形容詞基本用法

這是潔西最近在上Grammar Express Basic這本書從裡面整理出來的重點,很適合初級的同學看,例子都盡量簡單易懂。有說到比較級,最高級,形容詞與副詞的比較,還有一些練習,答案直接放在下面,有不懂或有問題的可以問我。

 

我的MacBook Air 買來後在Word裡面沒法用command c, command x, command p這些指令,我頭很大,所以後來改用Mac的Page寫,但是放到Google Docs跟Word檔案時格式大大亂掉,我都快暈倒了,又改了很久。後來想到朋友老公Jeremy教我可以到Word裡面去改鍵盤,成功了,耶!大大感謝Jeremy!大家有空看一下,或者用到有不懂的時候再來看一下囉。加油!我又要很忙去了!

 

對了,最後面有很多練習,參考了Fun with Grammar,Interchange, Touchstone跟其他課本。多多練習啊!有老師要拿來上課用也可以,請注明出處:)

A. 形容詞 Adjectives                                       Jess Lin

  1. 形容詞可以用來描述一個人,動物,地方,事情,來給予一些額外的資訊。

形容詞只可以用來修飾(描述)名詞。

I’m an happy English teacher.

It’s fun to study English.

 

2. 形容詞的位置:

  1. 多放在修飾的名詞的前面

I saw a handsome guy last night.

b. 有少數特定名詞如something, anything,形容詞會放在這些名詞的後面

In North America, brides wear “something old, something new, something

borrowed, and something blue” for good luck.

c. 也可以放在連綴動詞的後面。(連綴動詞在後面P.5,G有說明)

His face turned red.

I’m so busy.

 

3  形容詞本身不會隨著單複數或人稱而有所改變。

I have a beautiful daughter.

She has two beautiful daughters.

 

B. 比較Comparisons:as…as (可以把形容詞改成副詞,用法相同)

  1. as + adjective + as 用來表達兩個名詞是相同的。

Jeremy is as tall as Michael.

 

2. just as + adjective + as可在第一個as前面加just來強調兩者相同。

My father is just as smart as my mother.

 

3. not as + adjective + as 用來表達兩個名詞是不同的,前者的程度不如後者。

My eyes are not as big as my mother’s eyes.

  1. 在第二個as後面可加主格代名詞或受格代名詞。主格比較正式。口語多用受格。

Tom is as tall as me.

Tom is as tall as I.

  1. 語意清楚的時候,第二個的as可以省略掉。

Playing mahjong is really interesting. Playing basketball isn’t as interesting.

 

  1. 比較的時候要注意比較的兩個名詞是可以比較的。

The weather in Taipei isn’t as good as the weather in Tainan.

C. 比較級Comparatives  (可以把形容詞改成副詞,用法相同) Jess Lin

  1. adjective + er/more adjective 形容詞比較級用來比較,表達兩個名詞的不同。

Tainan is cheaper than Taipei.

Taipei is more convenient than Tainan.

 

2. 比較兩個名詞時,第二個名詞前加than。假如語意清楚的時候than可以省略。

He is taller than his brother.

His brother is tall, but he’s taller.

 

3. 比較兩個名詞時,than後面可加主格或受格代名詞。口語多用受格,正式用主格。

My sister is smarter than me.

My sister is smarter than I.

 

  1. 形容詞比較級的字尾變化:
  2. 一個音節的形容詞多在字尾加er來形成比較級。

long-longer, cheap-cheaper, old-older, young-younger, smart- smarter

 

b. 一個音節的形容詞字尾為e時,只要加r來形成比較級。

nice-nicer, safe-safer, wise-wiser

 

c. 一個音節的形容詞字尾為子音加母音加子音時,重複字尾加er來形成比較級。

big-bigger, hot-hotter, thin-thinner, fat-fatter

 

  1. 兩個音節以上的形容詞字尾為y時,多去y加ier來形成比較級。

happy-happier, pretty-prettier, busy-busier, friendly-friendlier

 

  1. 兩個音節以上的形容詞多在前面加more來形成比較級。

careful-more careful, expensive-more expensive,

hardworking-more hardworking

 

  1. 有少數的字有特殊的變化

good-better, bad-worse, far-farther, a little-less,

many/much/a lot of-more

 

 

 

 

 

D. 最高級Superlative (可以把形容詞改成副詞,用法相同)  Jess Lin

  1. the adjective+est/most adjective 最高級可用來比較三個或以上的名詞。

My father is the smartest person in my family.

 

2. 最高級前面一定要有the,後面常常會有限定範圍,如in the world, on earth,

of all等。

Bill Gate is the richest person in the world.

 

3. 最高級常會與現在完成式一起使用,表達到目前為止的經驗。

Paris is the most beautiful place I’ve ever been.

This is the worst food I’ve ever eaten.

 

4. 形容詞最高級的字尾變化:

  1. 一個音節的形容詞多在字尾加est來形成最高級。

long-longest, cheap-cheapest, old-oldest, young-youngest, smart- smartest

 

b. 一個音節的形容詞字尾為e時,只要加st來形成最高級。

nice-nicest, safe-safest, wise-wisest

 

c. 一個音節的形容詞字尾為子音加母音加子音時,重複字尾加est來形成級。

big-biggest, hot-hottest, thin-thinnest, fat-fattest

 

  1. 兩個音節以上的形容詞字尾為y時,多去y加iest來形成最高級。

happy-happiest, pretty-prettiest, busy-busiest, friendly-friendliest

 

  1. 兩個音節以上的形容詞多在前面加most來形成最高級。

careful-most careful, expensive-most expensive,

hardworking-most hardworking

 

  1. 有少數的字有特殊的變化

good-best, bad-worst, far-farthest, a little-least,

many/much/a lot of-most

 

 

 

 

 

 

E. 形容詞與very, too, enough                            Jess Lin

  1. very, too, enough這三個副詞可以用來修飾形容詞。

This cellphone is very expensive.

These shoes are too small for me.

That shirt is big enough.

2. very非常…,表示程度上更強烈。

It’s raining hard. The roads are very wet.

My new sofa is very comfortable.

3. too太…,跟not enough不夠,表示有問題,有狀況。

This cellphone is too expensive for me.

It isn’t cheap enough.

  1. enough足夠的,跟not too不太…表示沒有問題。

That cellphone is cheap enough.

It’s not too expensive.

  1. very, too放在修飾的形容詞前,enough放在修飾的形容詞後。

He’s in a very good mood.

I’m not too worried.

My life is good enough. I can’t complain.

F. 形容詞跟副詞Adjectives and Adverbs

  1. 形容詞用來描述修飾名詞,多放在名詞前跟連綴動詞後。

She is wearing a beautiful orange dress.

I feel sick.

2. 副詞用來描述修飾動詞,形容詞,副詞,整個句子,但是不可以用來修飾名詞。

常放在修飾的動詞的後面,修飾的形容詞的前面。修飾整個句子時可以放最前面

或最後面。

He speaks English fluently.

He’s a very good dancer.

They won the game easily.

3.很多的形容詞字尾加ly會變成副詞。

careful-carefully, nice-nicely

He moved carefully.

4.但是有些ly結尾的字是形容詞。

friendly, lonely, lovely, lively, ugly, silly

Don’t be silly.

5.有些字的形容詞跟副詞是同一個字。

early, late, daily, fast, wrong, hard

He runs fast.

He is a fast runner.

6.hard當形容詞跟當副詞意思不同。

It’s a hard question. (difficult)

They work hard. ( work a lot)

7. good是形容詞,用來修飾名詞。well是副詞,用來修飾動詞。

He is a good basketball player.

He plays basketball well.

 

G. 連綴動詞Linking Verbs

英文的動詞可分及物動詞,不及物動詞,還有連綴動詞。

  1. 及物動詞後面一定要加受詞。如 I have a brother. 的have,後面一定要加受詞(名詞)。

2. 不及物動詞後面不加受詞。如Time flies. 的fly這個字後面不加任何受詞 (名詞)。

3. 連綴動詞是比較特殊的動詞,它用來連接主詞跟補語,補語可以用來描述describe或說明主詞。補語可以是1. 名詞  2. 形容詞  3. 介系詞片語

4. 同一個單字可能會有不同的意思,所以可能同時有及物或不及物的用法,可能也同時俱有連綴動詞的用法,要特別注意的是意思不同,用法也會不同。多查字典比較不會錯:)

 

常見連綴動詞:be, seem, become, remain, feel, smell, taste, look, sound, get, go, turn

This is funny.

It seems impossible.

Tom became my best friend.

Despite the scandal, he remained president.

I feel great!

The food doesn’t smell good.

It tasted terrible.

The future is looking good.

That sounds exciting.

Let’s get ready.

I’ll go crazy if I have to wait.

She turned pale.

 

下面都是練習的部分,同學可以自己多練習。

H. Use the clues below to make sentences. 

Ex: Your legs are shorter than my legs.

 

my legs

your legs  (short)

History 歷史

Math  數學 (interesting)

the weather in Kaohsiung

the weather in Taipei (bad)

comics 漫畫

novels 小說 (funny)

grammar 文法

spelling  拼字(difficult)

men

women (smarter)

e-mail

letter (convenient)

old shoes

new shoes (comfortable)

a cat

a dog (friendly)

SpongeBob

Hello Kitty (cute)

winter

summer (good)

taking the MRT

taking the bus (fast)

a motorcycle

a bicycle (expensive)

reading a book

watching a movie (exciting刺激的)

English

Japanese (useful)

staying in a guest house 民宿

staying in a hotel (cheap)

a chocolate bar

an apple (fattening讓人發胖的)

your father

your mother (heavy)

 

I. Fill in the blanks with superlatives and answer the questions.

  1. Who has the ___________(big) eyes in this class?
  2. Who’s the ___________(rich) person in the world?
  3. Who’s wearing the ________(stylish時髦的) clothes in class today?
  4. Who’s the ____________(funny) cartoon character?
  5. Who’s the _____________(young) person in your family?
  6. Who’s the _____________(famous) person in Taiwan?
  7. What’s the _______________(bad) problem in Taipei?
  8. Who’s the ______________ (intelligent聰明的) person in your family?
  9. Who’s the _______________(happy) person you know?
  10. What’s the ______________(cute) animal?

 

1. Who has the ____biggest_______(big) eyes in this class?

2.Who’s the _richest__________(rich) person in the world?

3.Who’s wearing the ___most stylish_____(stylish時髦的) clothes in class today?

4.Who’s the ________funniest____(funny) cartoon character?

5.Who’s the ______youngest_______(young) person in your family?

6.Who’s the ___most famous__________(famous) person in Taiwan?

7.What’s the __worse_____________(bad) problem in Taipei?

8.Who’s the ____most intelligent_______ (intelligent聰明的) person in your family?

9.Who’s the ___happiest____________(happy) person you know?

  1. What’s the __cutest____________(cute) animal?

 

J. What is the most beautiful mountain in the world?

I think Mount Fuji is the most beautiful.

  1. Which city is ________:Tokyo, Moscow, or Hong Kong? (expensive)
  2. Which city is __________, Hong Kong or Cairo? (crowded)
  3. Which country is ________, Monaco or Vatican City? (small)?
  4. What is ________ river in the world, the Nile or the Amazon?(long)
  5. Which waterfall is _________, Niagara Falls or Angle Falls? (high)
  6. What is __________ ocean in the world, the Pacific or the Atlantic? (deep)
  7. Which lake is ________, the Caspian Sea or Lake Superior? (large)
  8. Which is ________: Jade Mountain, Mount Everest, or Mount Fuji? (high)

 

  1. Which city is _the most expensive ____:Tokyo, Moscow, or Hong Kong? (expensive)
  2. Which city is _more crowded_________, Hong Kong or Cairo? (crowded)
  3. Which country is __smaller______, Monaco or Vatican City? (small)?
  4. What is __the longest______ river in the world, the Nile or the Amazon?(long)
  5. Which waterfall is __higher_______, Niagara Falls or Angle Falls? (high)
  6. What is _the deepest_________ ocean in the world, the Pacific or the Atlantic? (deep)
  7. Which lake is ____larger____, the Caspian Sea or Lake Superior? (large)
  8. Which is __the highest______: Jade Mountain, Mount Everest, or Mount Fuji? (high)

 

 

 

K.  Riddle

Use the following riddle as a model to make your own riddles.

It is bigger than a baseball.

It is as round as the moon.

It is as orange as a carrot.

It is as hard as a melon.

It is not as sweet as fruit.

Answer: A pumpkin.

 

 

 

L. Choose from the list to write 10 comparisons using the either comparative or superlative forms.

1. bad   2. beautiful   3. busy   4. funny  5. good  6. handsome  7. messy  8. new  9. nice  10. noisy   11. old   12 quiet   13. rich  14. serious  15. short   16. tall  17. tasty  18. ugly  19. wise  20. wonderful  21. young  22. comfortable  23. interesting  24. happy   25. dirty  26. soft  27. sweet  28. attractive  29. slow  30. big

 

 

Possible topics:

two fast-food restaurants

two famous people

two cars

two animals

two convenience stores

two brands of soda

 

 

M. Answer the following questions.

  1. What is the most dangerous neighborhood in Taipei? What is the most convenient? What is the most crowded?
  2. What is the most traditional place in Taiwan? What is the most traditional neighborhood in Taipei? What is the most modern?
  3. What is the most beautiful place in Taiwan? Have you been there?
  4. Where are the best hot springs in Taiwan? Have you been there?
  5. What is the most expensive thing you have? How much did it cost?
  6. What is the tastiest food in Taipei? Where can you buy it?
  7. What is the longest river in Taiwan? What is the highest mountain in Taiwan?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

N. Comparatives Practice

How would you compare “A” and “B”?

 

A B A B
the MRT buses Taiwan China
men women the city the country
coffee tea dogs cats
7-11 Family Mart yesterday today
English French houses apartments
single life married life motorcycles bicycles
TV news online news your father your mother
London New York novels 小說 comics 漫畫
Japanese food Italian food summer winter
talking on the phone chatting online McDonald’s KFC

 

 

A: How would you compare single life and married life?

B: I think single life is happier than married life. What do you think?

A: Well, I don’t agree. I think married life is much better because you have

someone to do things with, to share your happiness幸福 and sorrow憂傷

with, and to be there for you when you need him/her.

 

O. Comparatives Questions

  1. Are motorcycles faster than bicycles? Yes, motorcycles are faster than bicycles.
  2. Is Taipei quieter than Tainan(台南)? No, Tainan is quieter.
  3. Are guns more dangerous than knives? No, guns are as dangerous as knives.
  4. Are women noisier than men? Yes, women are noisier than men.
  5. Are you happier than before? Why? Yes, I’m much happier than before because my job is less stressful.
  6. Are your shoes more expensive than mine? No, I think my shoes are cheaper.
  7. Do you prefer the city or the country? I like the country better.
  8. Do you prefer the MRT or the bus? Why? I prefer the MRT. It’s faster and more convenient.
  9. Is Rome more modern than New York? No, New York is more modern.
  10. Is Taiwan bigger than Japan? No, Japan is much bigger than Taiwan.
  11. Is the air quality (空氣品質) in Taipei better than the air quality in Kaohsiung? I think the air quality is Taipei is as bad as the air quality in Kaohsiung.
  12. Is the traffic in Taipei worse than the traffic in I-lan? Yes, the traffic is worse in Taipei.
  13. Is today hotter than yesterday? Yes, it’s hotter than yesterday.
  14. Is chatting with strangers陌生人 online more exciting than talking to friends on the phone?

I guess so. I can talk to people from all around the world and get to know a lot of new things.

15.Is your bedroom cleaner than the classroom? Of course, my bedroom is much cleaner.

16.Is English more difficult than Chinese? Yes, English is much more difficult.

 

 

 

 

 


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