助動詞二 慾望,可能性,忠告,必須性

睡不著,寫寫講義。上次寫過的助動詞,這是二,也是從Grammar Express Basic這本書整理出來的。因為這個星期還是很忙,明天跟後天有做不完的一堆事,下星期就會好很多,因為好幾個課結束了。其實文法的東西真的是要做很多的例子,多觀察,才會容易懂,而且可以運用。可惜沒時間,大家要多看多寫多用。加油。真的要睡覺去了!

 

Grammar Express Basic 助動詞                                      Jessie Lin  P.5

E. Desires慾望: Would like, Would rather

1. S + would like + N / S + would like + to V1 可表達想要某樣東西或做某動作。

would like 相當於want,比較客氣。would 是助動詞,用來改否定跟造問句。

I’d like some cake. / I’d like to have some cake.

A: Would you like more coffee?

B: No, thanks. We’d like to have the check, please.

S + like: 表示喜歡,助動詞為do/does

I like coffee. / He doesn’t like coffee. / Do you like coffee?

S + would like: 表示想要,助動詞為would

I’d like coffee. / Would you like some coffee?

 

2. S + would rather + V1 表示寧可要某樣東西而不想要另外一樣東西。否定的時候用 S + would rather not + V1 ,用來表示禮貌性的拒絕。

Would you rather eat at home or eat out? I’d rather eat at home.

Would you like cake?  Thanks, but I’d rather have pie.

Would you like another piece of pie?  Thanks, but I’d rather not.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Grammar Express Basic 助動詞                                      Jessie Lin  P.6

F. Possibility可能性:May, Might, Could

1. S + may/might/could + V1 可用來表示未來可能發生的事

It may snow tomorrow. There’s a 60 % chance.

I might leave work early. I’ll decide tomorrow.

Schools could close. They usually close for heavy snow.

 

2. S + may not / might not + V1 用來表示未來可能不會發生的事

I may not pass the quiz. I didn’t study.

Don’t worry. It might not be hard.

 

3. S + could not + V1 用來表示未來不可能會發生的事

It couldn’t be hard. (It won’t be hard. That’s not possible.)

 

  1. Be + S + going to + V1 ? / Will + S + V1? 當對於未來可能性造疑問問句時用be going to 或will,而不用may, might, could 來造問句。

Are you going to watch TV tonight?

Will you be home tonight?

 

  1. 當用may (not), might (not), could 在簡答時,表示不確定,但有可能性。在回答的時候通常不用Yes或No來回答。

Will it snow tomorrow?

It may. There’s a 60% chance of snow. (It’s possible that it will snow.)

It may not. There’s only a 20 % chance. (It’s possible that it won’t snow.)

It might not.

  1. maybe 跟may be 的區別:

maybe 是個副詞,表達可能性。常放在句首,句尾。

may be則用在表達可能性的句子,沒有一般動詞,有be 加上形容詞,介系詞片語等。

Maybe I will stay home tonight. / I may be home tonight.

Maybe it will be sunny tomorrow. / It may be sunny tomorrow.

Grammar Express Basic 助動詞                                      Jessie Lin  P.7

G. Advice忠告: Should, Ought to

1. S + should / ought to  + V1 用來表示給予忠告advice。疑問句跟否定句多用should,不用ought to 來造否定句或疑問句。

It’s late. Would should leave soon. / We ought to leave soon.

We shouldn’t stay late.

Should I wear a suit?  Yes, you should. / No, you shouldn’t.

What should I do?

2. 在給予忠告的時候常用maybe或I think 顯得比較有禮貌。

Maybe you should arrive a little earlier.

I think he should smile a little more.

 

H. Necessity必須性: Have to, Must, Don’t have to, Must not

1. S + have to / must + V1 用來表示某件事是必須的。must的語氣表較強烈,可能是老師或家長對學生或小孩子。第三人稱單數用has to。

Men have to wear suits in my office. It’s a rule.

Tom must wear a uniform to school.

You must do your homework.

2. S + don’t have to + V1 表示某件事是不必要的。是有選擇性的。

Men don’t have to wear suits in our office. Why does Tom wear one?

He likes suits.

You don’t have to finish this now. You can give it to me tomorrow.

3. S + must not + V1 表示某件事是違反規則的,不可以做。沒有選擇性的。在口語的時候常用 S + can’t + V1。

Students must not leave the building during school hours.

Students can’t leave the building.

You must not enter the room without wearing a mask.

 

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