名詞概要

睡得不好,粉累呢。這裡是原本有發表過,但修改增添的一些名詞的基本用法,可數,不可數,單數,複數,主動詞一致,複數名詞變化,計量詞,冠詞a, an, the, 數量詞some, a few, a little等這些。希望應該有比較容易懂。呵呵。繼續備課去。加油!Google Docs連結一樣在最後。

名詞 Nouns                                     Jessie Lin   P.1

                                  jessielinhuiching.wordpress.com

 1.   一般名詞與專有名詞Common Nouns and Proper Nouns

一般名詞:英文的名詞可用來表達一般的人事物,如father, love, book

專有名詞:專有名詞則是表達特定人事物的名稱,第一個字母要大寫,

如:Tom, Taipei, Rolex。

一個字可以是一般名詞也可以是專有名詞,專有名詞時才要大寫。

I work in a hospital.

I work at National Taiwan University Hospital.

 

2.   可數名詞與不可數名詞 Count Nouns and Non-count Nouns

可數名詞:一些可以很容易數的名詞,如:an apple, two eggs

不可數名詞:有些名詞通如液體,氣體,粒狀,粉狀或抽象概念等,

難以一一計算的名詞。如:water, air, rice, flour。

有些字可以為可數也可以為不可數名詞,但是意義不同。

可數名詞:  fish魚,room房間,light電燈

不可數名詞:fish魚肉,room空間,light燈光

  

   不可數名詞

 常見種類

  1. 一些相似的物件的總稱。如:furniture, baggage, luggage, food, fruit, clothing, garbage, junk, equipment, machine, jewelry, mail, money, traffic
  2. 液體:water, coffee, tea, milk, soup, juice, beer, oil, gasoline, blood
  3. 固體:ice, bread, butter, cheese, meat, glass, paper, wood, wool
  4. 氣體:air, oxygen, carbon dioxide, smoke, pollution, smog
  5. 粒狀,粉狀物(particles):rice, corn, diet, flour, salt, sand, sugar
  6. 抽象概念:love, beauty, confidence, health, education, knowledge, music, advice, information, time, space, progress, peace, sleep, help
  7. 大自然現象:weather, rain, snow, thunder, lightning, sunshine, fire, heat

 

  名詞 Nouns                                     Jessie Lin   P.2

3.   單數與複數 Singular and Plural

可數名詞:

單數:可數名詞數量只有一個時後就是單數。單數可數名詞通常

不會單獨存在,前面一定要加a, an, the, this, my等。

I have a dog.

My dog is very cute.

複數:可數名詞的數量有兩個以上的就是複數。複數的前面可以

加數量詞,定冠詞the等或不加,後面會加s或es表複數。

There are twenty students in my class.

I ate two hamburgers and some French fries for lunch.

不可數名詞:

單數:不可數名詞因為不可數,所以視為整體,永遠是單數,但

是前面不可以加a,an,但可以加the, this, my等。因為是

單數,所以後面一定不可以加s。要數不可數名詞是通常會

在前面加上容器,單位計量詞等來數。

I like coffee.

I drink three cups of coffee every day.

英文有少數幾個字可以是可數也可以是不可數名詞。當可數時就要用可數名

詞的規則,當不可數的時候就用不可數的規則。

I’d like a coffee, please.        Can I have an ice cream?

I can’t live without coffee.     Chocolate ice cream is my favorite.

 

4.   動詞接續與主動詞一致

可數名詞單數與不可數名詞單數當主詞時,後面必須接單數動詞。

可數名詞複數當主詞時候面要加複數動詞。

An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

Coffee is good for your health.

The books on the table are mine.

特別注意有些字尾為s的名詞,可能接單數動詞也可能接複數動詞。

clothes, pants, jeans, scissors這些字複數名詞,沒有單數,後面接複數名詞。

news, politics, mathematics, measles這些字為不可數名詞,後面接單數動詞。

means, species, series, 這些字單複數同型,可以當單數,也可以當複數。

 

  

名詞 Nouns                                     Jessie Lin   P.3

  1. 集合名詞

有些字表達的是集合了多數人或物體的集合,稱為集合名詞。集合名詞為人時,多為可數,如一個班級 a class,一個家庭 a family,一群觀眾 an audience,當把所有人視為一個整體時接單數動詞,重點放在所有的每個成員時則接複數動詞。也會有例外。而美式英語多把集合動詞接單數動詞。表達人的集合名詞如:family, team, club, class, crew, audience, committee,

group, staff, police, personnel, … 等。

事物或抽象概念的集合名詞則多為不可數。如:furniture, baggage, luggage,

clothing, jewelry, music, poetry, food, … 等。

The Lin Family has its farm. 視為整體,所以用單數動詞

My family are all baseball fans. 表達全家人,用複數動詞

例外:police這個字永遠當複數,所以不可以說a police要用a police officer

The police are looking for the robber.

staff在美式英語只可接單數動詞,不可說a staff要用 a staff member

The entire staff has done an outstanding job this year.

The personnel have done an outstanding job this year.

The employees have done an outstanding job this year.

The employee has done an outstanding job this year.

 

名詞 Nouns                                     Jessie Lin   P.4

6.   可數名詞的複數變化

A. 大部分的名詞在字尾加s。(初學者可先記A,B,C,D,G就可)

stamp-stamps, letter-letters, camera-cameras, ticket-tickets

B. 當名詞字尾是s, ss, sh, ch, x, z時,則加es。

bus-buses, class-classes, dish-dishes, watch-watches, box-boxes,

quiz-quizzes

C. 當名詞字尾為子音加y時,需將y去掉,加ies。

baby-babies, country-countries, city-cities, party-parties

D. 當名詞字尾為母音加y時,則只要加s,即可。

day-days, boy-boys, key-keys, tray-trays

E. 當名詞字尾為fe或f時,需將fe或f去掉,加ves。

wife-wives, life-lives, wolf-wolves, leaf-leaves

F. 有些名詞字尾為f,但是只要加s。

belief-beliefs, chief-chiefs, cliff-cliffs, roof-roofs

G. 當名詞字尾為子音加o時,需加es。母音加o時,則只要加s即可。

這個規則有例外,不確定時最好查字典。有些字如zeros, zeroes兩者都可。

tomato-tomatoes, potato-potatoes, zoo-zoos, radio-radios

H.有些名詞複數的變化是不規則的,需特別記住。

child-children, person-people, woman-women, mouse-mice

I.有些字的單複數同型

one deer-two deer, one fist-two fish, one means-two means,

one series-two series, one species-two species

J.有些自是外來字,複數字尾變化比較特別。

criterion-criteria, phenomenon-phenomena, fungus-fungi,

stimulus-stimuli, analysis-analyses, basis-bases, crisis-crises,

hypothesis-hypotheses, thesis-theses, bacterium-bacteria,

datum-data, medium-media, memorandum-memoranda

 

 

發音規則

a.當名詞字尾是無聲子音如/k/, /p/, /t/,/θ/時,加s後,應讀做/s/。

book-books, lake-lakes, map-maps, student-students, month-months

b.當名詞字尾是有聲子音如/r/, /n/, /l/,/d/等或母音時,加s後,應讀做/z/。

car-cars, pen-pens, hole-holes, hand-hands, law, laws, day-days

c.當名詞字尾為/s/, /z/, / ʃ /, / tʃ /, / dʒ /時,加s後,應讀做/ ɪz/。要注意的是,看的是最後一個音,而非最後一個字母,如place就是這一類。

bus-buses, house-houses, quiz-quizzes, dish-dishes, watch-watches, page-pages

 

名詞 Nouns                                     Jessie Lin   P.5

7.   計量詞Measure Words

不可數名詞:要數不可數名詞的時候常會用一些計量詞measure words,比方說形狀shapes,份量portions,容器containers,計量單位measurements來數。

單數:用a+計量詞+of+不可數名詞,如:a glass of wine

複數:在計量單位前加數量,計量單位字尾加s,如:two glasses of wine

形狀:a loaf of bread, a bar of candy

份量:a slice of bread, a piece of cake, a bowl of soup,

容器:a can of beans, a bottle of milk, a container of yogurt

計量單位:a teaspoon of salt, a pound of sugar

可數名詞也可以用計量單位來數。這時候用的都會是複數名詞,字尾要加s。表達兩個以上的數量時,則計量詞跟複數名詞都要加s。

單數:用a+計量詞+of+可數複數名詞,如:a pound of apples

複數:在計量單位前加數量,計量單位字尾加s,複數名詞加s。

如:two pounds of apples

注意:計量詞後面一定要有of。

 

 

名詞 Nouns                                     Jessie Lin   P.6

8.   冠詞Articles

不定冠詞a, an

a加在字首為子音的名詞前:a dog, a meal, a phone, a uniform

an加在字首為母音發音的名詞前:an orange, an umbrella, an honor

要表達可數單數名詞只有一個時可以在前面加a或an。a加在子音為首的單字前,an加在母音為字首的單字前。母音字母有五個a,e,i,o,u。一般可以看字首的字母來決定加a或an,但是會有少數字母會不發音如: an hour,或可能是不發音,或有些母音字母可能發子音的音,如:a university。些字母可能不發音或是發子音的音,所以還是要依照發音來決定。

 

定冠詞the

定冠詞the常用來表示限定的,特定的人事物。可以加可數單數名詞,可數複數名詞或不可數名詞。

1.用the表示特定的人事物。用a,an 表一般,沒有特定。

He is a teacher.

He is the teacher I met last night.

2.當我們提到一個名詞的第一次時常會用a, an,再一次提到的時候因為彼此都知道了,所以是特定的,就會用the。

I’m reading a book. The book is very interesting.

3.當一個名詞是獨一無二的時前面會加the

The moon goes round the earth, and the earth goes round the sun.

4.當說話對象彼此都知道所提到的東西時

It’s too dark. Can you turn on the light.

5.當提到一個系統system或服務service時前面用the

He’s talking on the phone.

Please turn off the radio.

注意:單數可數名詞不可以單獨存在,前面一定要加上a, an, the, 所有格形容詞如:my, your, Tom’s等。

He’s a neighbor.

He’s the neighbor.

He’s our neighbor.

 

名詞 Nouns                                     Jessie Lin   P.7

9.   數量詞Quantifiers

數量詞有點小複雜,因為有些只可以用在可數名詞,有些只可以用在不可數名詞,有些又可以用在可數跟不可數。有些會用在肯定句,有些只會用在否定句跟疑問句。把用法整理用表格表現就相當的易懂。many, much在口語多用在否定跟疑問,在寫作或比較正式的時候也會用many, much在肯定句。

可數名詞: few, a few, many, a lot of, some, any

不可數名詞 little, a little, much, a lot of, some, any

肯定句:few, a few, little, a little, a lot of, some

疑問句:many, much, a lot of, any

否定句:many, much, any

肯定句 否定句
可數複數名詞 I have few books.I have a few books.

I have some books.

I have a lot of books.

I don’t have many books.I don’t have any books.
不可數單數名詞 I have little money.I have a little money.

I have some money.

I have a lot of money.

I don’t have much money.I don’t have any money.
Yes/No問句 WH問句
可數複數名詞 Do you have a lot of books?Do you have any books? How many books do you have?
不可數單數名詞 Do you have a lot of money?Do you have any money?

 

How much money do you have?

肯定句可數名詞:few, a few, a lot of, some

There are a few students here.

肯定句不可數名詞:little, a little, a lot of, some

I have a little time before class.

否定句可數名詞:many, a lot of, any

He doesn’t have many friends.

否定句不可數名詞:much, a lot of, any

I don’t have any time.

疑問句可數名詞:many, a lot of, any

How many books did you buy?

Did you buy a lot of books?

Did you buy any books?

疑問句不可數名詞:much, a lot of, any

How many money did you spend?

Did you spend a lot of money?

Did you have any money left?

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