情態動詞的過去式 Past Modals

一定要念一下,出書的人真太了不起了。潔西打這一小篇,才兩頁,就花了我三個小時!打字不用三小時,不過當然要一邊翻一堆文法書,一邊想說怎麼樣才可以說的同學很容易懂,然後找一堆簡單易懂的例子,再找練習的習題。而且就覺得要一鼓作氣寫完,不然就難產了。總之現在超餓的,先吃飯去。大家看看這有點難的情態助動詞的過去式,有問題再問我囉。

 

情態助動詞就是什麼can, could, might, may, would這些令人頭大的助動詞,在英文可以用來表示能力,請求,忠告等等。文法書上常常把一堆助動詞放在一起,超多的,大家看得頭都昏了,而他們的過去式用法如 would have + V3 (past participle過去分詞),更是讓大部份同學一個頭兩個大。因所以潔西這次挑出常用情態助動詞的過去式那種有could/might/would have + V3的那種,把他們放在一起,希望比較容易讓同學理解。

因為這句型本身就挺複雜的,實在很難簡單說得清。潔西一直想說要來整理助動詞都沒時間,剛好明天要教這不是普通難的情態助動詞的過去式,趁機整理一下,造福大家(希望有,呵呵)。這個部分雖然不容易,但也不是學不會,需要多花點時間。就像潔西常常說的,學文法第一個重點要理解,懂了用法,用在哪裡,再來要把forms格式也就是句型記住,再來呢多做練習。接下來多觀察留心什麼時候看到聽到這些用法,然後自己再把這個用法練習用出來,這樣才有真正學會喔。同學也可以學潔西這樣看看文法書,自己整理筆記重點,或者用自己的方法把重點整理在筆記本,自己造符合自己的句子,這樣印像才會深刻!Practice makes perfect! 大家加油!

 

1 動詞 1.3.1 助動詞 情態助動詞過去式

助動詞過去式Past Modals

A.  Unreal Conditionals

假設語氣的過去式,表達跟過去事實相反的假設時,在結論的句子會用語態助動詞的過去式來表達。可以用would have, could have(=would have been able to), might have (=would perhaps have)。句型如下

If + S + had + V3, S + would + have  + V3. (過去)

1. If you had worked harder, you would have passed your exam.

假如過去用功點,你會通過考試。事實:你沒用功,所以考試沒過。

2. If he had run a bit faster, he could have won.

假如他跑得快一點,他可能會贏了。事實:他跑得不夠快,所以他輸了。

3. If she had gone to college, she might have become a designer.

假如她上大學,她或許會成為一個設計師。事實:她沒上大學,她沒當設計師。

a. We ________________ (get) better tickets if we _____________(book) earlier.

b. If you __________________ (not spend) so much time making up, we __________________ (not be) late.

c. You _______________ (not catch) a cold if you _________________ (take) your coat.

 

B.  Advisability in the Past 

某些語態助動詞的過式可用來表示過去應該做卻沒有做的事,通常用在後悔或責怪的狀況

  1. I should have applied to college.  我當初應該去申請大學的。(但我沒有)
  2. I could have become a doctor.  我後來可能會成為醫生的。(但我沒有)
  3. My parents might have encouraged me. 我爸媽當時或許可以鼓勵我的。(但他們沒有)
  4. I shouldn’t have missed that opportunity. 我那時不該錯過那個機會。(但我錯過了)
練習
a. I feel sick. I ate all the chocolate.  (should) ___________________________
b. Christina didn’t come over. She didn’t even call. (might) ___________________
c. I didn’t have enough money to buy the shirt. Why didn’t Ed offer to lend me some? (could) ________________________________

C. Speculations about the Past

表達對於過去的推測,可以用語態助動詞的過去式。我們通常基於現有的事實來推測過去,助動詞的選擇就必須看我們對於過去可能會發生的是有多確定。

肯定                               100% certain             否定

must have                                                       can’t have

had to have                                                     couldn’t have

may have                                                         must not have

might have                                                      may not have

could have                                                       might not have

0% certain

1. 非常確定的時候就用must have, had to have

So you went to Australia. That must have been nice.

2. 不是那麼確定的時候用may have, might have, could have

I may have left my keys here this morning—have you seen them?

3. 幾乎可以確定是絕對不可能的時候用can’t have, couldn’t have

Where is she? She can’t have gone out –the door’s locked.

4. 有點不是那麼確定絕對不可能的時候用must not have

Sorry. I must not have heard you clearly.

5. 不是相當確定不可能發生時用may not have, might not have

Poor people five hundred years ago might not have had easy lives.

a. Shakespeare ________________ (be) to Australia because it hadn’t been discovered.

b. Tom was absent yesterday. He _____________ (be) sick. He ___________ (go to a movie).

c. She _______________ (leave) very quietly – I didn’t hear her go.

d. Lisa didn’t eat her favorite ice cream. She ____________________ (feel) well.

 

 

練習解答

A.  Unreal Conditionals

a. We ________________ (get) better tickets if we _____________(book) earlier.

We could have gotten better tickets if we had booked earlier.

b. If you __________________ (not spend) so much time making up, we __________________ (not be) late.

If you had not spent so much time making up, we wouldn’t have been late.

c. You _______________ (not catch) a cold if you _________________ (take) your coat.

You might not have caught a cold if you had taken your coat.

B.  Advisability in the Past 

a. I feel sick. I ate all the chocolate.  (should) ___________________________

I should not have eaten all the chocolate.

b. Christina didn’t come over. She didn’t even call. (might) ___________________

She might have called.

c. I didn’t have enough money to buy the shirt. Why didn’t Ed offer to lend me some? (could) ________________________________

He could have offered to lend me some money.

C. Speculations about the Past

a. Shakespeare ________________ (be) to Australia because it hadn’t been discovered.

Shakespeare can’t have been to Australia because it hadn’t been discovered.

b. Tom was absent yesterday. He _____________ (be) sick. He ___________ (go to a movie).

Tom was absent yesterday. He could have been sick. He might have gone to a movie.

c. She _______________ (leave) very quietly – I didn’t hear her go.

She must have left very quietly – I didn’t hear her go.

d. Lisa didn’t eat her favorite ice cream. She ____________________ (feel) well.

Lisa didn’t eat her favorite ice cream. She might have not felt well.

 

最後,假如引用請注明出處,感恩!

例題參考

Grammar Express   Fuchs/Bonner   Longman

How English Works  Swan & Walter   Oxford

Oxford Practice Grammar John Eastwood   Oxford

Understanding and Using English Grammar Betty Schrampfer Azar   Longman

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18 thoughts on “情態動詞的過去式 Past Modals

  1. 匿名 says:

    Hello Jessie,
    如果下面有一句是:
    She could have taken the earlier train.
    這個我是要用 B. Advisability in the Past (表示責怪) 或是 C. Speculations about the Past(對過去的猜測)呢,請問這種句子出來大概要怎麼判斷呢。

    B. 我的想法是,這個人可能遲到了。老闆責怪她說,你可以搭早一點的火車。
    C. 我的想法是,對過去的推測。她可能搭了早點的火車了。

    那一個才是對的呢^_^

    1. jessie says:

      句子的意思通常是要看前後文context來決定意思。

      同意的句子在不同前後文或語調下,有時候意思也會不同。

      判斷的話就是看前後文的意思。

      She was an hour late. She could have taken the train, but she didn’t. 她遲到一個小時。她可以搭早一點的車,但是她沒有。

      I went to the station to pick her up, but I didn’t see her. She could have taken the earlier train. 我去車站要接她,但沒看到她。她可能搭早點的車。

      都可以,就看前後文來決定意思:)

  2. 匿名 says:

    Hello, 您這篇文章讓我受益良多,想再次請問下面這個

    3. 幾乎可以確定是絕對不可能的時候用can’t have, couldn’t have
    Where is she? She can’t have gone out –the door’s locked.

    因為這句是現在式的對話,我們不能將 can 改成過去式的could嗎?這個句子應該是錯的吧?
    Where is she? She couldn’t have gone out –the door’s locked.

    我現在的理解大概是如下:
    can’t have 我們通常基於"現在"否定的事實來推測過去
    couldn’t have 我們通常基於"過去"否定的事實來推測過去

    每次看到情態助動詞的部份,真的好容易搞混…如果我的觀念有錯,請跟我說 🙂

    1. jessie says:

      你的理解不對,因為你可以再看一下文章的部分,can’t have done something跟couldn’t have done something 在這裡的用法是一樣的喔,並沒有差別。所以She can’t have gone out. 跟 She couldn’t have gone out. 在英文的意思是一模一樣的。

      情態助動詞真的是令人昏倒的,我自己也覺得他們很複雜很混淆啊!

      Understanding and Using English Grammar 上有一個很不錯的表格,我再來找時間把它翻譯放上來,只是很討厭的是表格放上來都會亂掉,我來試試看,不然我會附pdf檔,就點進去就好了。加油,這,真的有難啊!

    1. jessie says:

      過去簡單式的時間跟現在完成式的時間?這兩個時態可以共用的時間副詞有不少,有些時態的時間跟副詞都可以共用的。
      現在完成比較特別的時候主要是強調過去發生的事但跟現在相關,所以一般指的過去到現在這段時間或過去不確定的時間。
      She ate a sandwich this morning.
      I have had three cups of coffee this morning.

      文章上有寫是用來表示跟過去事實相反,過去該做沒做,過去的推測。英文只要上一秒就是過去了。所以就是過去的時間,應該不用想的太複雜,我是這麼覺得的:)

  3. 匿名 says:

    妳好,請問一下…That would have been the mailman just now; I found some new mail in the box.

    剛剛應該是郵差,我看到信箱裡有新郵件。(請問這樣翻譯可以嗎??)謝謝.

    1. jessie says:

      I should have applied to college. 這句成通常用在事後早知如此,這樣子的用法,當時沒申請,現在後悔已經來不及了,早知道就該申請大學。

      I should apply to college. 這句則是我應該要申請大學。通常是還沒申請,覺得應該要申請。

      I was late for work this morning. I should have gone to bed earlier last night. 我早上上班遲到。我昨天晚上應該早點睡的。(但實際上我是晚睡。)

      I have a meeting tomorrow morning morning. I should go to bed early tonight. 我明天早上有個會議。我今天晚上應該要早點睡。(還沒發生,可能早睡也可能晚睡。)

      大概是這樣的概念。情態動詞真的是有點難啊!加油:)

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