助動詞 be/do/have

先前有放過,稍微改了一下而已。希望有清楚點 🙂 助動詞真的不是那麼容易。可能要花點時間消化

助動詞                                             Jessie Lin     P.1

A. 定義

什麼叫助動詞呢?顧名思義就是幫助動詞的詞。助動詞用來幫助動詞表達動作的時間(時態),或是說話的人的態度(情態)。也用來幫忙造問句,改否定。

He is studying.

He must study hard.

Where have you been?

You should not go out.

B. 類別: 助動詞可以分為兩類

1. 輔助助動詞 auxiliary verbs,只有三個 be, have, do ,用來表達時態,造問句,改否定。這三個本身都可以當動詞,也可以當助動詞,其中be與have後面的接續又跟一般助動詞不同所以比較容易混淆,須特別注意。

2. 情態助動詞 modal verbs,有can, could, had better, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would 用來表達說話者的態度,可能用在表達請求,建議,允許,可能性等不同情態。

 

C. 表達時態時一般動詞的變化有四種。

V1:動詞原型,如eat,work用在現在簡單式,但是第三人稱單數為主詞時,

會在原型動詞後加s。在不定詞to後面加V1,某些助動詞後面加V1。

V2:動詞過去式,如ate, worked只會用在過去式簡單式。

V3:動詞的過去分詞,如eaten,worked用在完成式或被動。過去分詞有時

也可以當形容詞用。

V-ing:動詞的現在分詞,也是動名詞,如eating,working用在進行式。現在

分詞有時也可當名詞或形容詞用。

 

 

 

 

助動詞                                                 Jessie Lin     P.2

D. 輔助助動 auxiliary verbs

1. be

a. be 當動詞

V1: be 本身是原型動詞,但是它的現在式為am, is, are。

V2:過去式為was were。V3: 過去分詞為been。V-ing現在分詞為being。

be為句子裡的主要動詞時,其後可以接名詞,形容詞,地點,時間,數字等。但是不會有另外一個動詞

句型為S + be + noun/adjective/preposition + place

現在簡單式  I am a teacher. / He is hungry. / My parents are at home.

過去簡單式 I was in Japan last month. / They were not busy yesterday.

未來式 I will be happy if you can join us. / She will be home soon.

現在完成式 He has never been to the United States.

現在進行式You’re being silly.

 

b. be當助動詞

be當助動詞時,是用來幫助後面的動詞形成特別的時態或語態,所以後面一定跟著別的動詞。用在進行式後面接現在分詞be + V-ing表進行,用在被動則接過去分詞be + V3表被動。

進行式 I am teaching English.

They were dancing and singing.

He will be waiting.

They have been running for two hours.

被動  The plant is watered every day.

Romeo and Juliet was written by Shakespeare.

be going to 是個片語,用來表達未來的計畫或預測。be在這兒也是當助動詞。

未來: We are going to attend her wedding.

助動詞                                                 Jessie Lin     P.3

2. do

a. do 當動詞

do 當動詞時有做的意思,也常常跟其他字結合成片語。do exercise 做運動, do laundry 洗衣服, do yoga做瑜伽, do the dishes洗碗盤

V1:do/does, V2: did, V3:done,V-ing: doing

現在簡單式 I hardly ever do my homework.

She does laundry twice a week.

過去簡單式 Tom did a good job.

Lisa did me a favor last week.

未來式 A hot bath will do you good.

現在完成式 You have not done anything wrong.

過去進行式 She was doing the dishes when the phone rang.

 

b. do 當助動詞

do 當助動詞時,用在現在簡單式跟過去簡單式中的否定句跟疑問句,後面一定接原型動詞V1,現在簡單式的第三人稱用does。

1. 現在簡單式: I don’t understand.  / Do you live with your family?

2. 過去簡單式: Vicky didn’t answer the phone. / How did that happen?

3. 表示強調:do/did + V1 可以用來表示強調該動作。

I do like you. / They did believe that story.

4. 代替前面說過的動詞:do/did也可以單獨使用,用來代替前面說過的動詞。

A: I want to speak English well.   B: So do I.

I did not like the food and neither did her.

 

 

助動詞整理                                              Jessie Lin     P.4

3. have

a. have當動詞有擁有,吃,得到某個疾病等意思,也常跟其他字結合成片語。如:have fun玩得開心, have a baby生小孩等。have是一個及物動詞,後面一定要接名詞。第三人稱單數用has。

V1: have/has, V2: had, V3: had, V-ing: having

現在簡單式 I have two brothers. / She has a house in Taipei.

過去簡單式 They had dinner together last weekend.

未來式 If you eat too much candy, you will have a toothache.

現在完成式 Have you ever had your own business?

現在進行式 I am having a good time.

 

have to 形成一個片語,是必須的意思,其後一定加動詞原型。

I have to go now.  /  Do you have to wear a uniform?

We will have to leave early tomorrow. / They had to walk home.

 

b. have當助動詞

have當助動詞時,後面接過去分詞V3,表完成式。接been V-ing表完成進行式。表否定時在have後加上not;造問句時把have移到主詞前即可。

現在完成式 I have lived in Taipei for 30 years.

過去完成式 The ticket had already sold out when we arrived.

現在完成進行式 She has been teaching English since 1999.

過去完成進行式 He had  been thinking about it for a long time.

 

另外had better 是一個助動詞,後面加原型動詞,表示應該的意思。

You had better watch out. You had better not cry.

 

 

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對「助動詞 be/do/have」的一則回應

    1. jessie 說道:

      have 在現在簡單式中當動詞,用 do/does 造問句跟否定。 I have a dog. Do you have a dog? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. 但是 have been 在現在完成式中 have 是當助動詞,been 是動詞的第三態過去分詞,用 have 造問句跟改否定。I have been to Japan. Have you been to Japan? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t. 用在不同時態有不同意思。時態可能用先弄清楚會比較容易懂。

  1. KLTing 說道:

    Hi Jessie ~
    我在書中看到一句不太明白:In fact,it was blowing in the opposite direction.There was no chance of them being ‘smelled out’.
    There was no chance of them being ‘smelled out’. Google翻譯 : 它們沒有機會被“嗅出”
    如果用被動式being不是只有is being 和 was being,為什麼單獨用being會代表被?
    我不太明白為什麼翻譯是— 被“嗅出”

    1. jessie 說道:

      因為前面有 There was 的 was ,所以這邊是 was being smelled out ,我的理解是這樣。就像 There were two people dancing in the classroom. 有兩個人正在教室跳舞。There is 的句型比較特別。

    1. jessie 說道:

      我覺得意思應該是一樣的,文法上也沒問題。下面是 Cambridge Dictionary 上面的例句。至於什麼時候用哪一個我就不知道了,我覺得是應該都可以,沒什麼差別。
      I have to go to San Francisco tomorrow on business.

      1. 張老師 說道:

        We will have to leave early tomorrow.
        這句話中的will多餘的,寫上去反而會出現累贅的錯誤,因為 have to + V,本身已經表達了未來的動作,根本不需要再加上will 。
        這樣的錯誤,類似:
        We must have to go home right now.
        We will be going to leave tomorrow morning.

  2. jessie 說道:

    可以參考一下最下面劍橋字典對於 have to 跟 will have to 的用法的解釋

    在 Oxford Practice Grammar 跟 Longman 的 Grammar Express 這兩本文法書裡面 have to 未來的用法都是 will have to

    We’ll have to do better next time.
    I’ll have to drive tomorrow.
    When will he have to leave?
    (上面三句都是文法書裡面的例子)

    https://dictionary.cambridge.org/zht/%E8%AA%9E%E6%B3%95/%E8%8B%B1%E5%BC%8F%E8%AA%9E%E6%B3%95/have-got-to-and-have-to

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