WA L5 Unit 5 Logical Division of ideas

 

WA L5     Chapter 5 Logical Division of ideas                Jess   P.1

A. 邏輯性的分類Logical Division of Ideas 是將一個主題分成幾點,再將每個點分開討論。通常用在討論原因,種類,優缺點或特質的主題。

邏輯性分類的段落寫法:
主題句應該能把該段落的組織方式表達出來。如下列句子:
A good teacher has three qualities.
Living in a college dormitory has several advantages.

支持句可用轉折語signal word來連結,並用一些有說服力的細節比方說舉例或統計數字等來支持你的論點。如下列句子:
She buys things she doesn’t really need, such as jewelry and designer sunglasses.
In 2005, there were thirteen major hurricanes in the North Atlantic.

結論句應該總結前面所說的,如下例句子:
For all these reasons, living at home is the best choice for me at this time in my life.
To sum up, a champion has to be motivated, disciplined, and talented.

B. 一致性 Coherence
要讓段落更有一致性可以用下列三個方法
1.     在整篇段落裡,使用一致的名詞跟代名詞。
整個段落從頭到尾代表相同概念的代名詞要統一,全部用單數或全部複數,不要一下用單數,一下用複數。建議用複數,才不用寫she or he這樣不自然的用法。另外,寫作的對象不要有時候用你,又換成我,又換成他。
An employee must wear his or her ID badge at all times.
Employees must wear their ID badges at all times. (better)

2.    使用轉折語transition signals來表達論點間的關係。
轉折語就好像紅綠燈,告訴你該減速,轉彎,或停下來。並且可以讓你的段落更流暢,幫助讀者更容易瞭解你的論點。用法如下。

3.    將你的論點有邏輯的整理,按邏輯順序來寫。

WA L5     Chapter 5 Logical Division of ideas                Jess   P.2
轉折語Transition signals
1.     對等詞coordinators
對等詞包含了七個對等連接詞coordination conjunctions: and, but, so, or, nor, for, yet 與五個配對連接詞 correlative conjunctions: both … and, not only … but also, either … or, neither … nor, whether … or。
當這些對等詞連接兩個字或片語的時候不須要逗號。並特別注意平行結構,也就是對等詞的兩邊詞性必須一致。 連接兩個獨立字句則必須用逗號分開。
Would you rather take a written or an oral exam?
I like hamburgers, but I don’t like French fries.

2.    從屬詞subordinator
從屬詞也就是從屬連接詞subordinating conjunction如although, when, before, because 等。它會在非獨立子句dependent clause的句首,帶領獨立子句與非獨立子句結合成一個完整的句子。非獨立子句在前面的時候需要用逗號分開兩個子句,假如是獨立子句在前面,因為有從屬連接詞明顯地把兩個子句分開,所以不用逗號。
Although I like hamburgers, I don’t like French fries.
I don’t like French fries although I like hamburgers.

3.    轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞
transition words and phrases and conjunctive adverbs
轉折字,轉折片語與連接副詞不像從屬詞的位置那樣固定,他們可以放在獨立子句的句首,句中,句尾,而且通常會用逗號分開來。
I like hamburgers. However, I don’t like French fries.
I like hamburgers. I don’t, however, like French fries.
I like hamburgers. I don’t like French fries, however.
I like hamburgers; however, I don’t like French fries.

4.    其他others
有一些其他的名詞如example,形容詞如additional,副詞如too,介系詞片語如in addition to,動詞如cause等也可以用來表示轉折語。這些次沒有特定的標點符號規則,必須注意前後的字詞的用法。
An additional reason for visiting Taipei is its convenience.

WA L5     Chapter 5 Logical Division of ideas                Jess   P.3

轉折語列表 Chart of Transition Signals
用法    1. 對等詞    2. 從屬詞    3. 轉折語    4. 其他
additional idea
附加    and
nor         also
besides
furthermore
in addition
moreover
too    another
an additional
compare things
比較    and
both…and
not only …
but also
neither…
nor    as
just as    also
likewise
similarly
too    as…as
like/alike
just like
similar to
be alike
be similar
opposite idea
contrast things
相反
對比    but
yet    although
even though
though
whereas
while    however
nevertheless
nonetheless
on the other
hand
on the contrary
in contrast
instead
in/by comparison
still    despite
in spite of
compared to
compared with
differ from
be different
be dissimilar
be unlike

alternative
選擇    or    if
unless    otherwise
cause or reason
理由或原因    for    because
since
as         due to
because of
result from
as a result of
the consequence
of
effect or result
影響或結果    so         thus
hence
therefore
accordingly
as a result
as a consequence
consequently    result in
cause
affect
the cause of
the reason for
example
舉例              for example
for instance    such as
like
an example of
chronologi-cal order
時間順序              first, second,
first of all
then, next
now, then, soon
last, finally
meanwhile
gradually
after that
since then    the first
the next
the last
the final
before lunch
after the war
since 1999

explain and restate
解釋或陳述              indeed
that is
emphasize
強調              in fact
order of import-ance
重要性              above all
first and foremost
most importantly
primarily    the most important
the primary
to conclude
結論              all in all
in brief
in conclusion
in short
in summary
indeed    It is clear that…
We can see that..
The evidence
suggests that…

對等連接詞,從屬連接詞,與轉折語的用 法
對等連接詞連接兩個獨立子句,連接詞一 定放在兩個句子中間。
I was very hungry, so I ate three hamburgers.
從屬連接詞帶領非獨立子句來連接另一個 獨立子句,從屬連接詞在句首句子需要逗號分開,在句中則不需要。
Because I was hungry, I ate three hamburgers.
I ate three hamburgers because I was hungry.
轉折字或連接副詞用來連接兩個獨立子句時,需用分 號把子句分開。或可連接兩個句子。
I was very hungry; therefore, I ate three hamburgers.
I was very hungry. Therefore, I ate three hamburgers.
WA L5     Chapter 5 Logical Division of ideas                Jess   P.5

C. 句子接續的錯誤
Run-ons 指的是連接兩個句子時沒有用適當的標點或連接詞。
Men like to shop quickly women like to browse.
Comma splices指的是用逗號錯誤的連結兩個句子。
Men like to shop quickly, women like to browse.

修正上面兩種句子連接錯誤的方式有下列三種:
1.     用逗號跟對等連接詞把兩個句子連接起來。
Men like to shop quickly, but women like to browse.

2.    將句子分開,分成兩個完整的句子。
Men like to shop quickly. Women like to browse.

3.    要表達兩個句子間的關係,可以加一個轉折語跟逗號到第二個句子。
Men like to shop quickly. However, women like to browse.

檢查這些錯誤的接續方法有下列三種:
1.     檢查所有句子中間有逗號的句子。
My best subject is computer science, my worse subject is English.

2.    把句子讀出來,有時可以幫助你辨認一個新的句子應該開始的地方。
Advertising is a multibillion-dollar industry in the United States more than $200 billion is spent on advertising and advertising-related activities.

3.    找尋像like, then, also, therefore這些被放在句子中間的字,常常可能出錯。
We drove into the city, then we spent thirty minutes looking for a place to park.

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