8.1.7 Writing Academic English WB

WB L9 Unit 10 Types of Sentences

WB L9 Chapter 10 Types of Sentences                         Jess    P.1

Chapter 11 Using parallel Structures and Fixing Sentence problems

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A. 文章的元素

letter    字母   b             英文有二十六個"字母"

word     單字   book          一個或一個以上的字母組合就形成單字

phrase   片語   English grammar

兩個以上的單字就形成片語,有動詞、名詞、形容詞片語等。

clause    子句

independent clause 獨立子句     Jessie is interested in English grammar.

dependent clause  非獨立子句

noun clause  名詞子句      that Jessie is interested in English grammar

adjective clause 形容詞子句 who is interested in English grammar

adverb clause  副詞子     because Jessie is interested in English grammar

子句是由主詞,動詞,還有其他必要部份所組合成,是句子的組成要素。

子句可分為獨立子句跟非獨立子句兩種。

獨立子句有一組主詞與動詞與其他必要部分,語意完整。本身就是一個句子。

非獨立子句是由一個從屬連接詞起首帶領的子句,也有一組主詞與動詞,

非獨立子句又分為名詞子句,形容詞子句,跟副詞子句三種。

sentence  句子

All Jessie’s friends know that she is interested in English grammar.

Jessie, who is interested in English grammar, is my best friend.

Because Jessie is interested in English grammar, she studies it all the time.

一個子句本身的語意完整時叫獨立子句,可以自己成為一個句子,可單獨存在。

非獨立子句的本身語意不完整,只能當作名詞,形容詞跟動詞用,不能單獨存在。

所以非獨立子句一定要加上一個獨立子句來讓語義完整,而形成一個句子。

paragraph 段落  幾個句子就形成一個段落。每個段落都有一個主旨,短的段落可能只有一句,長的可以到十句或更多。常見的段落模式如下

topic sentence       主題句,用來說明段落大意

supporting sentences 支持句,用來闡述說明主題

concluding sentence  結論句,用來結尾

essay     文章   幾個有組織的段落就形成一篇文章

WB L9 Chapter 10 Types of Sentences                         Jess    P.2

B. 句子的種類 types of sentences

英文的句子主要有四個種類

1.     簡單句 simple sentences

English grammar is interesting.

簡單句是一個獨立子句,有一個或一組的主詞跟動詞。

2.    並合句 compound sentences

English grammar is interesting, so I can spend hours studying it.

English grammar is interesting; therefore, I can spend hours studying it.

English grammar is interesting; I spend hours studying it.

並合句是將兩個獨立子句合併在一起。方式有三種,第一用對等連接詞,或是用分號加上一個連接副詞,或是直接用分號將句子合併。

3.    複合句 complex sentences

All Jessie’s friends know that she is interested in English grammar.

Jessie, who is interested in English grammar, is my best friend.

Because Jessie is interested in English grammar, she studies it all the time.

複合句是結合一個獨立子句跟一個非獨立子句如名詞子句,形容詞子句,副詞。

4.    混合句 compound-complex sentences

Because grammar is easy, I learned it quickly, but it took me several

years to master writing.

混合句是結合了兩個獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句所形成。

WB L9 Chapter 10 Types of Sentences                         Jess    P.3

C. 平行結構Parallelism

英文在描述兩個或兩個以上的項目時,不管是表達相等或對立的概念,常會用一些連接詞將各項目連結在一起。這些所連結的項目的詞性或文法結構都必須是一致的。假如第一各項目是名詞,其他用來做比較或列舉的項目就都應該用名詞,子句就全部都子句。這就叫做平行結構。

非平行結構的句子

My English conversation class is made up of Chinese, Spaniards, and some are from Korea.

The students who do well attend class, they do their homework, and practice speaking in English.

The teacher wanted to know which country we came from and out future goals.

The language skills of the students in the evening classes are the same as the day classes.

平行結構中有配對的對等連接詞如both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also等時,應該把連結的兩個項目放在這些配對連接詞的前面,前後的詞性文法結構必須一致。

Many people are neither concerned about pollutants nor worried about their future impact.

At the present time, air pollution is controlled through laws passed not only to reduce the pollutants at their sources but also to set up acceptable standards of air quality.

D. 常見的句子問題Sentence Problems

1. 不完整句子Fragments

一個完整的句子需要有主詞跟動詞,寫每個句子時都確定能找出正確的主詞跟動詞。寫複合句時特別注意除了名詞,形容詞,副詞字句外,應該有一個獨立子句來讓句子完整。

Because some students work part-time while taking a full load of classes.

By respecting other passengers’ personal space to show some courtesy.

WB L9 Chapter 10 Types of Sentences                         Jess    P.4

D. 常見的句子問題Sentence Problems

2. 錯誤連結句子 Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices

一個句子當中假如有兩個以上的獨立子句,卻沒有用適當的連結詞連接時,就叫做run-on sentence。用逗號把兩個獨立子句連結起來時就叫做comma splices。這兩個都是常見的錯誤句子。

My family went to Australia then they emigrated to Canada.

My family went to Australia, then they emigrated to Canada.

3. 簡短句 Choppy Sentences

簡短的句子有時會顯得相當有力,然而過度使用簡短的句子通常被認為是不好的寫作風格。這時候應該把句子結合成為並合句或複合句就可以改善。改成並合句或複合句須按照句子的意思,假如兩個句子是相等的,改成並合句。假如兩個句子的關係是一個比另一個重要,那麼就改為複合句,重要的部份應為獨立子句。

Wind is an enduring source of power. Water is also an unlimited energy source. Dams produce hydraulic power. They have existed for a long time. Windmills are relatively new.

We must find new sources of energy. Natural sources of energy are decreasing. Solar energy is a promising new source of energy. Solar energy is energy from the sun.

4. 過長的句子Stringy Sentences

過長的句子指的是一個句子中有太多的子句,用了很多的and, but, so, because等連接詞。口語可以這樣說,但是寫作的時候應該分成幾組,正確的組合子句,改成適當的句子。

He enrolled in an intermediate English class, but he found it too easy, so he dropped it, and he signed up for the advanced class.

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