.

Who is in the bathroom? Tom is in the bathroom.

How 問如何

How are you? I am fine. Thank you.

How long is the movie?  It is about two hours.

How tall are you?  I’m 1 meter 65.

特別Who 與 What 這兩個疑問詞可以當主詞,只要把be放在疑問詞後即可

Who is there?  That is my friend.

What is on the table?  It is Tom’s new toy.

三,現在簡單式的一般動詞的句型

一般動詞的句型只要在主詞後面加一般動詞。當主詞是第三人稱單數,也就是任何可以用he/she/it代替的主詞時,需要在動詞後面加s。

  1. 肯定句

主詞+動詞原型

S  + V1

I       ride a bicycle.

You   take a bus.

He    drives a car.

She   rides a scooter.

It     sleeps.

We    walk.

You    take the MRT.

They   take the train.

現在簡單式Present Simple                                   P.5

  1. 否定句

現在簡單式的否定句需要有助動詞來幫忙。第三人稱單數主詞的助動詞為does,其他主詞用do這個助動詞。否定句把助動詞加not放在一般動詞前面

主詞 + 助動詞 + not   +動詞原型

S   +   do/does not    + V1

I          do not        eat beef.

You         do not        like Japanese food.

He         does not       drink coffee.

She        does not       cook.

It          does not       work.

We         do not        get up early.

You         do not        sleep for eight hours.

They        do not        play mahjong.

  1. Yes/No 問句

現在簡單是造問句需要有助動詞do, does來幫忙。句型是把助動詞放在主詞前面造問句即可。

助動詞   +  主詞   +  動詞原型

Do/Does  +  S       +  V1

Do             I          work hard?

Do         you        play basketball?

Does       he         go bowling?

Does       she        watch sports on TV?

Does       it          have fun?

Do         we         go jogging?

Do         you        do yoga?

Do         they       play sports?

現在簡單式Present Simple                                   P.6

  1. WH問句

WH問句也需要助動詞do/does來幫忙造問句。句型是把則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞、主詞、動詞,其他的部份

WH疑問詞  +   助動詞    +  主詞  + 動詞  +(其他部分)?

WH           +    do/does    +   S     +       V1                ?

What 問什麼,可以跟其他的字組合來問不同問題

What do you do in your free time?  I play online games in my free time.

What do you think of Korean dramas?  I think it’s very interesting.

What kind of food does Lisa like?   She likes Indian food.

Where 問地點

Where do you live?   I live in Tucheng.

Where do you go to school?  I go to National Taiwan University.

Where does your father work?  He works in a bank.

When 問時間

When do you exercise?  I exercise every Monday and Wednesday.

When do you visit your parents?  I visit my parents on big holidays.

When does Peter go on vacation?  He goes on vacation in August.

Why 問理由

Why do you study English?

I study English because it’s an international language.

Why do you like Thai food?  Because I lived in Thailand when I was a child.

Why does your father work in China?  Because the pay is better.

Who問誰

Who do you live with?  I live with my coworkers.

Who do you play badminton with?  I paly badminton with my sister.

Who does Mary work for?  She works for her aunt.

現在簡單式Present Simple                                   P.7

How 問如何

How often do you get a haircut?  I get a haircut twice a year.

How long do you use the computer every day?

I use the computer for four or five hours.

How much does the dress cost?  It costs NT$2,500.

特別注意當疑問詞what或who當主詞時,則不需要助動詞,而且動詞應用第三人稱單數。

What makes your happy?  Helping people makes me happy.

Who cooks dinner for you?  My dad cooks dinner for me.

切記在現在簡單式中,一般動詞原型與Be絕對不會同時出現。

I am from Taiwan. / I come from Taiwan. 這兩句都可以。

但是不要說 I am come from Taiwan. 這是個錯誤的句子。

三、現在簡單式的副詞如:every day, once a week, twice a month, always, usually, sometimes, often, hardly ever…等。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

現在簡單式Present Simple                                   P.8

四、現在簡單式拼字與發音規則

英文在表達現在簡單式時,當主詞為第三人稱單數(任何可以用he、she、it代替的名詞)時,動詞後面要加s。加s的拼字與發音規則如下。

a. 拼字規則

  1. 大部分的動詞在字尾加s。

talk-talks, learn-learns, read-reads, get-gets

2.當動詞字尾是sh, ch, ss, x, z時,則加es。

wash-washes, watch-watches, kiss-kisses, fix-fixes, buzz-buzzes

3.當動詞字尾為子音加y時,需將y去掉,加ies。

study-studies, cry-cries, fly-flies, try-tries

4.當動詞字尾為母音加y時,則只要加s,即可。

say-says, play-plays, pray-prays, pay-pays

5.有幾個特別的變化需記住。

have-has, do-does, go-goes

b. 發音規則

  1. 當動詞字尾是無聲子音如/f/, /k/, /p/, /t/, 時,加s後,應讀做/s/。

laugh-laughs, cook-cooks, stop-stops, meet-meets

2.當動詞字尾是有聲子音如/d/, /n/, /l/, /v/ 等或母音時,加s後,應讀做/z/。

read-reads, learn, learns, sell, sells, live-lives, know-knows, see-sees

3. 當動詞字尾為/s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, / dʒ /時,加s後,應讀做/ɪz/時。要注意的是,發音時看的是最後一個音,而非最後一個字母,如dance就是這一類。

miss-misses, buzz-buzzes, wish-wishes, match-matches, judge-judges,

英文字母的母音(vowels)為a, e, i, o, u,其餘為子音(consonants)。

無聲子音(voiceless consonants):/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/, /ʃ/, / tʃ/, / θ /, /h/,

有聲子音(voiced consonants):/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/, / ʒ /, / dʒ /, / ð/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /w/, /j/, / ŋ/

母音:/ æ /, / ɛ /, / ɪ /, / a /, / ʌ /, / e /, / i /, / aɪ/, / o /, / u /, / ʊ /, / ɔ /, / ɔɪ/, / aʊ /, / ɝ /, / ɚ/, /ə /

1. save _______ 2. work ______ 3. notice ________ 4. try  _______

5. teach _______ 6. start ______ 7. buy ________ 8. fix  ________

9. have________  10. finish_______

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