WB L1 Chapter 1 Paragraph Structure 段落架構

 

WB L1  Chapter 1 Paragraph Structure 段落架構 Jess     P.1

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A. 段落的架構 Paragraph Structure

1.  段落定義

一個英文的段落是ㄧ些句子的組合,這個組合表達一個主旨。段落本身

是完整的,也可能同時為文章中的一部份。

2. 段落的外觀

段落的開頭要留幾個空格,叫縮格(indentation),用來表示段落的開始。

3. 段落與文章的不同

段落是文章的一部份,幾個句子組合成段落,幾個段落組合成一篇文章。

4. 段落的長度

段落不能太長也不能太短,約為八到十二句。不應短到無法充分解釋主旨,也不能長到包含了很多個次主題,後者則應分幾個段落來寫。

5. 段落的組織

所有的段落都有一個基本的目標,就是要清楚地,有效地傳達一個主旨。

在任何段落裡都應該具有下列要點

A.    The paragraph should contain only one central idea

個段落只有一個中心主旨。如有超過一個中心主旨,則應該分作幾個段落。

B.    The paragraph should have unity

段落應該有整體性。整個段落應該有一個共同的目的,有統一性。

C.    The paragraph should have coherence and continuity

段落應該有連貫性與一致性。 連貫性指的是段落應該是有邏輯性的安排

與連接。一致性指的是連接的部份應該是很流暢的。

D.   The paragraph should be adequately developed

段落應該適當地發展。大部份的段落都有三個基本部份。一個開始,一個

中間,跟一個結束。也就是前言,討論,跟結論。前言跟結論會是相似的。

6. SUMMARY

Your paragraph will be clear and enjoyable to read if you follow the directions summed up here. First, remember to indent the paragraph—once only! Second, remember that the paragraph should be neither too short nor too long; make it approximately eight to twelve sentences in length. Third and most important, organize and develop your paragraph carefully. Remember that the paragraph should contain one central idea only, that it should have unity, coherence, continuity, and adequate development. If you follow these directions, your paragraph should be as good as or better than this one.

Writing the paragraph and the short composition  Fifth Edition Kathleen E. Sullivan

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B. 段落的三個部份 The three parts of a paragraph

1.     主題句Topic Sentence

2.    支持句Supporting Sentences

3.    結論句Concluding Sentence

1.     主題句 = 主題topic + 跟限定主旨controlling idea

告知讀者要討論的主題,範圍不能太大too general,也不能太小too specific。

a. Driving on freeways requires skill and alertness.

b. It is an expensive luxury to own an automobile in a large city.

c. The rise of indie films is due to several factors.

d. In my opinion, television commercials for cosmetics lie to women.

e. Taste and appearance are both important in Japanese cuisine.

2.    支持句提供主題的細節。支持句一般會有幾個支持的論點,論點後可以用具體的細節details,事實facts,例子examples,統計資料statistics,引言quotations等來支持論點。支持句中要特別注意的是每個句子都要跟主題相關,不能有不相關或重複的支持句。

a.     Each year more than 900 people die, and nearly 200,000 are injured in crashes that involve red-light running.

b.     For example, in Fairfax, Virginia, a five-month-long survey at five busy intersections revealed that a motorist ran a red light every 20 minutes.

c.     According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, “Communities don’t have the resources to allow police to patrol intersections as often as would be needed to ticket all motorists who run red lights” (“Q&A”).

3.    結論句表示段落即將結束,並且提醒讀者所提過的主題。首先在開頭就會有結束的標示語conclusion signals。接下來可以用重述restate主題句的方式或總結summarize前面講過的論點。記得千萬不要在段落的最後跑出新的主意new idea。

用逗號開始的結論轉折語:

Finally, Lastly, In brief, In conclusion, In short, To sum up, Indeed, Therefore, Thus,

不用逗號的結論開頭:

The evidence suggests that S + V. ,Theses examples show that S + V.

There can be no doubt that S + V. , We can see that S + V.

a.     In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.

b.     In short, there is now a greeting card for every possible life event and a few nonevents as well.

c.     This story is a good example of a legend invented by native people to interpret the world around them.

WB L1  Chapter 1 Paragraph Structure 段落架構 Jess     P.3

C. 文章的元素

letter    字母   b             英文有二十六個"字母"

word     單字   book          一個或一個以上的字母組合就形成單字

phrase   片語   English book   兩個以上的單字可形成片語,有動詞、名詞、

形容詞與副詞片語。

clause    子句   Because I love English

一個句子有一組主詞與動詞與其他必要部分就叫一個子句,

子句的語意不完整時叫非獨立子句。

sentence  句子  This is an English book.

一個子句的語意完整時叫獨立子句,可以自己成為一個句子。

Because I love English, I became an English teacher.

一個非獨立子句可以跟一個獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。

三種子句

1. noun clause 名詞子句        Everyone knows that I love beef.

2. adjective clause 形容詞子句 My sister who lives in Canada loves beef.

3. adverb clause 副詞子句     Although I love beef, I hate pork.

paragraph 段落  幾個句子就形成一個段落。每個段落都有一個主旨,短的段落可能只有一句,長的可以到十句或更多。常見的段落模式如下

topic sentence       主題句,用來說明段落大意

supporting sentences 支持句,用來闡述說明主題

concluding sentence  結論句,用來結尾

essay     文章   幾個有組織的段落就形成一篇文章

WB L1  Chapter 1 Paragraph Structure 段落架構 Jess     P.4

D. 四個句子的種類

1. simple sentences 簡單句

I love beef.

2. compound sentences 並和句

I love beef, but I hate pork.

3. complex sentences 複合句

Although I love beef, I hate pork.

4.compound-complex sentences 混合句

My sister who lives in Canada loves beef, and she eats it three meals a day.

1. 簡單句是由一個獨立子句形成的一個句子。可能有一個以上的主詞跟動詞,

但整體視為一組,所以還是一個簡單句。

My brother and I cook and eat beef every day.

2. 並合句是由對等連接詞(and, but, so, for, or, nor, yet)將兩個獨立子句連接

而形成的一個句子。

I love beef, and I love pork.

3. 複合句是把一個或一個以上的從屬連接詞(如because, although, when,

before等)所帶領的非獨立子句與一個獨立子句結合成的一個句子。可能包

含了一個名詞子句,或形容詞子句,或副詞子句。

Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth.

I was born and grew up in Taipei, which is the capital of Taiwan.

I can’t believe she is only 17.

4. 混合句是結合了兩個以上的獨立子句跟一個或一個以上的非獨立子句而形

成的一個句子。

I couldn’t decide where I should work or what I should do, so I did

nothing.

 

F. 五個基本句型(sentence patterns)

1. Time flies.                         S + V.

2. I love you.                         S + V + O.

3. I gave my mom a gift.              S + V + O1 + O2.

I gave a gift to my mom.

4. They elected Tom class leader.     S + V + O + OC.

5. She is a housewife.                S + V + SC.

WB L1  Chapter 1 Paragraph Structure 段落架構 Jess     P.5

G. 八個英語詞性(parts of speech)

寫作時一定要清楚地知道每個字的詞性與用法才能寫好一篇文章。注意一個字可能同時有好幾個詞性與用法,勤查字典是最好的方法。

1.     動詞 (verbs): 用來描述一個動作或狀態。可分行為動詞 (action verbs)、連綴動詞 (linking verbs) 與助動詞 (auxiliary verbs)。

a.     動詞時態,應為現在簡單式,過去式或完成式。注意時態的一致。

b.     及物動詞後要加受詞,非及物動詞則不加受詞。

c.     動詞後的接續應為不定詞或動名詞或動詞原型,及是否需要接介系詞。

d.     主動詞一致:動詞應按主詞不同而做變化,例如第三人稱單數的動詞加s。

2.    名詞 (nouns):名詞顧名思義是人、地、物甚至是抽象概念的名字。可作為主詞、受詞與補語。也經常接在其他詞類後形成片語。

a.     可數名詞只有一個時前面一定要加冠詞,如a, an, the, this, my等。

b.     可數名詞複數要加s。不可數名詞後面不可以加s。

c.     主詞跟受詞一定是名詞,動詞不可當名詞,必須改為動名詞才可以當主詞。

3.    代名詞 (pronouns):是用來取代名詞的字。前面已經提過的名詞或是說話者彼此已知的名詞都可用代名詞代替。主要是避免重複。

a. 代名詞要有明確的代替對象,在一篇文章中指稱不定對象時,整篇文章藥一致,不可有時用you,有時用we。建議用複數而非he or she這樣的寫法。

4.    形容詞 (adjectives):只可以用來形容、描述名詞或代名詞。形容詞多放在修飾的名詞前或放在連綴動詞後。適當的運用形容詞可以讓文章更生動。

a.     現在分詞V-ing跟過去分詞V3,都可以當形容詞用。某些對組的中文是一樣的。記得過去分詞多用在表達主詞(多為人)的感受:I’m bored. 現在分詞多用來表達主詞(多為事物)給你的感受:The movie is boring.

5.    副詞 (adverbs):可用來修飾動詞、形容詞與其他副詞。副詞應注意位置,按照強調的部分不同可放在不同地方。

6.    連接詞 (conjunctions):用來連接單字 (words)、片語 (phrases)或子句 (clauses)。用法可參考轉折語與轉折語列表。

a.     對等連接詞如and, but, for, so, not only…, but also…所連接的詞性或內容須一致。遵守平行結構,

b.     按照句子的結構始用適當的連接詞,例如although, therefore, but 三個字的用法都不同。

7.    介係詞 (prepositions):其後加名詞或代名詞結合成介係詞片語,用來表達

兩件事物的關係,如位置、方向、空間、時間或因果等。

a.     時間方位介系詞不清楚時請查字典,也可以參考部落格。

b.     某些特定名詞,動詞,形容詞後有固定用法的介系詞請勤查字典。

8.    感嘆詞 (interjections):用來表達強烈的情緒或驚訝。如:wow, yeah, ouch等。不建議學術性文章出現大量感歎詞。

WB L1  Chapter 1 Paragraph Structure 段落架構 Jess     P.6

轉折語Transitional signals

1. 對等詞 coordinators

a.     對等連接詞 coordination conjunctions 有七個,可用fanboys來記:

and, but, so, or, nor, for, yet

b.  配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions 有五個:

both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor, whether … or

這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。應特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。

Would you rather take a written or an oral exam?

The system is not only complicated but also inefficient.

對等詞也可以連接兩個獨立子句, 必須用逗號將兩個句子分開。

S + V, CC S + V.

I was feeling hungry, so I made myself a sandwich.

2. 從屬詞subordinator

從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction 是帶領副詞子句的連接詞,如although, when, while, before, after, because, if, as, 等。

它會放在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。

SC + S + V, S + V.     or    S + V + SC + S + V.

Because I was feeling hungry, I made myself a sandwich.

I made myself a sandwich because I was hungry.

3. 轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞

transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs

轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。

S + V; CA, S + V.       or    S + V. CA, S + V.

I was feeling hungry; therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. Therefore, I made myself a sandwich.

I was feeling hungry. I made myself a sandwich, therefore.

I was feeling hungry. I, therefore, made myself a sandwich.

4. 其他others

有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語如in addition to,動詞如cause等也可以用來表示轉折語。這些字沒有特定的標點符號規則,必須注意前後的字詞的用法。

An additional reason for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

WB L1  Chapter 1 Paragraph Structure 段落架構 Jess     P.7

用法 1. 對等詞 2. 從屬詞 3. 轉折語 4. 其他
additional idea

附加

and

nor

also

besides

furthermore

in addition

moreover

too

another

an additional

compare things

比較

and

both…and

not only …

but also

neither…

nor

as

just as

also

likewise

similarly

too

as…as

like/alike

just like

similar to

be alike

be similar

opposite idea

contrast things

相反

對比

but

yet

although

even though

though

whereas

while

however

nevertheless

nonetheless

on the other hand

on the contrary

in contrast

instead

in/by comparison

still

despite

in spite of

compared to

compared with

differ from

be different

be dissimilar

be unlike

alternative

選擇

or if

unless

otherwise
cause or reason

理由或原因

for because

since

as

due to

because of

result from

as a result of

effect or result

影響或結果

so thus

hence

therefore

accordingly

as a result

consequently

result in

cause

affect

the cause of

the reason for

example

舉例

for example

for instance

such as

like

an example of

chronological order

時間順序

first, second,

first of all

then, next

now, then, soon

last, finally

meanwhile

gradually

after that

since then

the first

the next

the last

the final

before lunch

after the war

since 1999

explain and restate

解釋或陳述

indeed

that is

emphasize

強調

in fact
order of importance

重要性

above all

first and foremost

most importantly

the most important

the primary

to conclude

結論

all in all

in brief

in conclusion

in short

in summary

indeed

It is clear

that…

We can see

that..

The evidence   suggests that…

對等連接詞,從屬連接詞,與轉折語的用法:

1.  對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句,連接詞一 定放在兩個句子中間。

It is an old car, but it is very reliable.

2. 從屬連接詞帶領非獨立子句來連接另一個 獨立子句,從屬連接詞在句首句子

需要逗號分開,在句中則不需要。

Although I can’t help admiring the man’s courage, I do not approve of

his methods.

This is my responsibility, although I appreciate your offer.

3. 轉折字或連接副詞用來連接兩個獨立子句時,需用分號把子句分開。或可連

接兩個句子。

This is a cheap and simple process. However, there are dangers.

WB L1  Chapter 1 Paragraph Structure 段落架構 Jess   P.9

1.     Why are you taking this writing class? What are the reasons you chose TILC?

2.    Correct the mistakes in the following sentence.

My home nearby have many convenient store, it does not noise and relax.

3.    Translate the following Chinese sentences into English sentences.

a.     因為我很無聊,所以我來上寫作課。

b.     雖然我知道打麻將是個壞習慣,然而我還是沈迷於線上麻將。

c.     我來上寫作課的原因是因為我想拓寬我的視野。

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