1 動詞 1.2.G 現在完成式

現在完成式  Present Perfect               Jessie Lin          P.1  

一、未來式的使用時機

1.     英文用現在完成式用來表達過去曾經發生(或未發生)在不確定時間的事件。重要的是經驗或該事件與現在的關係,時間並不重要。多與ever, never, already, yet,
still, just
等副詞連用。

I have moved to a new apartment.

She has never seen snow.

2.    現在完成式也用來表達過去重複的活動,實際發生的時間並不重要。常與次數(times), since, so far…等副詞連用。

I have met many nice people since I came to
Taiwan.

He has been to Japan three times.

3.    現在完成式也用來表達一件在過去開始一直持續到現在的事件。常與sincefor連用。

I have taught English for ten years.

Jack has lived in New York since he was
five.

 

二、現在完成式的句型為主詞+have/has

肯定句句型為S have/has + V3 (V3指的是動詞的第三態,過去分詞)

肯定句 
                 S 
   have/has + V3

                         I        have     seen the movie.

                   My mother      has      been to Canada.

否定與問句需要有havehas這兩個助動詞來幫忙。否定句在助動詞後面加not

否定句                  S      have/has not    +  
V3

               
       They       have not        seen the movie.

                  
    He         has not        
been to Canada.

Yes/No 問句把助動詞have/has放在主詞前面造問句

           Have/Has     S   
 
V

             Have   
    you       seen the movie?

             Has         Tom       been to Canada?

WH問句則將疑問詞放在最前面再依序放助動詞、主詞、動詞

 WH       have/has       S   
   V3

 Where      have          you        
been?

 How long    has          May        
studied English?

 

三、現在簡單式的副詞如:never,
ever, already, yet, lately, this week…
等。

already用於肯定句,放在have跟過去分詞之間,也可放句尾,表事件已經發生

yet用於否定句,放在句尾,或放在have
not
跟過去分詞之間,表事件尚未發生。yet用於問句,一般放句尾,表示想知道事件是否發生了。

現在完成式  Present Perfect              Jessie Lin          P.2

                

動詞的變化有四種。

1.       
第一個是動詞原型V1,也就是在字典中查到的字典型如eat。用在現在簡單式,但是第三人稱單數的現在簡單式要加s,如eat, eats

2.       第二種是過去式時使用的第二態V2,動詞可分規則動詞與不規則動詞,規則動詞加ed,如cooked,不規則則需牢記,如ate

3.       第三態又叫過去分詞V3,用在完成式與被動。一樣分規則變化與不規則變化兩種。規則變化則加ed,與第二態過去式一樣,如cooked。不規則的第三態與過去式V2有時相同,有時不同,也需牢記,如eaten

4.       第四種是現在分詞,也就是動詞後面加ing,用在進行式。不規則動詞的三態變化可以在字典中查到,需要牢記。

四、完成式動詞的拼字與發音變化

規則動詞的過去式與過去分詞拼字變化如下:

1.     大多數的動詞在過去式時只要在字尾加ed

work-worked, help-helped, call-called,
wash-washed

2.    動詞字尾已經有e時,只要加d即可。

live-lived, die-died, dance-danced,
smile-smiled

3.    動詞字尾為子音加y時,必須去yied

study-studied, cry-cried, worry-worried,
copy-copied.

4.    動詞字尾為母音加y時,則只要加ed即可。

play-played, stay-stayed, enjoy-enjoyed,
annoy-annoyed,

5.    只有一個音節的動詞字尾發音為短母音加子音時,重複字尾再加ed

shop-shopped, plan-planned, tap-tapped,
hop-hopped

6.    兩個音節以上且重音在最後一個音節的動詞,字尾發音為短母音加子音時,也需重複字尾加ed

admit-admitted, prefer-preferred,
omit-omitted, occur-occurred

 

規則動詞的過去式發音變化如下:

1.     動詞字尾是無聲子音時,加ed後讀/ t /。其中無聲子音指的是除了/ t / 之外的/ k /, / f /, / s /, / ʃ / , / tʃ
/
等。

cook-cooked, laugh-laughed, kiss-kissed,
wash-washed, watch-watched

2.    動詞字尾是有聲子音或母音時,加ed後讀/d/。其中有聲子音指的是除了/ d / 之外的/ b /, / g /, / r /, / l /, / m
/, / n /, / v /
等。

call-called, rain-rained, love-loved,
play-played, try-tried

3.    動詞字尾的發音是/ t /, / d /的發音時,加ed後讀/ ɪd /

want-wanted, need-needed, visit-visited,
wait-waited

 

現在完成式  Present Perfect常見不規則動    Jessie Lin          P.3 

原型V1

過去式V2

過去分詞V3

現在分詞V-ing

be

buy

come

do

drink

drive

eat

find

fly

forget

get

give

go

have

know

leave

lose

make

meet

quit

read

ride

run

see

sell

sing

sit

sleep

speak

spend

swim

take

think

wear

win

write

was/were

bought

came

did

drank

drove

ate

found

flew

forgot

got

gave

went

had

knew

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

rode

ran

saw

sold

sang

sat

slept

spoke

spent

swam

took

thought

wore

won

wrote

been

bought

come

done

drunk

driven

eaten

found

flown

forgotten

gotten

given

gone

had

known

left

lost

made

met

quit

read

ridden

run

seen

sold

sung

sat

slept

spoken

spent

swum

taken

thought

worn

won

written

being

buying

coming

doing

drinking

driving

eating

finding

flying

forgetting

getting

giving

going

having

knowing

leaving

losing

making

meeting

quitting

reading

riding

running

seeing

selling

singing

sitting

sleeping

speaking

spending

swimming

taking

thinking

wearing

winning

writing

 

廣告

發表迴響

在下方填入你的資料或按右方圖示以社群網站登入:

WordPress.com 標誌

您的留言將使用 WordPress.com 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

Google+ photo

您的留言將使用 Google+ 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

Twitter picture

您的留言將使用 Twitter 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

Facebook照片

您的留言將使用 Facebook 帳號。 登出 /  變更 )

連結到 %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.